Aparatva; 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Aparatva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

[Aparatva in Ayurveda glossaries]

Aparatva (अपरत्व, “non-excellence”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Aparatva means to deny a substance harmful to the body, and to apply priority when choosing multiple substances. It is also known as Apara (अपर).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Aparatva again has two meanings, one is proximity and the second one is posterity (later or subsequent). It is exactly the opposite of parat. Here, the focus is on more than one thing and there is constant contact with the outside world (surroundings and people). People with this guna tend to be leaving the work for the latter part and often commit mistakes due to their careless attitude.

(Source): Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna

Aparatva-guna (or para-guna) is opposite to the Para-guna, hence symbolizes inferiority, farther, secondary, different, etc. It comes alongside with the Para, as when one object is termed as para in relationship to the other, the other object automatically becomes a Para.

Chakrapani has defined Para as pradhana and Apara as apradhana.

Gangadhara has defined Paratva as prathama (first) in relation to others and Apara as vice versa. He has tried to explain the concept of relativity of this pair. Para word/adjective does not state that the drug or object is supreme among the class but states that in comparison to others which are inferior to it, this one is better.

Yogindranatha Sena has defined Paratva as nearness and utility wise supremacy and Aparatva as farness and lesser utility as compared to Para .

(Source): Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

[Aparatva in Vaisheshika glossaries]

Aparatva (अपरत्व, “posteriority”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[Aparatva in Nyaya glossaries]

Aparatva (अपरत्व, “posteriority”) or Aparatvaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—According to Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, paratva (priority) and aparatva (posteriority) are also qualities (guṇa). Both these qualities are general qualities. Praśastapāda and Viśvanātha discuss about paratva and aparatva in similar ways. Paratva and aparatva are related to far and near. Each of them has two kinds–spatial and temporal. Spatial paratva is known as farness. Spatial aparatva is known as nearness. Temporal paratva is known as oldness. Temporal aparatva is known as youngness. In the Vaiśeṣikasūtra, it is found: paratva and aparatva are indicated from the nearness and distantness in the time and space.

According to Viśvanātha, the extraordinary causes of the convention that a thing is far or near are called paratva and aparatva. The non-inherent cause of spatial remoteness and nearness is the conjunction of space with their substratum. Temporal distance arises from a motion of preponderance of the sun’s movement. While temporal nearness arises from a notion of its meagreness. Here the non-inherent cause is the conjunction of time with a limited substance. The description of paratva and aparatva given by Śivāditya does not clear any speciality as he defines these qualities with the help of their generality. Thus he says paratva is that quality which possesses paratvatva and aparatatva possesses aparatatva. However, he also accepts the definition given by Kaṇāda.

According to Annaṃbhaṭṭa–paratva and aparatva are the special causes of the employment of words prior or posterior. These paratva and aparatva live in the five substances namely, earth, water, light, air and mind. Each of them (paratva and aparatva) has two kinds—digkṛta (spatial) and kālakṛta (temporal). In an object which exists at a distance priority caused by space is found. In an object which is near there is aparatva caused by space. In a thing person which is older paratva caused by time is found. Similarly in younger persons there is aparatva caused by time.

(Source): Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Aparatva in Jainism glossaries]

Aparatva (अपरत्व , “posteriority”) and paratva (priority).—Aparatva means succession and paratva means antecedence or ‘old’ and ‘new’ respectively. These concepts also cannot be grasped without taking time into consideration.

(Source): HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Aparatva (अपरत्व) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of paratva and aparatva? Old / older with reference to time is paratva. New /young with reference to time is aparatva.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Aparatva in Sanskrit glossaries]

Aparatva (अपरत्व).—

1) Being another or different (one of the 24 Guṇas); difference, opposition, contrariety, relativeness.

2) Nearness.

3) Distance, posteriority (in time or space).

Derivable forms: aparatvam (अपरत्वम्).

See also (synonyms): aparatā.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 9 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Sarvaparatva
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Paratva
Paratva (परत्व, “priority”) or Paratvaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) a...
Guna
Guṇa (गुण, “quality”).—The Sāṃkhya system uses the term guṇa in the sense of the constituent el...
Kala
Kāla (काल, “time”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣi...
Samanyaguna
Sāmānyaguṇa (सामान्यगुण) or simply Sāmānya refers to “general qualities” and represents a class...
Aparata
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Paradiguna
Parādiguṇa (परादिगुण):—The Sanskrit name for a group of 10 pharmaceutical properties t...
Ashtamanoguna
Aṣṭamanoguṇa (अष्टमनोगुण).—(1) Paratva (2) Aparatva (3) Saṃkhyā (4) Parimāṇa (5) Pṛthakta (6) S...
Ekadashatejoguna
Ekādaśatejoguṇa (एकादशतेजोगुण).—Sparśa, Saṃkhyā, Pariṇāma, Pṛthaktva, Saṃyoga, Vibhāga, Paratva...

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