Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 4: Case rulings

Mnemonic list

Bu-Pj.4.8.1 MS.705 Because of overestimation, in the wilderness, alms, a preceptor,[1] behaviour,
Fetters, qualities in private, a dwelling, attended on, /
MS.706 Not difficult, energy, and then of death, fear friend, remorse,[2] right,
BD.1.172 By energy, by being intent on exertion,[3] then on feeling, two on enduring, /
MS.707 Five stories on a brahmin, three on declaring final knowledge,
House, rejected sense-pleasures, then delight, set out, /
MS.708 Bones and lump are both[4] cattle-butchers, the morsel is a poultry butcher, the sheep-butcher is flayed,
The pig-butcher has swords, a deer-hunter knives, the torturer arrows, the horse trainer needles, /
MS.709 The slanderer is sewn, the corrupt magistrate has testicles that are a burden,
An adulterer is submerged in a pit, the eater of dung was a wicked brahmin, /
MS.710 The flayed woman was an adulteress, the ugly woman was a fortune-teller,
The sweltering woman scattered coals on a co-wife, the beheaded one was an executioner, /
MS.711 A monk, a nun, a probationary nun, a novice monk, a novice nun,
These having gone forth in the training of Kassapa did bad deeds just then,[5] /
MS.712 The Tapodā in Rājagaha, a fight, and on the plunging of elephants,
The monk Sobhita, arahant, can recall five hundred eons.

Case details, part 1

BD.1.173 MS.713 At one time a certain monk declared final knowledge[6] because of overestimation. He became anxious, thinking, “The Master has laid down a training rule. Could it be that I have committed an offence entailing expulsion?” He informed the Master …

“There is no offence, monk, when it is due to overestimation.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.2 MS.714 At one time a certain monk Vin.3.101 lived in the wilderness because he wanted[7] people to esteem him.[8] People esteemed him. He became anxious …

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, one should not live in the wilderness because of a wish.[9] If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.


MS.715 At one time a certain monk was going for alms because he wanted people to esteem him. People esteemed him. He became anxious …

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, one should not go for alms because of a wish. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.


Bu-Pj.4.8.3 MS.716 At one time a certain monk said to another monk, “Friend, those who are pupils of our preceptor are all arahants.” He became anxious … He informed the Master.

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I wanted to make a claim, Master.”

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


BD.1.174 MS.717 At one time a certain monk said to another monk, “Friend, those who are the students of our preceptor are all of great psychic potency, of great power.” He became anxious …

“… but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.4 MS.718 At one time a certain monk walked up and down because he wanted people to esteem him … stood because he wanted people to esteem him … sat because he wanted people to esteem him … laid down because he wanted people to esteem him. People esteemed him. He became anxious … He informed the Master …

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion. But, monks, one should not walk up and down … stand … sit … lie down because of a wish. If one does, there is an offence of bad conduct.


Bu-Pj.4.8.5 MS.719 At one time a certain monk claimed a super-human achievement to another monk: “Friend, I have abandoned the fetters.” He became anxious … He informed the Master …

“You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.6 MS.720 At one time a certain monk claimed a super-human achievement in private.[10] Another monk, knowing the mind of that monk, rebuked him: “Donʼt speak like that, friend, you havenʼt got it.” He became anxious … He informed the Master …

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


MS.721 At one time Vin.3.102 a certain monk claimed a super-human achievement in private. A god rebuked BD.1.175 him: “Bhante,[11] donʼt speak like that, you havenʼt got it.” He became anxious … He informed the Master …

“Monk, there is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is an offence of bad conduct.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.7 MS.722 At one time a certain monk said to a certain lay-follower: “Friend, whatever monk lives in your dwelling is an arahant.” Now he lived in that dwelling.[12] He became anxious …

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I wanted to make a claim, Master.”

“There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


MS.723 At one time a certain monk said to a certain lay-follower: “Friend, the one you attend on with the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings and medicines for the sick, he is an arahant.” Now he was the one who was attended on with those requisites. He became anxious …

“ … but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.8 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him: “Venerable Sir, do you have any super-human achievement?”

“Friends, it is not difficult to attain.”

