Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 1: The origin of the Vinaya

BD.1.1 Bu-Pj.1.1.1 Vin.3.1 MS.2 At one time the[1] Buddha, the Master, was staying at Verañjā[2] near Naḷeruʼs Nimba tree[3] with a great Sangha of five hundred monks. Now a brahmin[4] of Verañjā was told:

“Sir[5], the recluse[6] Gotama, the Sakyan,[7] having gone forth from the Sakyan clan, is staying at Verañjā near Naleruʼs Nimba tree with a great Sangha of five hundred monks. That Master Gotama has acquired a good reputaton,[8] thus:

ʻHe is indeed a Master, an arahant, fully awakened, accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower of the worlds, unrivalled trainer of tamable people, teacher of gods and humans, the Awakened BD.1.2 One, the Master. Having realised with his own direct knowledge this world with its gods, its lords of death and its supreme beings, this population with its recluses and brahmins, its gods and humans, he makes it known to others. He teaches a Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing; he reveals a perfectly complete and pure spiritual life.ʼ Good indeed it is to see such arahants.”[9]

Bu-Pj.1.1.2 MS.3 Then the brahmin of Verañjā approached the Master, exchanged friendly greetings with him and sat down Vin.3.2 to one side.[10] He then said this to the Master:

“I have heard, good[11] Gotama, that the recluse Gotama does not pay homage to brahmins who are worn, old, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage;[12] nor that he stands up for them or offers them a seat. This is indeed so, for the good[13] Gotama does not pay homage to brahmins who are worn, old, burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage; nor does he stand up for them or offer them a seat. This, good Gotama, is not proper.”[14]

MS.4 “Brahmin, in the world with its gods, its lords of death and its supreme beings, in this population with its recluses and brahmins, its gods and humans, I do not see one to whom I should pay homage, for whom I should rise up or to whom I should offer a seat. For if the Tathāgata BD.1.3 should pay homage to anyone, rise up for him or offer him a seat, his head might even split asunder.”[15]

Bu-Pj.1.1.3 MS.5 “The revered[16] Gotama lacks taste.”[17]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama lacks taste.ʼ For tastes for forms, sounds, scents, flavours, and tangible objects—these have been destroyed by the Tathāgata, cut off at the root, made like a palm-stump, so utterly done away with that they are incapable of future arising. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama lacks taste.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.6 “The revered Gotama is without enjoyment.”[18]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is without enjoyment.ʼ For enjoyments of forms, sounds, scents, flavours, and tangible objects—these have been destroyed by the Tathāgata, cut off at the root, made like a palm-stump, so utterly done away with that they are incapable of future arising. BD.1.4 This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is without enjoyment.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.7 “The revered Gotama professes the doctrine of non-action.”[19]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama professes the doctrine of non-action.ʼ For I teach the non-doing of misconduct by body, speech and mind. I teach the non-doing of manifold bad unwholesome actions. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama professes the doctrine of non-action.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.8 “The revered Gotama professes the doctrine of annihilation.”[20]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama professes the doctrine of annihilation.ʼ For I speak of the annihilation of sense desire, anger and confusion;[21] I speak of the annihilation of manifold bad unwholesome qualities. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama professes the doctrine of annihilation.ʼ Vin.3.3 But that is not what you meant.”

MS.9 “The revered Gotama is one who detests.”[22]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is one who detests.ʼ For I detest misconduct by BD.1.5 body, speech and mind, and the acquisition[23] of manifold bad unwholesome qualities. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is one who detests.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.10 “The revered Gotama is a disciplinarian.”[24]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian.ʼ For I teach the Dhamma for the disciplining of sense desire, anger and confusion; I teach the Dhamma for the disciplining of manifold bad unwholesome qualities. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is a disciplinarian.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.11 “The revered Gotama is one who practises austerities.”[25]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is one who practises austerities.ʼ For I say that bad unwholesome qualities—misconduct by body, speech and mind—are to be burned up.[26] He who has destroyed the bad unwholesome qualities that are to be burned up, who has cut them off at the root, made them like a palm-stump, done away with them so utterly that they are incapable of future arising—him I call one who practises austerities. The Tathāgata has destroyed the bad unwholesome qualities that are to be burned up, BD.1.6 has cut them off at the root, made them like a palm tree, done away with them so utterly that they are incapable of future arising. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is one who practises austerities.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

MS.12 “The revered Gotama is withdrawn.”[27][28]

“There is indeed, brahmin, a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is withdrawn.ʼ He whose future conception in a womb, whose rebirth in a future life, is destroyed and cut off at the root, made like a palm-stump, so utterly done away with that it is incapable of future arising—him I call one who is withdrawn. The Tathāgataʼs future conception in a womb, his rebirth in a future life, is destroyed and cut off at the root, made like a palm-stump, so utterly done away with that he is incapable of future arising. This is a way in which one could truly say of me, ʻthe recluse Gotama is withdrawn.ʼ But that is not what you meant.”

