Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

Monks’ Analysis: on the Laying-Down-Where (Pārājika)

Monks’ Pārājika 1

Prv.1.1:Bu-Pj.1 BD.6.1 Vin.5.1 Where[1] was that which is the first offence involving Defeat laid down by that Lord who knows, who sees, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One? Concerning whom? On what subject? Is there there a laying down, a supplementary laying down, a laying down that has not (yet) occurred[2]; a laying down (that holds good) everywhere, a laying down (that holds good only) for certain districts; a laying down that is shared,[3] a laying down that is not shared; a laying down for one (Order only), a laying down for both (Orders)[4]; plunged into which, included in which of the five recitations of the Pātimokkha[5]; by which recital does one come to the recital; of the four fallings away[6] which falling away; of the seven classes of offence which class of offence; of the six origins of offences[7] by how many origins does (a monk) originate (the offence); of the four legal questions[8] which legal question; of the seven (ways for) the deciding (of a legal question)[9] by how many decidings is it stopped; what there is Discipline, what there is BD.6.2 pertaining to Discipline[10]; what there is the Pātimokkha, what there is pertaining to the Pātimokkha[11]; what is falling away,[12] what is success,[13] what is practice[14]? Because of how many reasons[15] was the first offence involving Defeat laid down by the Lord? Who train themselves? Who have trained themselves in the training[16]? In what state[17]? Who know by heart? Whose is the Utterance? By whom has it been conveyed[18]?

“Where was that which is the first offence involving Defeat laid down by that Lord who knows, who sees, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One?”[19] It was laid down in Vesālī.[20]

“Concerning whom?” Concerning Sudinna the Kalandaka.

“On what subject?” On the subject of Sudinna the Kalandaka’s indulging in sexual intercourse with his former wife.[21]

Vin.5.2 “Is there there a laying down, a supplementary laying down, a laying down that has not (yet) occurred?” There is BD.6.3 one laying down,[22] two supplementary laying downs,[23] for it[24] there is no laying down that has not (yet) occurred.

“A laying down (that holds good) everywhere, a laying down (that holds good only) for certain districts?” A laying down (that holds good) everywhere.

“A laying down that is shared, a laying down that is not shared?” A laying down that is shared.[25]

“A laying down for one (Order), a laying down for both (Orders)?” A laying down for both (Orders).[26]

“Plunged into which, included in which of the five recitations of the Pātimokkha?” Plunged into the source,[27] included in the source.

“By which recital does one come to the recital?” By the second recital one comes to the recital.[28]

“Of the four fallings away which falling away?” The falling away in moral habit.[29]

“Of the seven classes of offence which class of offence?” The Defeat-class of offence. Of the six origins of offences by how many origins does BD.6.4 (a monk) originate (the offence)?” He originates it by one origin—he originates it by body and by mind, not by speech.[30]

“Of the four legal questions which legal question?” The legal question concerning offences.[31]

“Of the seven decidings (of a legal question) by how many decidings is it stopped?” It is stopped by two decidings: by a verdict in the presence of,[32] by the carrying out on (his) acknowledgement.[33]

“What there is Discipline, what there is pertaining to Discipline?” A laying down is Discipline, the analysis[34] (in the Old Commentary) is pertaining to Discipline.

“What there is the Pātimokkha, what there is pertaining to the Pātimokkha?” A laying down is the Pātimokkha, the analysis (in the Old Commentary) is pertaining to the Pātimokkha.

“What is falling away?” Lack of self-control[35] is falling away.

“What is success?” Self-control[36] is success.

“What is the practice?” Saying, “I will not act in such a way,” undertaking them for as long as he lives till the end of his life,[37] and training himself in the rules of training.

“Because of how many reasons was the first offence involving Defeat laid down by the Lord?” Because of ten reasons was the first offence involving Defeat laid down by the Lord: for the excellence of the Order, for the comfort of the Order, for the control of evil-minded men, for the living in ease of well behaved monks, for the restraint of the cankers belonging to the here-now, for the combating of cankers belonging to future states, for the benefit of non-believers, for an increase in the number of believers, for establishing the true Dhamma, for help[38] with Discipline.[39]

BD.6.5 “Who train themselves?” Learners[40] and ordinary people who are morally good.[41]

“Who have trained themselves in the training?” Arahants have trained themselves in the training.

