Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Kd.21.1.1 BD.5.393 Then[1] the venerable Kassapa the Great addressed the monks, saying: “Once upon a time, your reverences, I was going along the high-road from Pāvā to Kusināra together with a large Order of monks, with at least five hundred monks.[2] Then I, your reverences, stepping aside from the way, sat down at the root of a certain tree. Now at that time a certain Naked Ascetic, having picked up a flower of the Coral Tree[3] at Kusināra, was going along the high-road to Pāvā. Then I, your reverences, saw that Naked Ascetic coming in the distance, and seeing him I spoke thus to him: ‘Do you, your reverence not know about our Teacher?’ He said: ‘Yes, I know, your reverence, the recluse Gotama attained nibbāna a week ago. Because of that I picked up this flower of the Coral Tree.’

“Your reverences, of those monks who were not passionless, some, stretching forth their arms, wailed, they fell down hurting themselves, they reeled backwards and forwards, saying: ‘Too soon has the Lord attained nibbāna, too soon has the Well-farer attained nibbāna, too soon has the Eye in the World disappeared.’ But those monks who were passionless, these, mindful, circumspect, bore it, saying: ‘Impermanent are compounded things—what is here possible because of this?’

“Then I, your reverences, spoke thus to these monks: ‘Enough, your reverences, do not grieve, do not lament, for has it not already been explained by the Lord: ‘Of every single thing that is dear and beloved there is variation, separation, becoming otherwise. What is here possible, your reverences, because of this: that whatever is born, has become, is composite, is liable to dissolution? Indeed, thinking: ‘Let not that be dissolved’—such a situation does not exist”.[4]

BD.5.394 “Then at that time, your reverences,[5] one named Subhadda, who had gone forth when old, was sitting in that assembly. Then your reverences, Subhadda who had gone forth when old spoke thus to these monks: ‘Enough, your reverences, do not grieve, do not lament, we are well rid of this Vin.2.285 great recluse. We were worried when he said: “This is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you.” But now we will be able to do as we like and we won’t do what we don’t like’.

“Come, let us, your reverences, chant dhamma and discipline before what is not dhamma shines out and dhamma is withheld, before what is not discipline shines out and discipline is withheld, before those who speak what is not-dhamma become strong and those who speak dhamma become feeble, before those who speak what is not discipline become strong and those who speak discipline become feeble.”[6]

Kd.21.1.2 “Well then, honoured sir, let the elder select monks.” Then the venerable Kassapa the Great selected five hundred perfected ones, less one. Monks spoke thus to the venerable Kassapa the Great:[7]

“Honoured sir, this Ānanda, although he is still a learner, could not be one to follow a wrong course through desire, anger, delusion, fear; and he has mastered much dhamma and discipline under the Lord. Well, now, honoured sir, let the elder select the venerable Ānanda as well.” Then the venerable Kassapa the Great selected the venerable Ānanda as well.

Kd.21.1.3 Then it occurred to the monks who were elders:[8] “Now, where should we chant dhamma and discipline?” Then it occurred to the monks who were elders: “There is great resort for alms at Rājagaha and lodgings are abundant. Suppose that we, spending the rains at Rājagaha, should chant dhamma and discipline (there), and that no other BD.5.395 monks were to come up to Rājagaha for the rains.”[9]

Kd.21.1.4 Then the venerable Kassapa the Great informed the Order, saying: “Your reverences, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may agree upon these five hundred monks to chant dhamma and discipline while they are spending the rains in Rājagaha, and that the rains should not be spent in Rājagaha by any other monks. This is the motion. Your reverences, let the Order listen to me. The Order is agreeing upon these five hundred monks to chant dhamma and discipline while they are spending the rains in Rājagaha, and that the rains should not be spent in Rājagaha by any other monks. If the agreement upon these five hundred monks to chant dhamma and discipline while they are spending the rains in Rājagaha, and that the rains should not be spent in Rājagaha by any other monks, is pleasing to the venerable ones you should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak. These five hundred monks are agreed upon by the Order to chant dhamma and discipline while they are spending the rains in Rājagaha, and (it is agreed) that the rains should not be spent in Rājagaha by any other monks. It is pleasing to the Order, therefore it is silent. Thus, do I understand this.Vin.2.286


Kd.21.1.5 Then the monks who were elders went to Rājagaha to chant dhamma and discipline.[10] Then it occurred to the monks who were elders: “Now, repairs to broken and dilapidated parts were praised by the Lord. Come, let us during the first month, make repairs to the broken and dilapidated parts; having assembled in the middle month, we will chant dhamma and discipline.” Then the monks who were elders made repairs to the broken and dilapidated parts during the first month.


Kd.21.1.6 Then the venerable Ānanda, thinking:[11] “Tomorrow is the assembly. Now it is not suitable in me that I, being (only) BD.5.396 a learner, should go to the assembly,” and having passed much of that night in mindfulness as to body, when the night was nearly spent thinking: “I will lie down,” he inclined his body, but (before) his head had touched the mattress and while his feet were free from the ground—in that interval his mind was freed from the cankers with no residuum (for rebirth) remaining. Then the venerable Ānanda, being a perfected one, went to the assembly.[12]


Kd.21.1.7 Then the venerable Kassapa the Great informed the Order, saying:[13]Your reverences, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order I could question Upāli on discipline.” Then the venerable Upāli informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, I, questioned on discipline by the venerable Kassapa the Great, could answer.” Then the venerable Kassapa the Great spoke thus to the venerable Upāli: “Where,[14] reverend Upāli, was the first offence involving defeat laid down?”