He became anxious and thought, “Those who are true disciples of the Master may speak thus, but I am not such a disciple.[13] Could it be that I have committed an offence entailing expulsion?” He informed the Master.

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I did not intend to make a claim, Master.”

BD.1.176 “There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”[14]


MS.724 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him: “Venerable Sir, do you have any super-human achievement?”

“Friends, it is not difficult to declare final knowledge.” He became anxious … He informed the Master.

“What was your intention, monk?”

“I did not intend to make a claim, Master.”[15]

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.9 MS.725 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him: “Venerable Sir, do you have any super-human achievement?”

“Friends, an achievement is to reached by one who is energetic.” He became anxious … He informed the Master …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.726 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him, “Friend, do not be afraid.”

“Friends, I am not afraid of death.” He became anxious …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.727 At one time Vin.3.103 a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him: “Friend, do not be afraid.”

BD.1.177 “Friends, one who is remorseful[16] might be afraid.” He became anxious …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.728 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him: “Venerable Sir, do you have any super-human achievement?”

“Friends, an achievement is to be reached by one who is rightly intent.”[17] He became anxious …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.729 At one time a certain monk was ill …

“Friends, an achievement is to be reached by one who is energetic.”[18] He became anxious …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.730 At one time a certain monk was ill …

“Friends, an achievement is to be reached by one who is intent on exertion.”[19] He became anxious …

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.10 MS.731 At one time a certain monk was ill. The monks said to him:

“We hope, friend, that you are bearing up, we hope that you are comfortable?”

“Friends, it is not possible for just anyone to endure this.” He became anxious … He informed the Master …

BD.1.178 “There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.732 At one time a certain monk was ill …

“Friends, it is not possible for an ordinary person to endure this.”[20] He became anxious …

“Monk, what was your intention?”

“I intended to make a claim, Master.”

“There is no offence entailing expulsion, but there is a serious offence.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.11 MS.733 At one time a certain brahmin invited the monks: “Let the good sirs, the arahants, come.”[21]

They became anxious and said: “But we are not arahants, and yet this brahmin addresses us as if we were. What should we do?” They informed the Master.

“Monks, there is no offence in regard to what is spoken in faith.”


BD.1.179 MS.734 At one time a certain brahmin invited the monks: “Let the good sirs, the arahants, be seated … Let the good sirs, the arahants, eat … Let the good sirs, the arahants, be satisfied … Let the good sirs, the arahants, go” …

They became anxious and said …

“Monks, there is no offence in regard to what is spoken in faith.”[22]


Bu-Pj.4.8.12 MS.735 At one time a certain monk claimed a super-human achievement to another monk: “Friend, I have abandoned the corruptions.” He became anxious …

“You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.736 At Vin.3.104 one time a certain monk … “Friend, I have these qualities.” He became anxious …

“You, monk, have committed an offence entailing expulsion.”


MS.737 At one time a certain monk … “Friend, I conform to these qualities.” He became anxious …

“You, monk, have committed an offence entailing expulsion.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.13 MS.738 At one time the relations of a certain monk said to him: “Come, bhante, live in a house.”

“Friends, one like me is incapable of living in a house.” He became anxious …

“There is no offence, monk, for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.739 At one time the relations of a certain monk said to him: “Come, bhante, enjoy the pleasures of the senses.”

“Friends, the pleasures of the senses have been rejected by me.”[23] He became anxious …

BD.1.180 “There is no offence, monk, for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


MS.740 At one time the relations of a certain monk said to him: “Come, bhante, enjoy yourself.”[24]

“Friends, I am enjoying myself with the highest enjoyment.”[25]

He became anxious, thinking: “Those who are true disciple of the Master may speak thus, but I am not such a disciple.[26] Could it be that I have committed an offence entailing expulsion?” He informed the Master.

“Monk, what was your intention?”

“I did not intend to make a claim, Master.”

“There is no offence for one who does not intend to make a claim.”


Bu-Pj.4.8.14 MS.741 At one time a number of monks entered the rains in a certain monastery, making this agreement: “Whoever sets out from this monastery first, we will know as an arahant.”

A certain monk thought, “let them know me as an arahant,” and he set out first from that monastery. He became anxious. He informed the Master …

“You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing expulsion.”

