by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626
This page describes the subdivisions of physique-making or name-karma (nama) which is verse 8.11 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 11 of the chapter Bondage of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 8.11:
गतिजातिशरीरांगोपांगनिर्माणबन्धनसंघातसंस्थानसंहननस्पर्शरसगंधवर्णानुपूर्व्यागुरुलघूपघातपरघातातपोद्योतोच्छ्वासविहायोगतयः प्रत्येकशरीरत्रससुभगसुस्वरशुभसूक्ष्मपर्याप्तिस्थिरादेययशःकीर्तिसेतराणि तीर्थकरत्वं च ॥ ८.११ ॥
gatijātiśarīrāṃgopāṃganirmāṇabandhanasaṃghātasaṃsthānasaṃhananasparśarasagaṃdhavarṇānupūrvyāgurulaghūpaghātaparaghātātapodyotocchvāsavihāyogatayaḥ pratyekaśarīratrasasubhagasusvaraśubhasūkṣmaparyāptisthirādeyayaśaḥkīrtisetarāṇi tīrthakaratvaṃ ca || 8.11 ||
The name or physique-making (nāma) karma has these twenty-one subdivisions: the state of existence–gati, the class–jāti, the body–śarīra, the chief and secondary parts–aṅgopāṅga, formation–nirmāṇa, binding–bandhana, molecular interfusion–saṃghāta, structure–saṃsthāna, joints–saṃhanana, touch–sparśa, taste–rasa, odour–gandha, colour–varṇa, migratory form after death–ānupūrvya, neither heavy nor light–agurulaghu, self-annihilation–upaghāta, annihilation by others–paraghāta, emitting warm light–ātapa, emitting cool light–udyota, respiration–ucchvāsa, gait–vihāyogati. Further, the following ten, with their opposites, constitute twenty additional subdivisions: individual body–pratyeka śarīra–and collective body–sādhāraṇa śarīra, mobile-being–trasa–and immobile-being–sthāvara, good-tempered–subhaga–and bad-tempered–durbhaga, melodious voice–susvara–and unmelodious voice–duḥsvara, attractiveness of form–śubha–and unattractiveness of form–aśubha, minute body–sūkṣma–and gross body–bādara, completion (of the organs)–paryāpti–and incompletion–aparyāpti, firmness–sthira–and infirmness–asthira, lustrous body–ādeya–and lustreless body–anādeya, glory and renown–yaśaḥkīrti–and obscurity–ayaśaḥkīrti. The forty-second is the name-karma of Lord Jina–Tīrthakaratva. (11)
अन्वयार्थ: [गतिजातिशरीरांगोपांगनिर्माणबन्धनसंघातसंस्थानसंहननस्पर्शरसगंधवर्णानुपूर्व्यागुरुलघूपघातपरघातातपोद्योतोच्छ्वासविहायोगतयः] गति, जाति, शरीर, अंगोपांग, निर्माण, बन्धन, संघात, संस्थान, संहनन, स्पर्श, रस, गन्ध, वर्ण, आनुपूर्व्य, अगुरुलघु, उपघात, परघात, आतप, उद्योत, उच्छ्वास और विहायोगति - ये इक्कीस, तथा
[प्रत्येकशरीरत्रससुभगसुस्वरशुभसूक्ष्मपर्याप्तिस्थिरादेययशःकीर्तिसेतराणि] प्रत्येक शरीर, त्रस, सुभग, सुस्वर, शुभ, सूक्ष्म, पर्याप्ति, स्थिर, आदेय और यश:कीर्ति - ये दस तथा इनके प्रतिपक्षभूत दस अर्थात् साधारण शरीर, स्थावर, दुर्भग, दु:स्वर, अशुभ, बादर (स्थूल), अपर्याप्ति, अस्थिर, अनादेय और अपयश:कीर्ति - ये दस [ तीर्थकरत्वं च] और तीर्थकरत्व, इस तरह नामकर्म के कुल ब्यालीस भेद हैं।
Anvayartha: [gatijātiśarīrāṃgopāṃganirmāṇabandhanasaṃghātasaṃsthānasaṃhananasparśarasagaṃdhavarṇānupūrvyāgurulaghūpaghātaparaghātātapodyotocchvāsavihāyogatayaḥ] gati, jāti, śarīra, aṃgopāṃga, nirmāṇa, bandhana, saṃghāta, saṃsthāna, saṃhanana, sparśa, rasa, gandha, varṇa, ānupūrvya, agurulaghu, upaghāta, paraghāta, ātapa, udyota, ucchvāsa aura vihāyogati - ye ikkīsa, tathā
[pratyekaśarīratrasasubhagasusvaraśubhasūkṣmaparyāptisthirādeyayaśaḥkīrtisetarāṇi] pratyeka śarīra, trasa, subhaga, susvara, śubha, sūkṣma, paryāpti, sthira, ādeya aura yaśa:kīrti - ye dasa tathā inake pratipakṣabhūta dasa arthāt sādhāraṇa śarīra, sthāvara, durbhaga, du:svara, aśubha, bādara (sthūla), aparyāpti, asthira, anādeya aura apayaśa:kīrti - ye dasa [ tīrthakaratvaṃ ca] aura tīrthakaratva, isa taraha nāmakarma ke kula byālīsa bheda haiṃ.
Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:
The four kinds of life-determining (āyuḥ) karma have been explained. The next sūtra is intended to determine the subdivisions of physique-making (nāma) karma.
That (karma) on the rise of which a living being attains another birth is the state of existence–gati. It is of four kinds–the infernal state of existence–narakagati, the plant and animal state of existence–tiryañcagati, the human state of existence–manuṣyagati, and the celestial state of existence–devagati. That which causes birth as an infernal being is the name-karma of the infernal state of existence. Similarly, it must be understood with regard to the rest.
Within a particular state of existence, such as narakagati, the grouping together of beings which are alike is the class–jāti. The class is attained due to the name-karma of jāti. It is of five kinds: the class–jāti–of beings with one sense–ekendriya, with two senses–dvīndriya, with three senses–trīndriya, with four senses–caturindriya, and with five senses–pañcendriya.
That on rise of which a body is attained by the soul is the name-karma of body–śarīra. It is of five kinds: the name-karmas of gross body–audārika śarīra, the transformable body–vaikriyika śarīra, the projectable body–āhāraka śarīra, the luminous body–taijasa śarīra and the karmic body–kārmaṇa śarīra. Their peculiarities have been explained already (see sūtra 2-36).
That on rise of which the chief and secondary parts of the body are distinguished is the name-karma of the limbs and minor limbs–aṅgopāṅga. It is of three kinds: the name-karmas of the limbs and minor limbs of the gross body–audārika śarīra aṅgopāṅga, of the transformable body–vaikriyika śarīra aṅgopāṅga, and of the projectable body–āhāraka śarīra aṅgopāṅga.
That which causes the formation of the body with its several parts in their proper places is the name-karma of formation–nirmāṇa. It is of two kinds: the name-karmas of fixing the position–sthānanirmāṇa and of fixing the size–pramāṇanirmāṇa. It determines the position and size of the eyes and so on in conformity with the class of being.
The close union or binding of the particles of matter (pudgala) acquired on the rise of the body (śarīra) name-karma is the name-karma of binding–bandhana.
That on rise of which oneness or compactness of the body (śarīra) such as the gross body, is attained by close interpenetration (i.e., without any inter-space) of the space-points (pradeśa) of the molecules is the name-karma of molecular interfusion–saṃghāta.
That on rise of which the structure of the body, such as the physical body, is accomplished is called the name-karma of structure–saṃsthāna. It is of six kinds: the name-karmas of the perfectly symmetrical body–samacaturasra saṃsthāna, the upper part alone symmetrical–nyagrodha parimaṇḍala saṃsthāna, the lower part alone symmetrical–svāsti saṃsthāna, the hunchbacked body–kubjaka saṃsthāna, the dwarfish body–vāmana saṃsthāna, and the entirely unsymmetrical or deformed body–hunḍaka saṃsthāna.
That on rise of which the different types of joints of the bones are affected is the name-karma of joint–saṃhanana. It is of six kinds: the name-karmas of perfect joint noted for extraordinary sturdiness and strength–vajraṛṣabhanārāca saṃhanana, the less-than-perfect joint vajranārāca saṃhanana, the still inferior joint–nārāca saṃhanana, weak joint–ardhanārāca saṃhanana, very weak joint–kīlikā saṃhanana, and extremely weak joint–asamprāptāsṛpāṭikā saṃhanana.
That which gives rise to the sense of touch is the name-karma of touch sparśa. It is of eight kinds: the name-karmas of hard touch–karkaśa sparśa, soft touch–mṛdu sparśa, heavy touch–guru sparśa, light touch–laghu sparśa, smooth touch–snigdha sparśa, rough touch–rūkṣa sparśa, cold touch–śīta sparśa and hot touch–uṣṇa sparśa.