“In what state?” The state of desiring the training.

“Who know by heart?” Those who know by heart the procedure of these.[42]

“Whose is the Utterance?” It is the Utterance of the Lord, perfected one, fully Self-Awakened One.

“By whom has it been conveyed?” It has been conveyed by a succession (of teachers):[43]

Upāli, Dāsaka, as well as Soṇaka,
similarly Siggava,
With Moggali’s son as fifth—
these in the glorious (is)land of Jambusiri.

Vin.5.3 Then Mahinda, Iṭṭiya, similarly Sambala,
and the learned Bhaddanāma—
These great beings, of great wisdom,
coming here[44] from India,
Taught the Vinaya-piṭaka in Tambapaṇṇi.[45]
They also taught the five Nikāyas
and the seven (Abhidhamma) treatises.

Then the wise Ariṭṭha[46] and the learned Tissadatta,[47]
The skilled Kālasumana[48]
and the Elder named Dīgha
and the learned Dīghasumana,[49]

And another Kālasumana,
the Elder Nāga, and Buddharakkhita,
BD.6.6 And the wise Elder Tissa
and the learned Elder Deva,

And another wise Sumana
proficient in the Vinaya,
Cūlanāga of great learning,
unassailable as an elephant,

The Elder named Dhammapālita,
and Rohaṇa revered by the virtuous,
His pupil named Khema of great wisdom
and learned in the Three Piṭakas,

Who in his wisdom shone with great splendour
in the island like the king of stars,
Upatissa the wise,
and Phussadeva the great orator,

And another wise Sumana,
he of great learning named Puppha,
The great orator Mahāsīva
skilful in all the contents of the Piṭaka,

And another wise Upāli
proficient in the Vinaya,
Mahānāga of great wisdom,
skilled in the tradition of the True Dhamma,

And again the wise Abhaya
skilled in all the contents of the Piṭaka,
And the wise Elder Tissa
proficient in the Vinaya,

His pupil named Puppha
of great wisdom and much learning
Who while protecting the Teaching
established himself in India,

The wise Cūlābhaya
proficient in the Vinaya,
And the wise Elder Tissa
skilled in the tradition of the True Dhamma,

And the wise Cūladeva
proficient in the Vinaya,
And the wise Elder Siva
skilled in all the contents of the Vinaya.

These sinless sages of great wisdom,
knowing the Vinaya and skilled in the Way,
Proclaimed the Vinaya-piṭaka
in the Island of Tambapaṇṇi.

Monks’ Pārājika 2

Prv.1.1:Bu-Pj.2 “Where was that which is the second offence involving Defeat laid down by that Lord who knows … ?” It was laid down in Rājagaha.[50]

BD.6.7 “Concerning whom?” Concerning Dhaniya the potter’s son.

“On what subject?” On the subject of Dhaniya the potter’s son taking pieces of wood belonging to the king when they had not been given to him.[51]

There is one laying down,[52] one supplementary laying down.[53]

“Of the six origins of offences by how many origins does (a monk) originate (the offence)?” He originates it by three origins—it may be that he originates it by body and by mind, Vin.5.4 not by speech; it may be that he originates it by speech and by mind, not by body; it may be that he originates it by body and by speech and by mind.

Monks’ Pārājika 3

Prv.1.1:Bu-Pj.3 “Where was that which is the third offence involving Defeat laid down … ?” It was laid down in Vesālī.[54]

“Concerning whom?” Concerning several monks.

“On what subject?” On the subject of several monks depriving one another of life.[55]

There is one laying down,[56] one supplementary laying down.[57]

“Of the six origins of offences by how many origins does (a monk) originate (the offence)?” He originates it by three origins—it may be that he originates it by body and by mind, not by speech; it may be that he originates it by speech and by mind, not by body; it may be that he originates it by body and by speech and by mind.