Bu-Pj.1.1.4 MS.13 “Brahmin, suppose there was a hen[29] with eight or ten or twelve eggs, which she had properly covered, properly warmed and properly incubated. Is the first chick that hatches safely—having pierced through the egg-shell with the point of the claw on its foot, or with its beak—to be called the eldest or the youngest?”

“He is to be called the eldest, good Gotama, for he is the eldest of those.”

“Even so, brahmin, in this generation without understanding, being like an egg, Vin.3.4 covered over, I BD.1.7 alone[30] in the world have split the eggshell of ignorance and reached the unsurpassed full awakening. I, brahmin, am the worldʼs eldest[31] and best.[32]

Bu-Pj.1.1.5 MS.14 “Brahmin,[33] I was firmly energetic and had clarity of mindfulness; my body was tranquil and my mind unified. Fully secluded from the five senses, secluded from unwholesome mental qualities, I entered and remained in the first jhāna, which consists of rapture and happiness born of seclusion, accompanied by movement of the mind. Through the stilling of the movement of the mind, I entered and remained in the second jhāna, which has internal confidence and unification of mind[34] and consists of rapture and happiness born of samādhi. Through the fading away of rapture, I remained even-minded, mindful and clearly comprehending, experiencing happiness directly, and I entered and remained in the third jhāna of which the noble one declare, ʻhe is even-minded, mindful, and abides in happiness.ʼ Through the abandoning of happiness and suffering and the earlier ending of joy and displeasure,[35] I entered and remained in the fourth jhāna, which has neither suffering nor happiness and consists of purity of mindfulness and even-mindedness.[36]

Bu-Pj.1.1.6 MS.15 Then with the mind collected, clarified, purified, flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, steady and BD.1.8 imperturbable,[37] I directed it[38] to the knowledge of the memory of former lives. I recollected many past lives, that is to say, one birth,[39] two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, and many eons of world dissolution, many eons of world evolution,[40] and many eons of both dissolution and evolution: “There I had such a name, such a family, such appearance,[41] such food, such experience of happiness and suffering, and such a life-span. Passing away from there I was reborn elsewhere, and there I had such a name … and such a life-span. Passing away from there I was reborn here. Thus I recollected many past lives with their characteristics and particulars.” This was the first knowledge attained by me in the first watch of that night;[42] ignorance was dispelled, understanding arose, darkness was dispelled, light arose, as it is for one who remains heedful, ardent and energetic.[43] This, brahmin, was my first BD.1.9 successful breaking forth like a chickʼs from the eggshell.

Bu-Pj.1.1.7 MS.16 Then with the mind collected, clarified, purified, flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, steady and imperturbable, I directed it to the knowledge of the arising and passing away of beings. Vin.3.5 With the purified divine eye surpassing that of humans, I saw beings passing away and getting reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, gone to good destinations[44] and bad destinations,[45] and I understood how beings fare according to their kamma: ʻThese beings[46] who engaged in misconduct by body, speech and mind, who abused the noble ones, held wrong view and acted accordingly,[47] at the breaking up of the body after death, have arisen in the plane of misery, a bad destination, the abyss, hell. But these beings who engaged in good conduct of body, speech and mind, who did not abuse the noble ones, held right view and acted accordingly, at the breaking up of the body after death, have arisen in a good destination, a heaven world. Thus with the purified divine eye surpassing that of humans, I saw beings passing away and getting reborn, inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, gone to good destinations and bad destinations, and I understood how beings fare according to their kamma.[48] This was the second knowledge attained by me in the middle watch of that night. Ignorance was dispelled, understanding arose, darkness was dispelled, light arose, as it is for one who remains heedful, ardent and energetic. This, brahmin, was my second successful breaking forth, like a chickʼs from the eggshell.

Bu-Pj.1.1.8 MS.17 Then[49] with the mind collected, clarified, purified, BD.1.10 flawless, void of taints, grown soft and pliable, steady and imperturbable, I directed it to the knowledge of the ending of the corruptions. I knew according to reality: This is suffering, this is the arising of suffering, this is the ending of suffering, this is the course leading to the ending of suffering. I knew according to reality: These are the corruptions, this is the arising of the corruptions, this is the ending of the corruptions, this is the course leading to the ending of the corruptions. When I knew and saw this, my mind was freed from the corruption of sense desire, my mind was freed from the corruption of existence, my mind was freed from the corruption of false views, my mind was freed from the corruption of ignorance.[50] When it was freed, I knew,[51] “It is freed,” and I understood that birth is ended, the spiritual life has been lived, the job has been done, there is no further state of existence.[52] This was the third knowledge attained by me in the third watch of that night. Ignorance was dispelled, understanding arose, darkness was dispelled, light arose, as it is for one who remains heedful, ardent and energetic.[53] This, brahmin, was Vin.3.6 my third successful breaking forth, like a chickʼs from the eggshell.”

