Adhikarana, Adhikaraṇa, Ādhīkaraṇa: 19 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Adhikarana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण) is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

Arthashastra book cover
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Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Mimamsa glossary
Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—The exegetical format is called an adhikaraṇa which comprises of a fivefold process.

  1. viṣaya-vākya—noting the Scriptural sentence under discussion
  2. saṃśaya—formulating the doubt as to the correct and relevant meaning of the sentence.
  3. pūrva-pakṣa—presentation of the unsound interpretation (the objector or the opposing school)
  4. uttara-pakṣa—the refutation of the former position and presentation of the reasoned interpretation
  5. nirṇaya—arguments for the conclusion reached

All commentaries on the Brahma-sūtras etc. are presented in this format.

context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—Support: a grammatical relation of the nature of a location : place of verbal activity. cf. आधारो (ādhāro)sधिकरणम् (dhikaraṇam) P.I.4.45;

2) Adhikaraṇa.—One of the six or seven Kārakas or functionaries of verbal activity shown by the locative case. cf सप्तम्यधिकरणे च (saptamyadhikaraṇe ca) P.II.4.36;

3) Adhikaraṇa.—Substance, 'dravya' cf. अनधिकरणवाचि अद्रव्यवाचि इति गम्यते (anadhikaraṇavāci adravyavāci iti gamyate) M.Bh. on II.1.1.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Jainism glossary
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण, “substratum”).—The foundation or the basis of an entity is called substratum (adhikaraṇa). It is of two types namely living beings (jīva) and non living beings (ajīva).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण, “location”).—What What is meant by ‘location /resting place’ (adhikaraṇa)? The location or foundation of an entity (vastu) is called adhikaraṇa. according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.7, “(Knowledge of the seven categories is attained) by definition, ownership, cause, location /resting place (substratum), duration and varieties/division”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Adhikaraṇa.—(IE 8-1, 8-8; EI 28), an office; cf. rājakule ='dhi- karaṇasya, apparently referring to an office. See adhikaraṇa-ava- dhāraṇā, ‘official investigation’ (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXI, p. 267). (EI 24), a court or department. (EI 30), a law-court. (SITI), a class of law courts; probably, the chief court. (EI 30, 31), an administrative office or a board of administration. (EI 31), a district. (SII 2), same as Adhikārin, a magistrate. Note: adhikaraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

adhikaraṇa : (nt.) law-suit.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Adhikaraṇa, (nt.) (adhi + karaṇa) 1. attendance, supervision, management of affairs, administration PvA.209. ‹-› 2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D.II, 59 (-°: in consequence of); S.II, 41; V, 19. Esp. Acc. °ṃ as adv. (-°) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, from M.I, 410 (rūpâdhikaraṇaṃ); S.IV, 339 (rāga°); Miln.281 (mudda° for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in attendance on the r. s.). Kimâdhikaraṇaṃ why, on account of what J.IV, 4 (= kiṃkāraṇaṃ) yatvâdhikaraṇaṃ (yato + adhi°) by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) D.I, 70 = A.I, 113 = II, 16 = D.III, 225. — 3. case, question, cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of a. enumd. at var. passages, viz. vivāda° anuvāda° āpatta° kicca° “questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, of duties” Vin.II, 88; III, 164; IV, 126, 238; M.II, 247. ‹-› Often ref.: Vin.II, 74; S.IV, 63 = V, 346 (dhamma° a question of the Dh.); A.I, 53 (case), 79; II, 239 (vūpasanta); V, 71, 72; Pug.20, 55; DhA.IV, 2 (°ssa uppamassa vūpasama), adhikaraṇaṃ karoti to raise a dispute M.I, 122 °ṃ vūpasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin.II, 261.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—n (S) A term of grammar signifying comprehension or location; the sense of the seventh case. 2 A basis, substratum, subject, support, receptacle; that which upholds or contains.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—n The sense of the 7th case. A basis, support, receptacle.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Adhikarana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—[kṛ-lyudaṭ]

1) Placing at the head of, appointing &c.

2) Relation, reference, connection; रामाधिकरणाः कथाः (rāmādhikaraṇāḥ kathāḥ) Rām. referring to.