Case details, part 2

Bu-Pj.4.9.1 MS.742 At one time[27] the Buddha, the Master, was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrelsʼ feeding place. Now at that time Venerable Lakkhaṇa[28] and Venerable Mahāmoggallāna BD.1.181 were staying on Mount Vultureʼs Peak. Then, in the morning, Venerable Mahāmoggallāna dressed, took his bowl and robe, approached Venerable Lakkhaṇa and said: “Friend Lakkhaṇa, let us enter Rājagaha for alms.”

“Yes, friend,” Venerable Lakkhaṇa replied.

MS.743 Then, Vin.3.105 as he was descending from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, Venerable Mahāmoggallāna smiled at a certain place. Venerable Lakkhaṇa said to him: “Friend, why are you smiling?”

“This is not the right time, friend, for this question. Ask me in the presence of the Master.”

Bu-Pj.4.9.2 MS.744 Then, after their meal and after returning from alms-round, Venerable Lakkhaṇa and Venerable Mahāmoggallāna approached the Master and sat down to one side. Venerable Lakkhaṇa then said to Venerable Mahāmoggallāna:

“Just now, as the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna was descending from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, he smiled at a certain place. Why, friend, did you smile?”

“As I was coming down from BD.1.182 Mount Vultureʼs Peak, I saw a skeleton flying through the air,[29] and vultures, crows and hawks[30] were in close pursuit, striking it[31] between the ribs,[32] while it uttered cries of distress. Then, friend, I thought how amazing and astounding it is that such a being should exist, such a spirit, such a state of existence.”[33]

The monks criticized and denounced him: “Venerable Mahāmoggallāna is claiming a super-human achievement.”[34]

MS.745 Then the Master addressed the monks:

Monks, there are disciples who possess vision and knowledge,[35] such that they can see, know and witness such a thing. Previously I too have seen that being, but I didnʼt speak about it. If I had, others would not have believed me and that would have been for their harm and suffering for long time. BD.1.183 That being, monks, was a cattle butcher[36] in this very Rājagaha. As a result of his deeds he was tormented[37] in hell for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years. And now, because of the remaining result of his actions, he is experiencing such a state of existence. Moggallāna spoke truly. There is no offence for Moggallāna.”[38]


Bu-Pj.4.9.3 MS.746 “As I was coming down from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, I saw a lump of flesh flying through the air, and vultures, crows and hawks were in close pursuit, tearing at it and pulling it to pieces, while it uttered cries of distress.” Vin.3.106

“Monks, that being was a cattle-butcher in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.747 “As I was coming down from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, I saw a morsel of flesh flying through the air, and vultures, crows and BD.1.184 hawks were in close pursuit, tearing at it and pulling it to pieces,[39] while it uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a poultry butcher[40] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.748 “As I was coming down from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, I saw a flayed man flying through the air, and vultures, crows and hawks were in close pursuit, tearing at him and pulling him to pieces, while he uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a sheep-butcher[41] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.749 “As I was coming down from Mount Vultureʼs Peak, I saw a man who had body hairs of swords flying through the air. Again and again those sword went in and out of his body, while he uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a butcher of pigs[42] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.750 “As I was coming down … I saw a man with body hairs of knives flying through the air. Again and again those knives went in and out of his body, while he uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a deer-hunter[43] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.751 “As I was coming down … I saw a man with body hairs of arrows flying through the air. Again and again those arrows …

“Monks, that being was a torturer[44] in this very Rājagaha. …”


BD.1.185 MS.752 As I was coming down … I saw a man with body hair of needles flying through the air. Again and again those needles …

“Monks, that being was a horse trainer[45] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.753 “As I was coming down … I saw a man with body hairs of needles flying through the air. Those needles pierced his head and came out through his mouth, entered his mouth and came out through his breast, entered his breast and came out through his stomach, entered his stomach and came out through his thighs, entered his thighs and came out through his calves, entered his calves and came out through his feet, while he uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a slanderer in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.754 “As I was coming down … I saw a man who had testicles like pots[46] flying through the air. When he walked, he had to lift his testicles on to his shoulder, when he sat down he sat on top of his testicles. Vultures, crows and hawks were in close pursuit, tearing at him and pulling him to pieces, while he uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was a corrupt magistrate in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.755 “As I was coming down … I saw a man, head and all, submerged in a dung-pit …” BD.1.186

