Adhyatma, Adhyātma: 16 definitions



Adhyatma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Adhyatm.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म) refers to the “personal experience” (the intuitive knowledge of the self). It is one of the three means of valid knowledge (pramāṇa). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 25.120-121, “Drama (nāṭya) composed of veda and adhyātma is couched in words and metres, is testified by loka (actual life)”.

Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa (nāṭya-śāstra)

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—In music, the identification of the three registers of musical sound, i.e. adhibhūta with adhyātma, viewed in the locations in the human body are so strong that the Nāṭya-śāstra equates the two and mentions only the adhyātma aspect while describing the three sthānas of music, subsuming the adhibhūta. Adhibhūta and adhyātma are intertwined in the sense that the process of sound-production is described with exclusive reference to the human body, mind and ātman.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Adhyatma in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म) refers to “that which pertains to the body”. The Subālopaniṣad (fifth section) draws correspondences between that which pertains to the body (adhyātma), the elements (adhibhūta) and their presiding deities (adhidaivata).

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

[«previous next»] — Adhyatma in Kosha glossary
Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa, volume 3

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—The three terms, viz. adhibhūta, adhidaiva and adhyātma—are known today as a triad but they have also been used singly or in pairs, viz. adhibhūta-adhyātma, adhibhūta-adhidaiva, adhidaiva-adhyātma, their order being insignificant. Basically, the three stand for the outer or tangible (adhibhūta), the intangible described as divine (adhidaiva) and the one pertaining to the ‘self’ identified with the body, mindm, ātman, etc. (adhyātma). This triad has very deep roots in Indian though reflected in Vedic and later literature.

Adhyātma has been identified here with svabhāva which is explained by Abhinavagupta in his commentary as caitanyabhāva that is never dissociated from self. The most common meaning of the term adhyātma is ‘belonging to self’, or ‘one’s corporeal body’, ‘concerning an individual’. The term ātman is of crucial significance in Indian thought. Basically it denotes the essence of anything that is all-pervading. The etymology of the word ātman is uncertain. It is variously derived from the roots an-‘to breath’ (cf. prāṇa), at-‘to move’, or -‘to blow’. With adhi, it forms a neuter indeclinable compound adhyātman.

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Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Ādhyātma (आध्यात्म):—The psycho-spiritual

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म) or adhyātmaśūnyatā refers to “internal emptiness” one of the “twenty emptinesses” (śūnyatā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 41). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., adhyātma). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—n S The sense, faculty, or power which apprehends, takes cognizance of, receives impressions from an adhibhūta or entity. See adhidēvata. 2 Dissertation or discourse on the Deity as the mundane soul or pervading and ruling spirit. Ex. āja purāṇānta kathā navhatī a0 ca nighālēṃ or gōsāvyānēṃ kathā phāra lāvalī nāhīṃ a0 ca lāvalēṃ hōtēṃ.

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adhyātmā (अध्यात्मा).—m S The soul; the spirit as individuate or distinct from the Supreme essence, and as presiding over the body. 2 Knowledge of self, or of spirit, or of the Deity.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—n The supreme spirit mani- fested as the individual self.

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adhyātmā (अध्यात्मा).—m The soul; knowledge of self.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—a. [ātmana. saṃbaddhaṃ, ātmani adhikṛtaṃ vā] Belonging to self or person; concerning an individual.

-tmam ind. [ātmānamadhikṛtya] Concerning self.

-tmam The supreme spirit (manifested as the individual self) or the relation between the supreme and the individual soul; अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते (akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ svabhāvo'dhyātmamucyate) Bg.8.3 (svasyaiva brahmaṇa evāṃśatayā jīvasvarūpeṇa bhāvo bhavanaṃ sa eva ātmānaṃ dehamadhikṛtya bhoktṛ- tvena vartamāno'dhyātmaśabdenocyate Śrīdhara) 'Brahman is the supreme, the indestructible; its manifestation (as an individual self) is अध्यात्म (adhyātma)' -Telang's Bhagavadgītā;

-tman 1 Egotism; कर्माण्यध्यात्मना रुद्रे यदहं ममता क्रिया (karmāṇyadhyātmanā rudre yadahaṃ mamatā kriyā) Bhāg. 7.12.29.

2) Wind; स्पर्शमध्यात्मनि त्वचम् (sparśamadhyātmani tvacam) Bhāg.7.12.27. °चेतसा (cetasā) Bg.3.3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—i. e. adhi-ātman, n. The supreme soul, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 8, 3.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म).—[adjective] concerning one’s self, one’s own; [neuter] [adverb] (tmama), as subst. the supreme soul.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—[=adhy-ātma] n. the Supreme Spirit

2) [v.s. ...] mfn. own, belonging to self

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—I. [tatpurusha compound] n.

(-tmam) The supreme soul or ātman (q. v.), sometimes considered as identical with prāṇa (q. v.) and, in the sectarian doctrine, especially with Nārāyaṇa or Viṣṇu. Ii. Avyayībh.

(-tmam) Concerning or relating to soul, life &c.; see ātman. A chapter in the Upan. treating thereon contains the following subjects: the lower jaw, the upper jaw, speech and tongue; another passage comprises under this topic

1) the vital airs: prāṇa, apāna, vyāna, udāna, samāna,

2) the organs of sensation: eyes, ears, manas, speech, skin (tvach) and

3) the elementary parts of the body: skin (charman), flesh, tendons, bones, marrow. E. adhi and ātman, samāsānta aff. ṭac.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—1. (von 1. adhi + ātman) n. [Siddhāntakaumudī.249], a, [14.] der höchste Geist [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 146.] adhyātmayogādhigamena [KATHOP. 2, 12.] kathaṃ vāhyamabhidhatte (prāṇaḥ) kathamadhyātmamiti [Praśnopaniṣad 3, 1.] adhyātmarati adj. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 49.] anadhyātmavid [82.] te brahma tadviduḥ kṛtsnamadhyātmaṃ karma cākhilam [Bhagavadgītā 7, 29.] akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ svabhāvo dhyātmamucyate [8, 3.] (aham) adhyātmavidyā vidyānām [10, 32.] adhyātmacetasā [3, 30.] [Yāska’s Nirukta 1, 20.]

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Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—2. (wie eben) adj. der Person angehörig, persönlich eigen: yadevaiṣāṃ vāso hiraṇyaṃ maṇiradhyātmamāsīt [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 4, 6.] taddha vai yajamānasyādhyātmatamamivokthaṃ yatpraugam [3, 1.]

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Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—1. vgl. oben u. adhidaiva .

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Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):—2. [Yāska’s Nirukta 2, 20.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म):——

1) Adj. der Person angehörig , persönlich eigen.

2) n. — a) die höchste Seele. — b) die Seele als Agens einer Thätigkeit.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Adhyatma in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Adhyātma (अध्यात्म) [Also spelled adhyatm]:—(nm) spiritual contemplation; —[jñāna] spiritual knowledge; ~[paraka] spiritual; hence ~[parakatā] (nf);—[yoga] the discipline involved in withdrawal of senses from mundane objects and their concentration on the Supreme Being; ~[vāda] spiritualism; -[vidyā/śāstra] metaphysics.

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