Bu-Pj.1.1.9 MS.18 When this had been said, the brahmin of Verañjā said to the Master:

“Good Gotama is the eldest; good Gotama is the best. Wonderful, good Gotama, wonderful. As one might set upright what had been overturned, or reveal what had been hidden, or show the way to one who was lost, or bring a lamp into the darkness so that those with eyes might see forms—even so has the good BD.1.11 Gotama made the Dhamma clear in many ways. To good[54] Gotama I go for refuge, and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of monks. May the good Gotama accept me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life.[55] May the good Gotama consent to spend the rains at Verañjā together with the Sangha of monks.” The Master consented by silence. Then the brahmin of Verañjā, understanding that the Master had consented, rose from his seat, paid homage to him and departed, keeping his right side towards him.


Bu-Pj.1.2.1 MS.19 At that time Verañjā[56] was short of food[57] and stricken by hunger, with crops blighted and turned to straw. It was not easy to keep oneself going[58] by collecting alms. Just then some horse-dealers from Uttarāpathaka[59] entered BD.1.12 the rains residence at Verañjā with five hundred horses. In the horse-pen[60] they prepared pattha measure after pattha measure of steamed grain [61] for the monks. The monks, having dressed in the morning, took their bowls and robes and entered Verañjā for alms. Being unable to obtain anything, they went to the horse-pen. Having brought the pattha measures of steamed grain back to the monastery, they pounded them and ate them. Venerable Ānanda, having crushed a pattha measure of the steamed grain on a stone, took it to the Master, and the Master ate it.

MS.20 Now the Master had heard the sound of the mortar. Tathāgatas sometimes ask knowing,[62] and knowing sometimes do not ask; they ask knowing the right time to ask, and they ask knowing the right time when not to ask. Tathāgatas BD.1.13 ask when it is beneficial,[63] not when it is unbeneficial; in regard to what is unbeneficial, the Tathāgatas have destroyed the bridge.[64][65] The Buddhas, the Masters, question the monks for two reasons: “We shall teach the Dhamma or lay down a training rule for the disciples.”

MS.21 Then the Master addressed Venerable Ānanda: “Ānanda, what is this sound of a mortar?”

Then Venerable Ānanda informed the Master. Vin.3.7

“Good, good, Ānanda, you who are superior people[66] have conquered[67] the problems of famine;[68] later generations[69] will despise even rice and meat.”

Bu-Pj.1.2.2 MS.22 Then Venerable Mahāmoggallāna[70] approached the Master, paid homage to him and sat down to one side. He then said to him:

“At present, Master, Verañjā is short of food BD.1.14 and stricken by hunger, with crops blighted and turned to straw. It is not easy to keep oneself going by collecting alms. Master, the under-surface of this great earth is abounding with food,[71] and its taste is just like pure honey.[72] It would be good, Master, if I inverted the earth,[73] so that the monks might enjoy the nutritive essence of the water-plants.”

“But what will you do with those creatures, Moggallāna, who are supported by the earth?”

“Master, I will make one of my hands broad, like the great earth, and I will make those creatures who are supported by the earth go there. Then with the other hand I will invert the earth.”

“Enough, Moggallāna, please do not invert the earth, or beings may become deranged.”[74]

“It would be good, Master, if the whole Sangha of monks could go to Uttarakuru[75] for alms.”

“Enough, Moggallāna, do not pursue this idea.”


Bu-Pj.1.3.1 MS.23 Now while Venerable Sāriputta[76] was in seclusion, he thought this: “For which Buddhas, for which Masters, did the spiritual life not last long? For which Buddhas, for which Masters, did the spiritual life last long?”

MS.24 Then, in the evening, Venerable Sāriputta came out of seclusion and approached the Master. He paid homage to him, sat down to one side and said this: BD.1.15 “Just now, Master, as I was in seclusion, I thought this: ʻFor which Buddhas … last long?ʼ”

MS.25 “Sāriputta, the spiritual life established by Master Vipassī,[77] Master Sikhī and Master Vesabhū did not last long. But the spiritual life established by Master Kakusandha,[78] Master Konāgamana and Master Kassapa did last long.”

Bu-Pj.1.3.2 MS.26 “And what, Master, is the reason why the spiritual life established by Master Vipassī, Master Sikhī and Master Vesabhū did not last long?”