Monks’ Pārājika 4

Prv.1.1:Bu-Pj.4 ““Where was that which is the fourth offence involving Defeat laid down … ?” It was laid down in Vesālī.[58]

“Concerning whom?” Concerning monks on the banks of the river Vaggumudā.

“On what subject?” On the subject of the monks on the banks of the Vaggumudā speaking praise of each other’s state of further-men in front of householders.

There is one laying down,[59] one supplementary laying down.[60]

“Of the six origins of offences by how many origins does (a monk) originate (the offence)?” He originates it by three origins—it may be that he originates it by body and by mind, not by speech; it may be that he originates it by speech and by mind, not by body; it may be that he originates it by body and by speech and by mind.

Prv.1.1:Bu-Pj.5 Concluded are the four Offences involving Defeat.

Unchastity, taking what is not given,
and the form of men, those who are further—
BD.6.8 The four offences involving Defeat without doubt
(concern men who) must be destroyed.[61]

Footnotes and references:

1.

For these questions cf. Vin.2.286; also Vin-a.13f., DN-a.12. The “supplementary laying down”, anupaññatti, refers to an addition, correction, corollary or adjustment made to a rule already laid down. Sometimes more than one adjustment had to be made.

2.

anuppannapaññatti; this is an amendment that has not yet been made; if made it would amend a rule already laid down.

3.

sādhāraṇa, shared according to Vin-a.1302 by monks and nuns.

4.

Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 22 notes this ninefold laying down as it is to here.

5.

Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 2 enumerates five recitals in the Monks’ Pātimokkha: recital of the source (nidāna), of the Pārājika, of the Saṅghādisesa, of the undetermined (offences), and of “the following” (vitthāra, the extension, the detail).

6.

In moral habit, good habits, right view, right mode of livelihood. (Cf. Vin.2.242).

7.

The six are given at Vin.2.90 and are all various combinations of offences originating from body, speech and mind. See also Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 22; and below, Index I.

8.

Given at Vin.2.88, Vin.3.164.

9.

Given at Vin.4.207.

10.

abhivinaya. See abhivinaye vinetuṃ at Vin.1.64. Taken by Vin-a.990 however to mean the whole of the Vinaya-piṭaka; but Vin-a.1303 appears to think otherwise, saying in its exegesis of vibhatti abhivinayo that “vibhatti is called padabhājaniya (the Old Commentary); vibhatti is just a name for analysis (vibhaṅga)”. Vibhatti also means division, classification.

11.

adhipātimokkha, a word that apparently does not occur elsewhere in Vinaya, except below, p.2, where all these questions are answered, and where it is called vibhatti (see previous note). The Commentary says nothing. The word adhipātimokkha occurs at MN.ii.245 (see Middle Length Sayings iii.31, n.4 “concerning the Obligations”).

12.

vipatti, unsuccess, failure. At Vin.1.63, falling away is from moral habit, good habits (ajjhācara, see BD.4.82, n.5) and right view (atidiṭṭhi, see BD.4.83, n.1); see also Vin.1.171f., Vin.2.4. At Vin.2.22f., Vin.2.88f., Vin.2.90f. the fourth falling away is added, that of falling away from a right mode of livelihood; also at Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 22. At Vin.2.241 the first four suspensions of the Pātimokkha are concerned with these fallings away. Three kinds are given at AN.i.268, AN.i.270, two kinds at DN.iii.213.

13.

sampatti, opposite of vipatti, achievement, attainment. Three kinds at Ne.126, sīla samādhi paññā; another three at Dhp-a.iii.183, manussa, devaloka, nibbāna.

14.

paṭipatti, also behaviour, progress. It is not possible to reproduce the play of these words ending in -patti, to which ā-patti also belongs.

15.

atthavasa; the 10 given at Vin.2.202, Vin.3.21. Defined at Vin-a.223 as well as below.

16.

sikkhitasikkhā as at Vin.4.122, Vin.4.343, but there of a female probationer training for 2 years in 6 rules.

17.

kattha-ṭhitaṃ, in what condition or state?

18.

ken’ ābhata, by whom handed down, transmitted?

19.

This first Pārājika or offence involving Defeat is given at Vin.3.1–40.

24.

tasmiṃ, presumably for this rule, sutta or dhamma.