“Monks, that being was an adulterer in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.756 “As I was coming down Vin.3.107 … I saw a man, head and all, submerged in a dung-pit and eating dung with both hands …”

“Monks, that being was a wicked brahmin in this very Rājagaha. At the time of Kassapa, the fully Awakened One, he invited the Sangha of monks to a meal. He filled a trough with dung, announced the time and said: ʻSirs, eat as much as you like and take the rest away with you.ʼ …


MS.757 “As I was coming down … I saw a flayed woman flying through the air. Vultures … were pulling her to pieces, while she uttered cries of distress …”

“Monks, this woman was an adulteress[47] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.758 “As I was coming down … I saw a foul-smelling and ugly woman flying through the air. Vultures … were pulling her to pieces …”

“Monks, that woman was a fortune-teller[48] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.759 “As I was coming down … I saw a woman who was roasting, sweltering and sooty[49] flying through the air … while she uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, this woman was the chief queen of the King of Kālinga. Being the jealous sort, she threw out her rival[50] and scattered a brazier of burning coals over her. …”


BD.1.187 MS.760 “As I was coming down … I saw the headless trunk of a body flying through the air. Its eyes and mouth were on its chest. Vultures … were pulling it to pieces while it uttered cries of distress.” …

“Monks, that being was an executioner called Hārika[51] in this very Rājagaha. …”


MS.761 “As I was coming down … I saw a monk flying through the air. His outer robe was ablaze and burning,[52] his bowl was ablaze and burning, his waistband was ablaze and burning, his body was ablaze and burning, and he was uttering cries of distress.” …

“Monks, during the time of the Buddha Kassapaʼs dispensation, that monk was a bad monk.”[53]


MS.762 “As I was coming down … I saw a nun … I saw a probationary nun … a novice monk … a novice nun[54] flying through the air. Her outer robe was ablaze and burning, her bowl was ablaze and burning, her waistband was ablaze and burning, her body was ablaze and burning, and she was uttering cries of distress. Then, friend, I thought how amazing and astounding it is that such a being should exist, such a spirit, such a state of existence.”

The monks criticised and denounced him: “Venerable Moggallāna is claiming a super-human achievement.”[55]

MS.763 Then the Master addressed the monks:

“Monks, there are disciples who possess BD.1.188 vision and knowledge Vin.3.108 such that they can see, know and witness such a thing. Previously, monks, I too have seen this novice nun, but I did not speak about it. If I had, others would not have believed me and that would have been for their harm and suffering for long time. During the time of Buddha Kassapaʼs dispensation, that novice nun was a bad novice nun. As a result of her deeds, she was tormented in hell for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thousands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years. And now, because of the remaining result of her actions, she is experiencing such a state of existence. Moggallāna spoke truly. There is no offence for Moggallāna.”


Bu-Pj.4.9.4 Then Venerable Mahāmoggallāna addressed the monks:

MS.764 “Friends, this stream the Tapodā flows from a lake with beautiful water—cool, sweat and pure—with lovely and charming fords, with an abundance of fishes and turtles, and with blooming lotuses the size of wheels. And yet the Tapodā is hot.”

The monks criticised and denounced him: “How can the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna say, ʻFriends, this stream the Tapodā flows from a lake of beautiful water … And yet this Tapodā is hot.ʼ Venerable Mahāmoggallāna is claiming a super-human achievement.” And they informed the Master.

“Monks, the Tapodā flows from a lake of beautiful water … with blooming lotuses the size of wheels. But the Tapodā runs between the two great hells,[56] that is why it is BD.1.189 hot. Moggallāna spoke truly. There is no offence for Moggallāna.”


Bu-Pj.4.9.5 MS.765 At one time King Seniya Bimbisāra of Magadha was defeated in battle with the Licchavis. Then the king collected his armies and beat the Licchavis. Delight about the battle spread about: “The Licchavis were defeated by the king!”

Then the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna addressed the monks: “Friends, the king was defeated by the Licchavis.”