“Sāriputta, Master Vipassī, Master Sikhī and Master Vessabhū were disinclined to teach the Dhamma in detail to their disciples. They had few discourses[79] in prose and in prose and verse, few expositions, verses, inspired utterances,[80] quotations, birth stories, amazing accounts and analyses[81][82]; and training rules were not laid down and a Pātimokkha was not recited. After the disappearance of those Buddhas, those Masters, after the disappearance[83] of the disciples enlightened under those Buddhas,[84] those who were the last disciples—of various BD.1.16 names, clans,[85] and social strata,[86] who had gone forth from various families—caused that spiritual life rapidly to disappear. It is just like various flowers, lying on a flat piece of wood[87] without being tied together by a thread, are scattered about, whirled about and destroyed by the wind. Why is that? Because they are not held together by a thread. Even so, at the disappearance of those Buddhas, those Masters, at the disappearance of the disciples enlightened under those Buddhas, those who were the last disciples—of various names, clans and social strata, who had gone forth from various families—caused that spiritual life rapidly to disappear. MS.27 Instead those Masters were untiring in exhorting their disciples, after reading their minds with their own.[88]

Formerly, Sāriputta, while staying in a certain frightening jungle thicket, Master Vessabhū, the arahant, the fully Awakened One, exhorted and admonished a Sangha of a thousand monks, reading their minds with his own, saying: ʻThink like this,[89] not like this;[90] pay attention like this,[91] not like this;[92] forsake this;[93] having attained this,[94] abide in it.ʼ Then, when those thousand monks had been exhorted and admonished by Master Vessabhū, the arahant, the fully Awakened One, their minds were freed from the corruptions without grasping.[95] But if anyone not devoid of desire should enter that frightening jungle- BD.1.17 thicket, usually their hair would stand on end. This is the reason why the spiritual life established by Master Vipassī, Master Sikhī and Master Vesabhū did not last long.”

Bu-Pj.1.3.3 MS.28 “But what, Master, is the reason why the spiritual life established by Master Kakusandha, Master Konāgamana and Master Kassapa lasted long?”

Vin.3.9 “Sāriputta, Master Kakusandha, Master Konāgamana and Master Kassapa were diligent in teaching the Dhamma in detail to their disciples. They had many discourses in prose and in prose and in verse, many expositions, verses, inspired utterances, quotations, birth stories, amazing accounts and analyses; and training rules for their disciples were laid down and a Pātimokkha was recited. At the disappearance of those Buddhas, those Masters, at the disappearance of the disciples who were enlightened under those Buddhas, those who were the last disciples—of various names, clans and social strata, who had gone forth from various families—established that spiritual life for a long time. It is just like various flowers, lying on a piece of wood but being well tied together by a thread, are not scattered about, whirled about or destroyed by the wind. Why is that? Because they are well tied together by the thread. Even so, at the disappearance of those Buddhas, those Masters, at the disappearance of the disciples who were enlightened under those Buddhas, those who were the last disciples—of various names, clans and social strata, who had gone forth from various families—established that spiritual life for a long time. This is the reason why the spiritual life established by Master Kakusandha, Master Konāgamana and Master Kassapa lasted long.”

Bu-Pj.1.3.4 MS.29 Then Venerable Sāriputta got up from his seat, put his robe over one shoulder, BD.1.18 put the palms of his hands together and said to the Master:

“This is the right time, Master,[96] to lay down training rules and recite a Pātimokkha, so that this spiritual life may persist and last for a long time.”

“Hold on, Sāriputta, the Tathāgata will know the right time for that. The teacher does not lay down training rules for his disciples and recite a Pātimokkha until the causes of corruption appear in the Sangha.[97] And they do not appear until the Sangha has attained long standing,[98] BD.1.19 great size[99][100][101] or great learning.[102] But when this happens, then the Teacher lays down training rules for his disciples Vin.3.10 and recites a Pātimokkha in order to ward off those causes of corruptions. Sāriputta, the Sangha of monks is devoid of immorality,[103] devoid of danger, stainless, purified, established in the essence.[104] The most backward[105] of these five hundred monks is a stream-enterer, not liable to be reborn in any state of misery, assured, bound for awakening.[106]


BD.1.20 Bu-Pj.1.4 MS.35 Then the Master addressed Venerable Ānanda: “Ānanda, it is the custom for Tathāgatas not to tour the country without having taken leave of those who invited them to spend the rains. Let us go to the brahmin of Verañjā and take leave.”

“Yes, Master.”

MS.36 Then the Master dressed, took his bowl and robe and, with Venerable Ānanda as his attendant,[107] went to the dwelling of the brahmin of Verañjā and sat down on the prepared seat. Then the brahmin of Verañjā approached the Master, paid homage to him and sat down to one side. The Master then said to the brahmin of Verañjā:

Vin.3.11 “Brahmin, having stayed for the rainy season according to your invitation, we are taking leave of you. We wish to depart for a tour of the country.”