25.

There are 8 Pārājika rules for nuns. The first one is “shared” with monks, therefore it is not given in the Nuns’ Pārājika Section (beginning at Vin.4.211). According to Vin-a.1302 it reads “whatever nun, with desire (or intention, will), should indulge in sexual intercourse even with an animal, is one who is defeated, she is not in communion”. This is the same as the first anupaññatti (the first amendment) for monks (Vin.3.22) and reading nun and monk respectively, but the word chandaso, with desire, occurs only in the nuns’ rule.

26.

Vin-a.1303 says “laying down that is shared” has the same meaning as “laying down for both (Orders)”, only the phrasing being different.

27.

nidānogadha means “if he has an offence, he should declare it—here plunged into the source means the fact of entering all offences”—so Vin-a.1303 which adds that this word and the next are the same. It seems a little difficult to accept this interpretation if we take the “source” as the first of the five recitals of the Pātimokkha, see above, BD.6.1, n.5.

28.

The second recital is that of the 4 Pārājika rules (dhammā), Vin-a.1303, Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 2. See BD.6.1, n.6 above. Thus the meaning appears to be that the rules the second division of the Pātimokkha is the recital of the Pārājika rules.

29.

Vin-a.1303 says “the first 2 classes of offence are falling away from moral habit (failure in it). The remaining five classes are falling away from good habits (or behaviour). False or extreme views are falling away from (right) view. There is falling away from right livelihood when any one of the 6 rules of training laid down for the sake of livelihood is transgressed”.

30.

This is the fourth of the six origins of offences spoken of at Vin.2.90.

31.

The third of the legal questions.

32.

sammukhāvinaya, see BD.3.153, n.2.

33.

paṭiññātakaraṇa, see BD.3.153, n.5.

34.

vibhatti, see above, BD.6.2, n.1.

35.

asaṃvara is vītikkama, transgression, Vin-a.1303.

36.

saṃvara is avītikkama, non-transgression, Vin-a.1303. At Ds.1342 non-transgression by body or by speech or by body and speech are soracca, restraint, gentleness, which is the whole moral habit.

37.

āpāṇahoṭika, the (end-)point of breathing. The word is found at MN.ii.120, Tha-ap.504, Mil.397, Vism.10.

38.

anuggaha. Two kinds given at It.p.98, āmisa- and dhamma-.

39.

See Vin.3.21.

40.

sekha, one who is training, an “initiate”; one of the seven kinds who has attained any of the four ways and the first three fruitions. Defined at MN-a.i.40.

41.

putkujjanakalyāṇaka. Kalyāṇa is good, lovely. This compound occurs at Vism.14, Vism.46, and is defined at Vism.47 as the proximate cause for arahantship. Cf. MN-a.i.40 where kalyāṇaputhujjana is defined.

42.

yesaṃ vattati. Vin-a.1303 says “all are proficient in these: the Vinaya-piṭaka and the Commentary. What do they know by heart? This first Pārājika according to the Pali and the meaning”.

43.

These verses occur at Vin-a.62f. (translated Inception of Discipline p.55f.) where an account and of the succession of teachers (ācariyaparaṃpara) is given. See also Vin-a.235, and Cf. Mahāvaṃsa xii.7; Dīpavaṃsa xii.12; Mahābodhivaṃsa 116; Atthasālinī 32.

44.

I.e. Ceylon.

45.

Possibly this was at first the name of a certain district in Ceylon, then of the whole island.

46.

See Vin-a.102ff.

47.

Pupils of Ariṭṭha.

48.

Pupils of Ariṭṭha.

49.

Pupils of Ariṭṭha.

61.

chejja-vatthu. This is perhaps a reference to chejja-bhejja, a word occurring in the Old Commentary, on Bu-Pj.2; see Vin.3.47. Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 17, Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 31 takes vatthu (in other contexts) as puggala, a meaning that might apply equally here. At BD.1.191 in my translation of this summary (which occurs at Vin.3.109) I took vatthu as the reason (or subject) for chejja, punishment, maiming. It almost seems that the one meaning implies the other. It also shows that vatthu has no settled meaning but can be made to do duty for several words.