The monks criticised and denounced him: “How can Venerable Moggallāna say, ʻFriends, the king was defeated by the Licchavis,ʼ when delight about the battle is spreading about thus: ʻThe Licchavis were defeated by the king!ʼ The Venerable Mahāmoggallāna is claiming a super-human achievement.” They informed the Master.

“Monks, first the king was defeated by the Licchavis Vin.3.109 and then, after he had collected his army, the king beat the Licchavis. Moggallāna spoke truly. There is no offence for Moggallāna.”


Bu-Pj.4.9.6 MS.766 Then the Venerable Mahāmoggallāna addressed the monks: “Friends, after attaining an imperturbable samādhi on the banks of the river Sappinikā,[57] I heard the noise of elephants plunging in, emerging and trumpeting.”[58]

The monks criticised and denounced him: “How can Venerable Mahāmoggallāna say BD.1.190 such a thing. He is claiming a super-human achievement.” They informed the Master.

“Monks, there is such a samādhi, but it is not wholly purified.[59] Moggallāna spoke truly. There is no offence for Moggallāna.”


Bu-Pj.4.9.7 MS.767 Then the Venerable Sobhita[60] addressed the monks: “Friends, I can recall five hundred eons.”

The monks criticised and denounced him: “How can Venerable Sobhita say, ʻI can recall five hundred eonsʼ? He is claiming a super-human achievement.” They informed the Master.

“Monks, Sobhita has this ability, and that was just one birth. Sobhita spoke truly. There is no offence for Sobhita.”

MS.768 The fourth offence entailing expulsion is finished.

MS.769 Venerables, the four rules entailing expulsion have been recited. If a monk commits any one of them, he is no longer in communion with the monks. As before,[61] so after, he is expelled and not BD.1.191 in communion. In regard to this I ask the Venerable ones: are you pure in this? A second time I ask: are you pure in this? A third time I ask: are you pure in this? The Venerable ones are pure in this and therefore silent. I will remember it thus.

MS.772 Sexual intercourse, stealing, person, super,
the four offences entailing expulsion, the foundation is cut[62] without a doubt.

MS.7730 The chapter on offences entailing expulsion is finished. Vin.3.110

Footnotes and references:

1.

Upajjhā, a short form of upajjhāya, found in Vin.1.94; Vin.3.35; at Vin.4.326 upajjhā is feminine.

2.

Vippaṭisārī: “strongly remembering something against (oneself), so generally ‘remorse,’” thus GS.iii.125, n.2 (on AN.iii.165 = Pp.64). Cf. Vin.2.249 = AN.iii.197 for the refrain: “there’s no need for remorse in thee,” which is the result of being exhorted on five scores on which no remorse ought to be set up. See GS.iii.145. The word is also sometimes translated “regret, repentance.” Although I have translated kukkuccaṃ hoti as “was remorseful” and although kukkucca and vippaṭisārī are often found together, I keep “remorseful” also for vippaṭisārī, for “regret” seems not forceful enough, and “repentance” is now by Westerners associated with “repenting of a sin”—an idea foreign to Buddhism. Vippaṭisārī comes near to “bad conscience,” which is also remembering something against oneself. Words for conscience are sadly lacking in Pali, but this may be an attempt to express the idea of it, emerging in the sixth century B.C.

3.

These two on feeling, if that means physical pain, seem to be included in the next, “on giving in.” Or, and this is more likely and was suggested by Oldenberg, Vin.3.272, “two stories appear to be wanting”, i.e those correspnding to ārādhanāya and vedanāya.

4.

Ubho.

5.

Tavade.

6.

Añña.

7.

Paṇidhāya, gerund of paṇidahati. Vin-a.502, patthanaṃ katvā, making a wish, cf. Ja.i.68. For paṇidhāya, cf. AN.iii.249 = AN.iv.461, translated in Gradual Sayings as “set on gaining.” SN-a.i.99 on SN.i.42 explains paṇidhāya by ṭhapetvā, establishing.

8.

Vin-a.502, “May people esteem me living in the jungle as being at the stage of arahanship, or of a learner, then I will become revered by the world, venerated, respected, worshipped.

9.

Vatthabbaṃ, from √vas, to live, to dwell.

10.