“It is true, good Gotama, that you have stayed for the rainy season according to my invitation, but a gift has not been given. That is not good, nor is it because we did not want to give. It happened because household life is busy and there is much to do. May the good Gotama consent to a meal tomorrow together with the Sangha of monks.”

The Master consented by keeping silence. Then the Master, having taught, roused, gladdened and delighted the brahmin of Verañjā with a talk on the Dhamma, rose from his seat and went away. MS.37 Then, when the night was over, the brahmin of Verañjā prepared various kinds of delicious food[108] in his own home, and then informed the Master:

“It is time, good Gotama, the meal is ready.”

MS.38 Then the Master, having dressed in the morning, took his bowl and robe and, together with the Sangha of monks, he went to the dwelling of the brahmin of Verañjā and BD.1.21 sat down on the prepared seat. Then, with his own hands, the brahmin of Verañjā served various kinds of delicious food to the Sangha of monks with the Buddha at its head. When they were satisfied and the Master had eaten and finished his meal, he gave the Master a set of three robes and a pair of robes to each monk.[109] The Master instructed, roused, gladdened and delighted the brahmin of Verañjā with talk on the Dhamma, and then rose from his seat and departed.

MS.39 The Master, having remained at Verañjā for as long as he liked, went to Payāgapatiṭṭhāna via Soreyya,[110] Saṅkassa[111] and Kaṇṇakujja.[112] There he crossed the river Ganges and proceeded to Benares. Having remained at Benares for as long as he liked, he set out for Vesālī on tour. Wandering on tour by stages, he arrived at Vesālī.[113] There he stayed in the Great Wood, in the hall with the peaked roof.

MS.40 The chapter on Verañjā is finished.

Footnotes and references:

1.

From here to end of Bu-Pj.1.1.1 cf. AN.iv.173.

2.

Quoted at DN-a.i.12. Vin-a.108 merely says that Verañjā was the name of a town. It is mentioned again at AN.iv.172, AN.iv.197. At AN.ii.57 it is said that Gotama was “journeying along the high-road between Madhurā and Verañjā.” For Madhurā on the Jumna see Buddhist India, p.36; C.H.I. i.316. MN.4 says that Gotama addressed some brahmins and householders from Verañjā at Sāvatthī.

3.

Vin-a.108 says that here the yakkha is called Naḷeru, that pucimanda is the nimba-tree (Azadirachta Indica), and that mūlaṃ is samīpaṃ. Cf. Pucimandajātaka, Ja.iii.33.

4.

Vin-a.111, mātāpitūhi katanāmavasena panāyam Udayo ti vuccati.

5.

See Introduction, BD.1.xxxviii.

6.

See Introduction, BD.1.lff.

7.

Brahmali: Sakyaputta, literally son of the Sakyan(s), but a Pali idiom meaning simply “a Sakyan.”

8.

cf. DN.i.87.

9.

All this is stock.

10.

Brahmali: The following is found in almost identical terms at AN.8.11.

11.

Bho. This is the vocative, singular and plural, of bhavant. See Introduction, BD.1.xxxviii.

12.

Also stock; cf., e.g., MN.i.82, Snp.p.50, Snp.p.92; Vin.2.188.

13.

Bhavaṃ.

14.

Na sampaṇṇaṃ eva. Vin-a.130 taṃ abhivādanādīnaṃ akaraṇaṃ ayuitaṃ eva. Similar passages are at AN.i.67 (AN-a: na yuttaṃ eva, na anucchavikaṃ eva). Translator at GS.i.63 says “the idea here is ‘not the perfect gentleman’ or ‘bad form.’” See also AN.iii.223; AN.iv.173.

15.

muddhāpi tassa vipateyya. Buddhaghosa explains at Vin-a.131: “the head of that man (tassa puggalassa) having been cut off from the neck, may it fall to the ground.” Same phrase occurs at DN.i.143; DN.iii.19; Dhp.72.
Cf. Ja.v.33, muddhāpi tassa vipphateyya sattadhā with variant readings: vipa-, vipha- and phaleyyuṃ. Cf. Ja.v.493, muddhāpi me sattadhā phaleyya (“perhaps the best reading”—Pali-English Dictionary), and ibid., muddhāpi tassa vipateyya sattadhā.

16.

Bhavaṃ.

17.

Arasarūpa. Vin-a.131 takes this to mean lack of good manners. Gotama is said not to show complete taste, which consists in paying reverence, making salutation, getting up from the seat and making a respectful greeting. cf. Taittirīya Upaniṣad ii.7.

18.

Nibbhoga, or “property,” as at GS.iv.118. Vin-a.134 says that greeting the aged is sāmaggiparibhoga.

19.

For this passage to end of Bu-Pj.1.1.3 cf. Vin.1.234–236 and AN.iv.180ff., in both of which Gotama is represented as speaking with the General Sīha. The theory of non-action is usually attributed to Pūraṇa Kassapa, as at DN.i.52f. The theory of kiriyavādin and akiriyavādin is also stated at AN.i.62.