3) (In gram.) Agreement, concord, government or grammatical relation (as of subject and predicate &c.); तत्पुरुषः समानाधिकरणः कर्मधारयः (tatpuruṣaḥ samānādhikaraṇaḥ karmadhārayaḥ) P.1.2.42 having the members (of the compound) in the same relation or apposition; समानाधिकरणो (samānādhikaraṇo) or व्यधिकरणो बहुर्व्रीहिः (vyadhikaraṇo bahurvrīhiḥ); पीताम्बरः, चक्रपाणिः (pītāmbaraḥ, cakrapāṇiḥ) &c.

4) A receptacle or subject, technically substratum ज्ञानाधिकरणम् आत्मा (jñānādhikaraṇam ātmā) T. S. the soul is the substratum of knowledge.

5) Location, place, the sense of the locative case; आधारोधिकरणम् (ādhārodhikaraṇam) P.1.4.45; कर्तृकर्म- व्यवहितामसाक्षाद्धारयत् क्रियाम् । उपकुर्वत् क्रियासिद्धौ शास्त्रेधिकरणं स्मृतम् (kartṛkarma- vyavahitāmasākṣāddhārayat kriyām | upakurvat kriyāsiddhau śāstredhikaraṇaṃ smṛtam) || Hari; as गेहे स्थाल्यामन्नं पचति (gehe sthālyāmannaṃ pacati).

6) A topic, subject; section, article or paragraph; a complete argument treating of one subject; A chapter in Kauṭilīya Arthaśāstra. e. g. प्रथमाधिकरणम् (prathamādhikaraṇam) the Sūtras of Vyāsa and Jaimini are divided into Adhyāyas, the Adhyāyas into Pādas and the Pādas into Adhikara- ṇas or sections. (According to the Mīmāṃsakas a complete Adhikaraṇa consists of five members : viṣaya the subject or matter to be explained, viśaya or saṃśaya the doubt or question arising upon that matter, pūrvapakṣa the first side or prima facie argument concerning it, uttara or uttarapakṣa or siddhānta the answer or demonstrated conclusion, and saṃgati pertinency or relevancy, or (according to others nirṇaya the final conclusion); विषयो विशयश्चैव पूर्वपक्षस्तथोत्तरम् । निर्णयश्चैति सिद्धान्तः शास्त्रेऽधिकरणं स्मृतम् (viṣayo viśayaścaiva pūrvapakṣastathottaram | nirṇayaścaiti siddhāntaḥ śāstre'dhikaraṇaṃ smṛtam) || The Vedāntins put संगति (saṃgati) in th 3 rd place, and सिद्धान्त (siddhānta) last; तत्र एकैकमधिकरणं पञ्चावयवम्, विषयः संदेहः संगतिः पूर्वपक्षः सिद्धान्तश्च (tatra ekaikamadhikaraṇaṃ pañcāvayavam, viṣayaḥ saṃdehaḥ saṃgatiḥ pūrvapakṣaḥ siddhāntaśca). Generally speaking, the five members may be विषय, संशय, पूर्वपक्ष, उत्तरपक्ष (viṣaya, saṃśaya, pūrvapakṣa, uttarapakṣa) and सिद्धान्त (siddhānta) or राद्धान्त (rāddhānta)).

7) Court of justice, court, tribunal; स्वान्दोषान् कथयन्ति नाधिकरणे (svāndoṣān kathayanti nādhikaraṇe) Mk.9.3; °रणे च साधनम् (raṇe ca sādhanam) Dk.4.

8) Stuff, material; विप्रतिषिद्धं चानधिकरणवाचि (vipratiṣiddhaṃ cānadhikaraṇavāci) P.II.4.13 (adravyavāci); अधिकरणै °एतावत्त्वे च (adhikaraṇai °etāvattve ca) P.II.4.15 fixed number of things, as दश तन्तोष्ठः (daśa tantoṣṭhaḥ) Sk.

9) A claim, Bhāg, 5.1.16.

1) Supremacy.

11) A government department; सर्वाधिकरणरक्षणम् (sarvādhikaraṇarakṣaṇam) Kau. A.4.

12) A gathering place प्रत्यक्षाश्च परोक्षाश्च सर्वाधिकरणेष्वथ । वृत्तेर्भरतशार्दूल नित्यं चैवान्ववेक्षणम् (pratyakṣāśca parokṣāśca sarvādhikaraṇeṣvatha | vṛtterbharataśārdūla nityaṃ caivānvavekṣaṇam) || Mb.12.59.68.