According to Vin-a.503 he said, “I am an arahan,” but as he did this not (really) believing it in his mind (na manasā cintitaṃ), it was a dukkaṭa offence.

11.

Note the way a fellow-monk uses āvuso in addressing a monk, while a non-monk, lay people, and, as here, a devatā, use bhante, honoured sir.

12.

I.e., the lay-follower’s.

13.

= below, BD.1.180.

14.

Anullapanādhippāyassa. Vin-a.502 says, kohaññe icchācāre aṭhatvā, not wanting to have his needs filled by hypocrisy (or deceit). Critical Pali Dictionary gives, “not intending to show off, to impose,” under anulla°.

15.

Vin-a.503, “it is not difficult for a virtuous man, who has set insight going to declare profound knowledge, he is competent to attain arahanship.” But this monk did not reckon himself in this category.

16.

Vippaṭisārī, cf. above, BD.1.171, n.3. Vin-a.504, “let the monk in whom remorse arises be afraid, but I am not remorseful, the moral precepts are completely pure, why then should I be afraid of death?”

17.

Sammā payuttena.

18.

As above, BD.1.176.

19.

Yuttayoga. This word also occurs at Ja.i.65 and is translated “devout” (Buddhist Birth Stories, second edition, p.178). Yuñjati (of which yutta is past participle) occurs at Ja.iv.131, Ja.v.369, with ghaṭati vāyamati, all meaning to strive, to endeavour. Yoga (yogya) has sense of “fit for.”

20.

Vin-a.504, surrounding him.

21.

āyantu, from ā + √ī and meaning āgacchantu. Vin-a.504, “Whoever said this would also have said: ‘Prepare seats for all the arahans, give water for washing the feet, let the arahans wash their feet.’ ”

22.

Pasādabhaññe. Apart from the meaning of this very rare word, it is noteworthy that it is in the locative, instead of, as is usually the case after āpatti and anāpatti, in the genitive. Vin-a.504 says, “The meaning being: instigated (samussāhitassa) through his own power of faith, being one who goes by faith.” Cf. for bhaññā (for which Pali-English Dictionary refers to bhā) Ja.v.317, Ja.v.318. The former of these passages reads bhaññaṃ with variant readings haṃñam, bhuñjaṃ, and the latter explains by saying bhā tiratanass’ etaṃ nāmaṃ. But I think that here bhañña derives from √bhāṣ, to speak, and not from √bhās, to shine. At AN.ii.31; SN.iii.72; M, iii.78 we find Ukkalā vassa-bhaññā. KS.iii.63 translates vassa-bhaññā as “preachers in retreat”—i.e., during vassa, the rains. But SN-a.ii.279 says vasso ca Bhañño ca, and evidently means that these are names of people in certain districts, like Ukkala-janapada-vāsino; while MN-a.iv.136 declares this to be the case: Vasso ca Bhañño cā ti dve janā. Cf. Points of Controversy 95, n.2. I do not, however, think that the pasāda-bhaññe of Vinaya above can refer to the Bhañña people.

23.

Vin-a.505, āvaṭā ti āvāritā nivāritā paṭikkhittā ti attho. Had they in truth been rejected he would have been an arahan. Before they attained this supreme state, monks were not indifferent to the beauties of nature, as for example some of the Theragāthā show.

24.

On abhirati and abhiramati see above, BD.1.114.

25.

Vin-a.505, “the monk says, ‘Because there is no lack of exposition and questionings on the teaching, and because I enjoy this state of things, I say I am enjoying myself with the highest enjoyment.’ ”

26.

= above, BD.1.175.

27.

SN.ii.254–262 from here to end of Bu-Pj.4.9.3 below.

28.

Vin-a.506 = SN-a.ii.216, “He from among a thousand Jaṭilas (matted hair ascetics) received the ‘Come, monk’ for upasampadā ordination. He attained arahanship at the end of the Discourse on Burning. He should be called one great disciple (eko mahā-sāvako). Inasmuch as he is endowed with this mark and is possessed of a Brahma-like existence, he is called Lakkhaṇa. Mahā-Moggallāna, the second great disciple, attained arahanship on the seventh day after he had gone forth into homelessness.” This mention of Moggallāna as second to Lakkhaṇa is curious, for in the Suttas he is only ever linked with Sāriputta. See Vin.1.33ff. for the story of the conversion of the Jaṭilas.