20.

Ucchedavāda, or cutting off. cf. DN.i.34. Rhys Davids refers to Kaṭha Upaniṣad i.20, where the doubt as to whether, after a man is dead, he exists or not, is also voiced by Naciketas. Cf. also MN.ii.228.

21.

cf. SN.iv.252, definition of nibbāna.

22.

Jegucchī, one who loathes, or feels abhorrence. See Dialogues of the Buddha i.237, n.2, and cf. MN.i.77, MN.i.78.

23.

Samāpatti.

24.

Venayika. Vin-a.135 says that the brahmin did not see the lord paying reverence and so forth, and said that he restrained these acts with regard to the “highest in the world,” therefore he thought him one to be restrained, one to be suppressed. At MN.i.140 Gotama is represented as telling the monks that he is charged with being venayika. It here seems to mean annihilationist, for it is combined with: “he preaches the disintegration, the destruction and annihilation of existing creatures.” But as translator (GS.iv.119, n.4) remarks, we have natthika and ucchedavāda for nihilist and annihilationist. See loc. cit. for valuable remarks, and AN.v.190.

25.

Tapassī, connected with tapas, literally burnt up. It can also mean “one who has his senses under control.”

26.

tapanīyā; cf. AN.i.49 and “should be mortified” at GS.iv.120.

27.

Brahmali: The Pali puns on the word apagabbha, which has the double meaning of “timid” and “not going to a womb”, i.e. not being reborn. “Withdrawn” is an attempt at capturing this.

28.

apagabbha. Vin-a.136, the brahmin says that Gotama is either destined to be reborn again in a mother’s womb or not to arise in a deva-world.

29.

cf. MN.i.104.

30.

eko = eko adutiyo, Vin-a.139.

31.

Vin-a.140, on account of being the first-born among ariyas. In Vin-a.165 ariyas are defined as Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, and the disciples of Buddhas.

32.

cf. DN.ii.15, aggo, jeṭṭho, seṭṭho.

33.

This passage to end of Bu-Pj.1.1.8 below = MN.i.21, but the Majjhima omits the simile of the chick.

34.

ekodibhāva.

35.

Explained by the Commentary to mean bodily ease and bodily discomfort.

36.

cf. AN.i.53; SN.v.318.

37.

Vin.3.4; MN.i.22, read āṇañjappatte with variant readings; AN.ii.211; DN.i.76; MN.i.182 all read āṇejjappatte.This passage to end of Bu-Pj.1.1.8 below = MN.i.22 = MN.i.182–183, except that these omit the simile of the chick.

38.

cf. AN.ii.211; DN.i.76ff.

39.

cf. SN.ii.122.

40.

I follow Lord Chalmers’, translation at Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.15, for, although it is not perfect, it gives the idea that the process is eternally repeated. KS.ii.86 reads “æon of involution … of evolution ”; GS.iv.121, “rolling on and rolling back ”; GS.ii.145, “rolling up and rolling back.” The brahminic idea is that as Viṣṇu sleeps on the giant cobra, he dreams the world; this is its out-rolling, its coming to be. When he awakes the world falls into nothingness, it is withdrawn, until the god sleeps and dreams again.

41.

Vin-a.160, evaṃvaṇṇo ti odāto vā sāmo vā.

42.

See Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.15, n.1 for this night being occupied with the “chain of causation,” as at Vin.1.1.

43.

pahitatta; see Mrs. Rhys Davids, The Birth of Indian Psychology and its Development in Buddhism, p.295.

44.

Vin-a.164, sugate ti sugatigateduggate ti duggatigate, literally gone to a good bourn, etc.; or, in a good bourn, etc.

45.

Vin-a.164, sugate ti sugatigateduggate ti duggatigate, literally gone to a good bourn, etc.; or, in a good bourn, etc.

46.

Bhonto.

47.

kammasamādāna, translated at GS.iii.295, “action’s moulding,” and at GS.iv.122, “men who have acquired this karma.”

48.

This passage = SN.ii.122f.

49.

For this passage cf. AN.ii.211; MN.i.23; MN.iii.36.

50.

These are the four āsavā. At MN.i.23 and AN.ii.211, AN.iv.179 only three āsavas are mentioned.

51.

Cf. GS.ii.225, n.2; GS.iv.123.

52.

One of the formulæ of arahantship

53.

To here from Bu-Pj.1.1.5 above = MN.i.21 (and of MN.i.182–183).

54.

Here bhagavantaṃ; at AN.iv.179 bhavantaṃ.

55.

Vin.1.236; MN.i.24, MN.i.488f., etc., for this stock passage. To here, from beginning of this Pārājika, cf. AN.iv.173.

56.