13) A department; अश्वागारान् गजागारान् बलाधिकरणानि च (aśvāgārān gajāgārān balādhikaraṇāni ca) Mb.12. 69.54.

-ṇī One who superintends.

Derivable forms: adhikaraṇam (अधिकरणम्).

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Ādhīkaraṇa (आधीकरण).—Pledging, a pledge.

Derivable forms: ādhīkaraṇam (आधीकरणम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—(= Pali id., in both senses), nt., (1) mat- ter of contention or dispute, especially among monks: saṃghe kalahabhaṇḍanavigrahavivādaṃ adhikaraṇaṃ kaukṛtyaṃ utpādetsuḥ Mahāvastu iii.48.(13—)14; adhikaraṇa na tasya jātu bhotī Śikṣāsamuccaya 195.10; °ṇa-kuśala Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.55.13; adhikaraṇa- vastu Mahāvyutpatti 9115 = Tibetan rtsod paḥi gzhi, ground of dispute; adhikaraṇa-śamatha Mahāvyutpatti 8630 (= Pali °samatha), the (7 rules for) quieting of disputes, a part of the Prātimokṣa; they are listed 8631—7, mostly as in Pali, saṃmukha- vinayaḥ, smṛti-vinayaḥ, amūḍha-vinayaḥ, yadbhū- yasikīyaḥ, tatsvabhāvaiṣīyaḥ, tṛṇaprastārakaḥ, pratijñākārakaḥ, qq.v.; (2) -adhikaraṇaṃ, ifc. adv., by reason of: yato-adhikaraṇaṃ, conj. (= Pali yatvādhika- raṇaṃ) Mahāvastu iii.52.7, because, lit. by reason of which; also stem in composition, pramādādhikaraṇahetor MPS 4.7 ff., because of negligence (Pali pamādādhikaraṇaṃ, adv.; elsewhere -adhikaraṇa-hetu, Critical Pali Dictionary).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Superiority, supremacy. 2. Title, right. 3. In the Mimansa philosophy, a case or topic, comprehending five members, the subject, the doubt, the first side or prima facie argument, the answer or conclusion, the application. 4. (In the Vedanta.) A case or question. 5. (In grammar) Location, the sense of the seventh or locative case, defined to imply four kinds. 1. Proximity, as, ‘a village on the Ganges.’ 2. Inclusion, as, ‘the gods in heaven.’ 3. End or object, as, ‘versed in the Sastras; and 4. Integral existence, as, ‘the spirit is in all.’ E. adhi over, kṛ to do; and lyuṭ aff.

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Ādhīkaraṇa (आधीकरण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Pledging, mortgaging. 2. A pledge. E. ādhi and karaṇa making, &c. with cvi inserted.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—i. e. adhi -kṛ + ana, n. 1. Substance, substratum, or site. 2. Court of justice, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण).—[neuter] (lit. the putting over, placing at the head, supremacy); substance, something concrete (as the recipient of qualities, actions, etc.); support, receptacle; relation, [especially] the relation of the locative ([grammar]), chapter, head (in books); court of justice.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhikaraṇa (अधिकरण):—[=adhi-karaṇa] [from adhi-kṛ] n. the act of placing at the head or of subordinating government, supremacy, magistracy, court of justice

2) [v.s. ...] a receptacle, support

3) [v.s. ...] a claim

4) [v.s. ...] a topic, subject

5) [v.s. ...] (in philosophy) a substratum

6) [v.s. ...] a subject (e.g. ātman is the adhi-karaṇa of knowledge)

7) [v.s. ...] a category

8) [v.s. ...] a relation

9) [v.s. ...] (in [grammar]) government

10) [v.s. ...] location, the sense of the locative case

11) [v.s. ...] relationship of words in a sentence (which agree together, either as adjective and substantive, or as subject and predicate, or as two substantives in apposition)

12) [v.s. ...] (in rhetoric) a topic

13) [v.s. ...] a paragraph or minor section

14) [v.s. ...] mfn. having to superintend.

15) Ādhīkaraṇa (आधीकरण):—[=ādhī-karaṇa] [from ādhī-kṛ > ā-dhā] (ādhī-) n. pledging, mortgaging.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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