29.

Vehāsagata, or going above ground, cf. above, BD.1.79, n.7.

30.

Vin-a.507 calls these yakkha vultures, yakkha crows and yakkha hawks, probably meaning that these birds eat flesh. Cf. the predatory yakkhas, above, BD.1.146.

31.

Vitudenti. Vin-a.507 reads vituddhenti tī vinivijjhitvā gacchanti vitudantī ti (variant reading vitudentī ti) vā pāṭho. SN.ii.255 reads vitacchenti vibhajenti, as in the cases below, with variant reading vitudenti for vitacchenti and omitting vibhajenti.

32.

Pāsuḷa, with variant reading pāsula; SN.ii.255 reads phāsuḷa.

33.

Attabhāvapaṭilābha.

34.

Omitted at SN.ii.255.

35.

Cakkhubhūta, bhūta being past participle of bhavati. At AN.v.226 the tathāgata is called cakkhubhūto ñāṇabhūto (as above) and dhamma-bhūto brahmabhūto, translated at GS.v.157 “he has become the eye, he has become knowledge,” etc. Vin-a.508 says, cakkhubhūtaṃ jataṃ uppannaṃ tesan ti cakkhubhūtā, bhūtacakkhukā uppannacakkhukā. Cakkhuṃ uppadetva viharanti dutiyapade pi es’ eva nayo. AN-a on AN.v.226) (Siamese edition) says, cakkhubhūto ti cakkhu viya bhūto nibbatto. Ñāṇabhuto ti ñāṇasabhāvo. (AN-a also explains bhūta in dhamma° and brahma° by sabhāva.)

36.

Vin-a.508, “at the time of his passing from the Pit (naraka) his outward appearance was a mass of bones … he has arisen as a departed one (peta) who is a skeleton.” Of his deeds, tassa kammassa explained Tassa nānācetanāhi āyūhi tassa aparāpariyakammassa.

37.

paccitvā, passive of pacati. Paccati is literally to be boiled or cooked, Pali-English Dictionary saying, “Nearly always applied to the torture of boiling in niraya, where it is meant literally.” But I think that the idea (found in the active) of ripening and maturing for the next rebirth is also intended. The context brings out this point. One was not condemned to eternal damnation. Vin-a.508 also emphasises this by saying that through what remained of the result of his deeds after his reinstatement (paṭisandhi) in naraka, he took on reinstatement again-among the petas. I have translated paccitvā literally, since for lack of an English word to express the idea of being boiled to a ripeness which entails a change, it seems to me preferable to “has been punished” (KS.ii.170), as this conveys the idea still less of the past deeds maturing until the individual is ready for a new rebirth.

38.

Omitted at SN.ii.256.

39.

Cf. MN.i.364, where the simile is possibly taken from this Vinaya passage. MN.i.364 reads, vitaccheyyuṃ virajeyyuṃ, translated Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.261, “to tear and rend it.” Virajenti is a variant reading for vibhajenti at both Vin.3.105 above and SN.ii.256, and it would not seem unintelligible in these contexts.

40.

Vin-a.509, “at the time of his passing from the Pit (naraka) his outward appearance was a piece of flesh, therefore he arose as a departed one who is a piece of flesh.”

41.

orabbhika, Vin-a.509, eḷake vidhitvā, having skinned them during his life, afterwards his appearance was that of a skinless ram’s body, and therefore he has arisen as a departed one who is flayed (nicchavipeto).

42.

He killed the pigs with swords, thus his outward appearance is the state of having drawn swords, thus he has arisen as a departed one who has swords for hair.

43.

His outward appearance is a state of being struck with knives, because he killed the deer with knives.

44.

Kāraṇika, but judge at KS.ii.171, which has note “cruel to criminals.” According to the Commentaries “a man causing death, shooting with arrows,” kaṇḍena vijjhitva. Hence possibly the confusion, Pali-English Dictionary, referring only to SN.ii.257, and saying, “usu°, however, used simply in the sense of making: arrow-maker, fletcher.”