Burlingame, Buddhist Legends, ii.193, says that Jātaka no. 183 is derived from this Vinaya story; and that the Commentary on Dhp.83 is derived from this Jātaka; cf. Dhp-a.ii.153ff.

57.

Cf. below Bu-Pj.1.5.5; Bu-Pj.4.1.1.
The meaning of these four stock-phrases is doubtful: (1) Short of almsfood = dubbhikkhā; may also mean: (suffering from) famine. Vin-a.174, dullabhikkhā, almsfood (was) hard to get. (2) Difficult to obtain = dvīhitikā; may also mean: crops were bad. See article in Pali-English Dictionary. (3) Suffering from famine = setaṭṭhikā; may also mean: i) (strewn with) white bones, ii) mildew. So translated at Vinaya Texts iii.326 (Vin.2.256), where this word used in simile = AN.iv.279, translated GS.iv.185 (see GS.iv.185 n.2), “white-as-bones” (disease). (4) Food tickets were issued = salākāvuttā; may also mean: people subsisted on blades of grass. Vin-a.175 gives both meanings. GS.i.142 = AN.i.160: grown to mere stubs. At AN.i.24 Kuṇḍadhāna is called “chief among those who are the first to receive a food ticket” (GS.i.18). AN-a.i.260f. apparently refers to a food ticket. Cf. Vin-a.174f., AN-a.ii.257, SN-a.iii.106. Also GS.i.142, KS.iv.228 (= AN.i.160, SN.iv.323) and their notes.

58.

yāpetuṃ. Cf. description of Vesālī in opposite terms at Vin.1.238.

59.

Probably meaning Northern India, see B.C. Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, p.48. At Ja.ii.287 five hundred horse-dealers from Uttarāpatha are mentioned. Also a certain dealer had five hundred horses.

60.

Āssamaṇḍalika. Vin-a.176 says: “Not being able to journey during the four rainy months in this district, they built outside the city in a place not submerged by water, sleeping quarters (vāsāgara) forthemselves and stables (mandira) for the horses, encircled by a fence.”

61.

Patthapaṭṭhamūlaka = Dhp-a.ii.154, where n.4 gives Fausböll’s reading, pattan thūlakaṃ. In my copy of Fausböll’s edition of the Dhammapada, which was formerly Trenckner’s, Trenckner has altered this reading to patthaṃ mūlakaṃ. Vin-a.176 reads °pulakaṃ with variant reading mūlakaṃ. Pattha is a measure of a certain capacity. See Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p.18. At Vin-a.176 it is said: pattho nāma nāḷimattaṃ. Nāḷimattaṃ would seem to mean as much as a tube or hollow stalk holds; translated at GS.ii.210 “root-fibres.” Snp-a.476 says cattāro patthā āḷhakaṃ, an āḷhaka being another measure; thus one pattha = ¼ āḷhaka. At Dhp-a.ii.70; Pv-a.283 and Ja.i.419 pattha is used of ajalaṇḍika, put down a bad monk’s throat.
Buddhaghosa says, Vin-a.176, that a pattha measure of pulaka was prepared for each monk, the horse-dealers saying, “What if we were now to take a pattha measure from the morning meal of each horse and give it to each monk. Thus they will not suffer and the horses will be kept going.” Buddhaghosa says, pulakaṃ nāma nitthusan katvā ussedetvā gahitayavataṇḍulā vuccanti, which would seem to mean: “having done away with the husk and having steamed it—pulaka is the name of barley and rice husked and taken after steaming” = steamed—i.e., rice ready for boiling.
Ussedeti is not given in Pali-English Dictionary, but sedeti is given as causative of sijjati, to heat, to steam.

63.

Attha, in Sakya the positive goal. The translators of Vin.1.158 at Vinaya Texts, i.327 translate atthasaṃhita as “full of sense,” thus taking attha (quite unnecessarily) in its later, debased and narrowed meaning. The negative word anattha appears at Vin.1.10 in the First Utterance, the positive form being there absent. See GS.iv., GS.vii. and GS.xix.

64.

Brahmali: This seems to mean that Tathāgatas are unable to do what is unbeneficial due to their achievement of awakening, cf. Vin-a.i.180,7.

65.

Setughāta. Vin-a.180 says setu vuccati maggo. Thus if we follow Buddhaghosa in this interpretation of setughāta, the rendering “the bridge is pulled down for the Tathāgatas” of Vinaya Texts i.327 must be given up. Cf. AN.i.220, where it seems to mean the breaking down of new actions; and cf. AN.i.260; AN.ii.145; Ds.299ff.

66.

Sappurisa. On prefix sa- see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Introduction to GS.i.ixf.

67.

Vijitaṃ, also meaning conquered, subdued. Vin-a.180 says dubbhikkhaṃ vijitaṃ lobho vijito icchācāro vijito.

68.

