Shrimad Bhagavad-gita

by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words

The Bhagavad-gita Verse 4.42, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse 42 from the chapter 4 called “Jnana-Yoga (Yoga through Transcendental Knowledge)”

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 4.42:

तस्माद् अज्ञान-सम्भूतं हृत्-स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः ।
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगम् आतिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत ॥ ४२ ॥

tasmād ajñāna-sambhūtaṃ hṛt-sthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ |
chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata
|| 42 ||

tasmāt–therefore; ajñāna-sambhūtam–born of ignorance; hṛt-stham–situated in the heart; jñāna-asinā–with the sword of knowledge; ātmanaḥ–of the self; chittvā–slashing; enam–this; saṃśayam–doubt; yogam–of the yoga (of non-fruitive action); ātiṣṭha–take shelter; uttiṣṭha–arise (for battle); bhārata–O descendant of Bharata.

Therefore, O descendant of Bharata, with the sword of knowledge, slash the doubts in your heart which are born of ignorance. Take shelter of niṣkāma-karma-yoga and prepare for battle.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā

(By Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura; the innermost intention of the commentary named ‘the shower of essential meanings’)

Śrī Bhagavān concludes this chapter with this verse beginning with tasmād. Hṛt-stha refers to cutting the doubt in the heart, yoga means ‘taking shelter of niṣkāma-karma-yoga’ and ātiṣṭha means ‘be ready for the battle’. Of all the processes recommended for attaining liberation, transcendental knowledge is glorified here; and niskāma-karma is the only means to attain transcendental knowledge. This is the essence of this chapter.

Thus ends the bhāvānuvāda of Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura’s
Sārārtha-varṣiṇī-ṭīkā (the commentary that gives pleasure
to the devotees and is accepted by all saintly persons)
on the Fourth Chapter of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti

(By Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja; the explanation that illuminates the commentary named Sārārtha-varṣiṇī)

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura says, “This chapter gives instructions on two divisions of the eternal yoga system. The first is the jaḍa-dravyamaya division, which consists of the sacrifice of material possessions. The second is the ātma-yathātma-rūpa-cinmaya division, or knowledge of the self and of Bhagavān. When the jaḍa-dravyamaya division is performed separately, it simply becomes karma. Those who are bound in this division are known as karma-jaḍa, deeply engrossed in mundane enjoyment. However, those who perform jaḍa-karma (materialistic action) with the sole purpose of attaining spiritual advancement are properly situated, or yukta.

“When we specifically deliberate on the true nature of spiritual activities, we understand that there are two aspects. One is knowledge of the fundamental principle of the living entity (jīva-tattva) and the other is knowledge the fundamental principles regarding the Supreme Lord (bhagavat-tattva). Only those who experience and realize bhagavat-tattva attain the essence of knowledge of the real nature of the self, which is to be Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s servant. This experience is perfected by realization of the transcendental birth and activities of Bhagavān and of the jīva’s eternal association with Him, as described in the beginning of this chapter. Bhagavān Himself is the first instructor of this eternal dharma. Because the jīva has become bound to inert matter by the defect of his own intelligence, Bhagavān descends by the prowess of His own knowledge potency, or cit-śakti, and, by giving instruction on the fundamental truth of Himself, He makes the jīva eligible to participate in His pastimes.

“Those who say that the body, birth and activities of Bhagavān are products of the deluding potency, māyā, are extremely foolish. ‘People attain Me according to the degree of purity with which they worship Me.’ All the activities of the karma-yogīs are called yajña, or sacrifice. The various types of yajña in the world, such as daiva-yajña, brahmacarya-yajña, gṛhamedha-yajña, saṃyama-yajña, aṣṭāṅga-yoga-yajña, tapo-yajña, dravya-yajña, svādhyāya-yajña and varṇāśrama-yajña, all constitute karma.

“The only useful factor that is to be sought after in all these yajñas is the conscious part, knowledge of the real nature of the soul. Doubt is the greatest enemy of this knowledge. A person who is endowed with faith and who takes instructions on this knowledge from one who is fully conversant with tattva, realizes the self and can dispel all doubts. As long as one has affinity for the material world, one should take shelter of niṣkāma-karma-yoga in order to achieve the stage of self-realization.”

Thus ends the Sārārtha-varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja,
on the Fourth Chapter of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

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