45.

sārathi. SN.ii.257 reads, sūcako here as in the next example. Translator at KS.ii.172 suggests sūto for sūcako. Both words, according to Pali-English Dictionary, mean charioteer or coachman, but Vin-a.509 and SN-a.ii.220 (under sūto, with note that title in text sūci-sārathi) speak of horse-tamer, cow-tamer.

46.

kumbhaṇḍa. Note word-play on aṇḍa. Vin-a.510 = SN-a.ii.220 says, kumbhamattā mahāghaṭappamāṇā aṇḍā ahesuṃ, while Ja.iii.147 defines as kumbhamattarahassaṅgā mahodarā yakkhā. Our Commentaries say that as he had made others suffer by his secret wrong-doing, so now he suffers in his secret organs. At DN-a.i.73 a kumbhaṇḍa is placed on the back of a horse as a sign of instability. Kumbhaṇḍī at Vism.183, in connection with latā, creeper, translated “pumpkin.” This is evidently the secondary meaning of the word.

47.

Inasmuch as she got her pleasures with other men, not with her own husband, she is reborn flayed so as to undergo a painful contact, being deprived of pleasant touch. Vin-a.510.

48.

Vin-a.511, deceiving the people by taking gifts of flowers and perfumes from them, saying, “now there will be increase for you.”

49.

upakkaṃ okiliniṃ okiriniṃ. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.511 says, “she fell on to a heap of coals … therefore, she is shrivelled by the agonising fires, okilinī, and her body inflamed, drop upon drop oozing from her body, okiriṇī, and surrounded by charcoal; from below the charcoal was on both sides of her, like the red flowers of the kiṃsuka tree; the charcoal fell from the air on her.”

50.

She was a dancer who had pleased the King by massaging him.

51.

Vin-a.512, for a long time he had beheaded thieves at the king’s command. Therefore he was reborn headless.

52.

Quoted at MN-a.i.91, and said to refer to the monk Kapila. Vin-a mentions no names.

53.

He went about enjoying himself to his heart’s content, therefore he was boiled in hell for an interval between Buddhas, and then arising in a peta-world he arose with an existence like a monk.

54.

Feminine in Table of Contents, above, BD.1.172.

55.

Omitted at SN.ii.261.

56.

Tapoda means “boiling waters.” Vin-a.512, says, “they say that the town of Rajagaha is near the world of the departed, and this Tapoda comes there between the two great red pits of the hells.” Cf. below, BD.1.274, n.6. At AN.v.196 Ānanda and the wanderer Kokanuda went to this river to bathe their limbs.

57.

Mentioned also at SN.i.153; AN.ii.29, AN.ii 176, Sappinī; at AN.i.185, Sappinikā; cf. also Vinaya Texts i.254, n.2. Usually translated the “Snake River.” The wanderers had a park on its banks. It was near Rājagaha.

58.

Vin-a.513, “plunging down into the deep water, and bathing and drinking there, and taking up water with their trunks, they mingle together and cross over.”

59.

parisuddha. Vin-a.513f. “They say that the thera attained arahanship on the seventh day after he went forth, and had mastery in the eight attainments, but not having purified himself well in the obstructions to contemplation … and rising up from musing and hearing the sound of the elephants, he heard it between the attainments. Of this he was aware.”

60.

AN.i.25 says, that he is the chief of the monks remembering his former rebirths. In his verses, Thag.165, Thag.166, he twice repeats that he remembered five hundred kalpas in a single night. At Atthasālinī 32 he is said to be the third in the line of theras who conveyed the Abhidhamma up to the time of the Third Council.

61.

Vinaya Texts i.5, n.2, says that the phrase yathā pure tathā pacchā “probably means that the monk is irrevocably defeated. He must remain for ever in the condition (of permanent exclusion from the Order) into which he has brought himself.” Vin-a.516 says, “as in his time as a householder, at the time when he was not (yet) ordained, and as after when he has fallen into defeat, he is not in communion; there is not for him communion with the monks at the Uposatha (observance-day), the pavaraṇā (ceremony at the end of the rains), under the rule of the Pātimokkha, or at the legal acts of the Order.”

62.

Chejjavatthu. See chejja (√ched) above, BD.1.75, meaning maiming.