That which gives rise to the sense of taste is the name-karma of taste–rasa. It is of five kinds: the name-karmas of bitter taste–tikta rasa, pungent taste–kaṭu rasa, astringent taste–kaṣāya rasa, sour taste–āmla rasa and sweet taste–madhura rasa.
That which gives rise to the sense of odour is the name-karma of odour gandha. It is of two kinds: the name-karmas of pleasant odour– surabhi gandha and unpleasant odour–asurabhi gandha.
That which causes distinction in the colour of the body is the name-karma of colour–varṇa. It is of five kinds: the name-karmas of black colour–kṛṣṇa varṇa, blue colour–nīla varṇa, red colour–rakta varṇa, yellow colour–hāridra varṇa, and white colour–śukla varṇa.
That on rise of which the form of the previous body does not disappear is the name-karma of migratory form after death–ānupūrvya. It is of four kinds: the name-karmas relating to the tendency of the soul after death to move towards the infernal state of existence–narakagati-prāyogyānupūrvya, towards the plant and animal state of existence–tiryaggatiprāyogyānupūrvya, towards the human state of existence–manuṣyagatiprāyogyānupūrvya and towards the celestial state of existence–devagatiprāyogyānupūrvya.
That on rise of which there is no falling down like the iron ball and no going up like the warm cotton is the name-karma of neither heavy nor light–agurulaghu.
That on rise of which there is self-annihilation by hanging, falling from a cliff, etc., is the name-karma of self-destruction–upaghāta.
That on rise of which there is destruction of the self by others, through weapons, etc., is the name-karma of destruction by others–paraghāta.
That on rise of which the body emits warm light, like the sunshine, is the name-karma of emitting warm light–ātapa. It is found in the sun, etc.
That on rise of which the body emits cool brilliance or lustre is the name-karma of emitting cool light–udyota. It is found in the moon, the glowworm, etc.
That on rise of which the being is able to breathe is the name-karma of respiration–ucchvāsa.
That on rise of which the being is able to move about is the name-karma of movement or gait–vihāyogati. It is of two kinds: the name-karmas of graceful movement–praśastha vihāyogati, and awkward movement–apraśastha vihāyogati.
That on rise of which the soul attains an individual body for its use is the name-karma of individual body–pratyeka śarīra.
That on rise of which several souls possess one common body for their use is the name-karma of collective body–sādhāraṇa śarīra.
That on rise of which the being is born with two or more senses is the name-karma of mobile-being–trasa.
That on rise of which the being is born with one sense is the name-karma of immobile-being–sthāvara.
That on rise of which the being is pleasing to others is the name-karma of good-tempered–subhaga.
That on rise of which the being is unpleasant to others is the name-karma of bad-tempered–durbhaga.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with a melodious voice is the name-karma of melodious voice–susvara.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with a harsh voice is the name-karma of unmelodious voice–duḥsvara.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with an attractive form is the name-karma of attractiveness of form–śubha.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with an unattractive form is the name-karma of unattractiveness of form–aśubha.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with a subtle body is the name-karma of minute body–sūkṣma.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with a gross body is the name-karma of gross body–bādara.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with complete development of the organs and capacities is the name-karma of completion–paryāpti. It is of six kinds–the name-karmas of taking in of the molecules to form the body–āhāraparyāpti, development of the body–śarīraparyāpti, development of the sense-organs–indriyaparyāpti, development of the respiratory organs–prāṇāpānaparyāpti, development of the vocal organ–bhāṣāparyāpti, and development of the mind–manaḥparyāpti.
That on rise of which the being is not endowed with full development of these six kinds of completion is the name-karma of incompletion–aparyāpti.
That on rise of which the being accomplishes firmness (such as a well-knit frame, fine teeth and strong limbs) is the name-karma of firmness sthira.
That on rise of which the being does not accomplish firmness is the name-karma of infirmness–asthira.
That on rise of which the being is endowed with lustre of the body is the name-karma of lustrous body–ādeya.
That on rise of which the being is not endowed with lustre of the body is the name-karma of lustreless body–anādeya.
That on rise of which the merits of the being get admiration and praise from others is the name-karma of glory and renown–yaśaḥkīrti.
That on rise of which the merits of the being do not get admiration and praise from others is the name-karma of obscurity–ayaśaḥkīrti.
That on rise of which the being is destined to attain the status of the Lord of the three worlds is the name-karma of Lord Jina–Tīrthakaratva.