“At Vesālī, honoured sir.”

“Regarding whom?”

“Regarding Sudinna the Kalandaka.”

“On what subject?”

“On sexual intercourse.”

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great questioned the venerable Upāli as to the subject of the first offence involving defeat and he questioned him as to its provenance and he questioned him as to the individual[15] and he questioned him as to what was laid down and he questioned him as to what was further laid down[16] and he questioned him as to what was an offence and he questioned him as to what was no offence.[17]

“Then, reverend Upāli, where was the second offence involving defeat laid down?”

“In Rājagaha, honoured sir.”

“Regarding whom?”

“Regarding Dhaniya, the potter’s son.”

BD.5.397 “On what subject?”

“On taking what is not given.”

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great questioned the venerable Upāli as to the subject of the second offence involving defeat and he questioned him as to its provenance and he questioned him … as to what was no offence.

“Then, reverend Upāli, where was the third offence involving defeat laid down?”

“At Vesālī, honoured sir.”

“Regarding whom?”

“Regarding several monks.”

“On what subject?”

“On human beings.”[18]

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great Vin.2.287 questioned the venerable Upāli as to the subject of the third offence involving defeat and he questioned him as to its provenance and he questioned him … as to what was no offence.

“Then, reverend Upāli, where was the fourth offence involving defeat laid down?”

“At Vesālī, honoured sir.”

“Regarding whom?”

“Regarding the monks on the banks of the Vaggumudā.”

“On what subject?”

“On conditions of further-men.”

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great questioned the venerable Upāli as to the subject of the fourth offence involving defeat and he questioned him as to its provenance and he questioned him as to … what was no offence. In this same way he questioned him about both the disciplines.[19] Constantly questioned, the venerable Upāli answered.[20]


Kd.21.1.8 Then the venerable Kassapa the Great informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me.[21] If it seems right to the Order, I could question Ānanda about dhamma.” Then the venerable Ānanda informed the Order, saying: “Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. If it seems right to the Order, I, questioned on dhamma by the BD.5.398 venerable Kassapa the Great, could answer.” Then the venerable Kassapa the Great spoke thus to the venerable Ānanda:[22]

“Where, reverend Ānanda, was the Brahmajāla[23] spoken?”

“Honoured sir, between Rājagaha and Nālandā in the royal rest-house at Ambalaṭṭhikā.”

“With whom?”

Suppiya the wanderer and Brahmadatta the brahmin youth.”[24] Then the venerable Kassapa the Great questioned the venerable Ānanda as to the provenance of the Brahmajāla and he questioned him as to the individual(s).

“But where, reverend Ānanda, was the Sāmaññaphala[25] spoken?”[26]

“In Rājagaha, honoured sir, in Jīvaka’s mango grove.”

“With whom?”

“With Ajātasattu, the son of the Videhan (lady).”

Then the venerable Kassapa the Great questioned the venerable Ānanda as to the provenance of the Sāmaññaphala and he questioned him as to the individual. In this same way he questioned him about the five Nikāyas. Constantly questioned, the venerable Ānanda answered.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Cf. DN.ii.962

2.

Quoted at Kh-a.91, Vin-a.5.

3.

mandārava. Cf. DN.ii.137; Erythrina fulgens. A tree growing only in heaven. If its flowers were found on the earth something special must have happened. Not the same as the Pāricchattaka, also a celestial coral-tree, of which there were five.

4.

Also at DN.ii.118.

5.

At DN.ii.162 the Subhadda incident is placed before the speech which here precedes it. At DN-a.599 he is identified with the barber of Ātuma who went forth when old, and who, as told at Vin.1.249, was angry when Gotama refused to accept the meal he had prepared. The above incident was his revenge.

6.

As at Kd.22.1.7. Quoted at DN-a.3,602, Vin-a.6.

7.

Quoted at DN-a.5, Kh-a.92, Vin-a.7.

8.

Quoted at DN-a.5, Vin-a.7.

9.

The elders did not want others to take part in the Council; but if they came they would have to so as to render valid the proceedings. For had only part of an assembly or Order present there taken part in them, the proceedings would have been invalid for they would have been carried out by an incomplete assembly, vagga.

10.

Some of this paragraph quoted at DN-a.8.

11.

Cf. DN-a.9–10, which differs somewhat.

12.

Quoted at DN-a.10.

13.

Quoted DN-a.11.

14.

Quoted at DN-a.12, Vin-a.30.

15.

These first three questions are quoted at Vin-a.30.

16.

anupaññatti; the additions made to the rule that was laid down, the paññatti, after it had been first laid down. Cf. Vin.5.2.

17.

These are the cases mentioned after the Old Commentary’s explanations of the words of the rules.

18.

manussaviggaha. “Depriving of life” is to be understood.

19.

I.e. that for monks and that for nuns.

20.

Quoted at DN-a.12.

21.

Quoted at DN-a.13.

22.

Quoted at DN-a.14.

23.

The first Suttanta in the Dīgha.

24.

Here both Vin-a.16 and DN-a.14 add: “On what subject?” “On praise and not praise.”

25.

The second Suttanta in the Dīgha.

26.

Quoted at Vin-a.16. After this sentence DN-a.14 proceeds differently.

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