Samstava, Saṃstava, Saṃstāva: 14 definitions


Samstava means something in Buddhism, Pali, Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṃstava (संस्तव) refers to “all praises”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] At that time, sixty koṭis of Bodhisattvas, having stood up from the congregation, joined their palms, paid homage to the Lord, and then uttered these verses in one voice: ‘(193) When the highest among humans was extinguished, O Lord, we will even sacrifice our bodies and lives to uphold the true dharma. (194) Leaving gain and fame, leaving all praises (saṃstava), but never leaving behind this dharma which sets forth the knowledge of the Buddha. [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Jaina Yoga

Saṃstava (संस्तव, “praise”) or Para-pāṣaṇḍi-saṃstava refers to “praise of adherents of other creeds” and represents an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the aticāra heading, according to various Jain authors. The distinction between the fourth (praśaṃsā) and fifth (saṃstava) aticāras seems artificial. As has been noted they both have for antonym the aṅga of amūḍha-dṛṣṭi and in fact Somadeva, in his Yaśastilaka, couples them together under the designation of anya-ślāghā or mūḍhatā. With that exception the Digambaras (for example, Cāmuṇḍarāya, in his Caritrasāra) define praśaṃsā as “praise expressed in the mind” and saṃstava as “praise expressed in words”. The Śvetāmbaras (Yogaśāstra 2.17) interpret praśaṃsā as “praise” and saṃstava as “acquaintance”. Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra v7.19), however, prefers the Digambara explanation.

For many writers these two aticāras (Para-pāṣaṇḍi-praśaṃsā and Para-pāṣaṇḍi-saṃstava) give an occasion to describe and criticize the false beliefs of other sects—180 varieties of kriya-vādins y 84 of akriya-vādins, 67 of ajñānikas, and 32 of vainayikas are listed—particularly the Buddhists and Śaivas.

The aticāras of samyaktva (e.g., para-pāṣaṃḍi-saṃstava) may virtually, if the fourth and fifth of them which are closely related are merged together, be equated with the first four doṣas. Both aticāras and doṣas represent the negation of the aṅgas. Pūjyapāda holds that it is in any event unnecessary to have eight aticāras corresponding to the eight aṅgas as the fourth and fifth—para-pāṣaṇḍi-praśaṃsā and para-pāṣaṇḍi-saṃstava—are elastic and comprehensive.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Saṃstava (संस्तव) refers to “acquaintance” (viz., with false doctrine), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The ninth [sthānaka] is right-belief, free from the faults of doubt, etc. [viz., saṃstava-praśaṃsana], adorned with the qualities of firmness, etc., characterized by tranquillity, etc. [...]”.

Note: The faults of right belief in addition to doubt (śaṅkā) are: acceptance of other doctrines (kāṅkṣā); hate of the Tīrthaṅkaras’ speech (vicikitsā); praise of false doctrine (mithyadṛṣti-praśaṃsana); acquaintance with false doctrine (°saṃstava). Yogaśāstra 2.17.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Saṃstava (संस्तव, “praise”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.23.—What is the difference between praise (saṃstava) and admiration (praśaṃsā)? Praise is basically expression by speech while administration is a mental process by the person for other’s attributes.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Saṃstava.—(CII 1), cf. dharma-saṃstava, ‘acquaintance through Dharma’. Note: saṃstava is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃstava (संस्तव).—

1) Praise, eulogium; न वशं योषितो यान्ति न दानैर्न च संस्तवैः (na vaśaṃ yoṣito yānti na dānairna ca saṃstavaiḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.89.

2) Acquaintance, intimacy, familiarity; गुणाः प्रियत्वेऽधिकृता न संस्तवः (guṇāḥ priyatve'dhikṛtā na saṃstavaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 4,25; नवैर्गुणैः संप्रति संस्तवस्थिरं तिरोहितं प्रेम घनागमश्रियः (navairguṇaiḥ saṃprati saṃstavasthiraṃ tirohitaṃ prema ghanāgamaśriyaḥ) 4.22; Śiśupālavadha 7.31.

3) Agreeing together, harmony.

Derivable forms: saṃstavaḥ (संस्तवः).

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Saṃstāva (संस्ताव).—

1) Praise, celebration; स्वर्गसंस्तावं ह सामेति (svargasaṃstāvaṃ ha sāmeti) Ch. Up.1.8.5.

2) Hymning in chorus.

3) The place which Brāhmaṇas repeating hymns and prayers occupy at a sacrifice; तयोरेष संस्तावो य एषोऽन्तर्हृदय आकाशः (tayoreṣa saṃstāvo ya eṣo'ntarhṛdaya ākāśaḥ) Bṛ. Up.4.2.3.

Derivable forms: saṃstāvaḥ (संस्तावः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃstava (संस्तव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. Acquaintance, intimacy. 2. Praise. E. sam together, ṣṭu to praise, aff. ap .

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Saṃstāva (संस्ताव).—m.

(-vaḥ) 1. The place occupied at a sacrifice by the Brahmans reciting hymns and prayers. 2. Celebrating or hymning in chorus, the repetition of the verses of the Vedas by a number of Brahmans. E. sam together, (in chorus,) ṣṭu to praise, (the gods,) ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃstava (संस्तव).—i. e. sam-stu + a, m. 1. Praise, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 60. 2. Acquaintance, [Kirātārjunīya] 4, 22, 25.

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Saṃstāva (संस्ताव).—i. e. sam-stu + a, m. 1. Hymning in chorus, the repetition of the verses of the Veda by a number of Brāhmaṇas. 2. The place occupied at a sacrifice by the singing Brāhmaṇas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃstava (संस्तव).—[masculine] na [neuter] (common) praise or song.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃstava (संस्तव):—[=saṃ-stava] [from saṃ-stu] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) common or simultaneous praise, [Nirukta, by Yāska; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

2) [v.s. ...] praise, commendation (also [plural]), [Vīracarita]

3) [v.s. ...] mention, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]

4) [v.s. ...] intimacy familiarity, acquaintance with ([instrumental case] with and without saha, or [compound]), [Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī; Kathāsaritsāgara] (cf. asaṃsi)

5) Saṃstāva (संस्ताव):—[=saṃ-stāva] [from saṃ-stu] m. hymning or praising in chorus, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad]

6) [v.s. ...] the place occupied at a sacrifice by the Brāhmans reciting hymns and prayers, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] simultaneous or common praise, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Saṃstava (संस्तव):—[saṃ-stava] (vaḥ) 1. m. Acquaintance.

2) Saṃstāva (संस्ताव):—[saṃ-stāva] (vaḥ) 1. m. Recitation of hymns, prayers &c. by a chorus of brāhmaṃs at a sacrifice; place of such recitation.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃstava (संस्तव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Saṃthava.

[Sanskrit to German]

Samstava in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃstava (ಸಂಸ್ತವ):—[noun] = ಸಂಸ್ತವನ [samstavana].

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Saṃstāva (ಸಂಸ್ತಾವ):—

1) [noun] = ಸಂಸ್ತವನ - [samstavana -] 1.

2) [noun] a singing together.

3) [noun] a recitation of vedic hymns.

4) [noun] a platform for brāhmaṇas to set and recite vedic hymns in a sacrifice.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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