Brahmali: See Vin-a.i.180,24.

69.

Pacchimā janatā. Vin-a.181 says anāgate; also that they will be sitting in the vihāra, getting food easily, but feeling nothing but contempt for it as being not to their liking. Cf. below, BD.1.66.

70.

Generally paired with Sāriputta. At AN.i.23 he is called chief among the disciples who have psychic power. Cf. Vin.1.39; Thag.382ff.

71.

Brahmali: See Vin-a.i.182,9.

72.

For this simile cf. DN.iii.87.

73.

Vin-a.182 explains: so as to turn up the lowest level to the top.

74.

Vipallāsa, from vi + pari + as, literally to throw round against.

75.

B.C. Law in his Geography of Early Buddhism, p.17, p.53, says that Uttarakuru “is alluded to in Pāli literature as a mythical region.”

76.

Usually paired with Moggallāna. See Psalms of the Bretheren, p.340. At AN.i.23 he is called chief among the disciples “of great wisdom.”

77.

Some of the 24 Buddhas. For Sikhin see SN.i.155ff., and for all three Ja.i.4ff.; DN.ii.2ff.

78.

The last three Buddhas before the present supreme Buddha. Cf. Ja.i.43; Dhp-a.i.84, Dhp-a.iii.236; DN.ii.2ff.

79.

See Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.93, n.1 on meaning of “Suttas”; not explained in Vinaya Commentary on above passage. Also on these names see E.J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, p.277ff., and J. Przyluski, Le Concile de Rājagṛha, p.342ff. At DN-a.i.23f., Vin-a.28, AN-a.iii.5f., Atthasālinī 26, these nine aṅgas of the Canon are listed and described.

80.

Udāna. On this name see Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Vol. XIII, p.vf.

81.

Brahmali: Vedalla.

82.

On derivation of vedalla, see J. Przyluski, Le Concile de Rājagṛha, p.344; E.J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, p.278, n.1.

83.

Vin-a.187, “after the disappearance of the khandhas, after the parinibbāna.

84.

Vin-a.187, anubuddhā = sammukhasāvakā. At Thag.679 = Thag.1246 = SN.i.193 buddhānubuddho yo thero Koṇḍañño, translated, “who next to our great Waked One was awake.” SN-a.i.282 says: “The Teacher was first enlightened in the four truths, afterwards the thera.” Thus an interesting variation is apparent in the interpretation of buddhānubuddho as given by SN-a. and Vin-a.

85.

Vin-a.187, such as “protected by Buddha, protected by dhamma.”

86.

Vin-a.187, such as khattiya, brāhmaṇa.

87.

phalaka, a board, a plank. Perhaps a tray here, such as flower-vendors carry.

88.

Cf. DN.i.79; MN.i.445; SN.ii.233.

89.

Vin-a.188, i.e. to the three vitakkā: viz., renunciation, benevolence and non-injury.

90.

Vin-a.188, to their opposites: viz., sensual pleasures, malevolence and injury.

91.

Vin-a.188, i.e. to impermanence, sorrow and non-self.

92.

Vin-a.188, i.e. to their opposites.

93.

Vin-a.188, i.e. what is wrong.

94.

Vin-a.188, i.e. what is right.

95.

Anupādāya.

96.

Sugata.

97.

Vin-a.191, things belonging to the here and now and to the next world, the bonds of murder, bad conscience and the reproaching of others, and a variety of ill and woe. For this passage, cf. MN.i.445.

98.

Vin-a.194 quotes Kd.1.31.

99.

Vin-a.194 quotes Bu-Pc.5; cf. MN-a.iii.156.

100.

lābhaggamahatta. Vin-a.194 lābhassa aggamahattaṃ yo lābhassa aggo uttamo mahantabhāvo taṃ patthot īti attho. For list of “gains” see AN.i.38. At MN.i.445 we find lābhaggam, translated Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.317 as “wealth.”

101.

Vin-a.195 quotes Bu-Pc.41; cf. MN-a.iii.156.

102.

Vin-a.195 quotes Bu-Pc.68; cf. MN-a.iii.157.

103.

nirabbuda. Lokasmiṃ abbuda, translated at KS.i.61 “a hell on earth,” and SN-a.i.100 says that “thieves are those who cause ruin in the world.” At Vin-a.195 nirabbudo = niccoro, free from thieves. It explains that here thieves mean those who are immoral, not being true samaṇas; but pretending to be, they steal the requisites of others. Therefore nirabbuda (free from ruin) means free from thieves, free from immorality. Nirabbuda recurs below, Vin.3.18.

104.

Buddhaghosa says, Vin-a.195, that this consists of virtue, contemplation, wisdom, freedom, and knowledge and insight into freedom.

105.

pacchimaka. At AN.ii.80 and DN.ii.155 Gotama is made to use this sentence in addressing Ānanda. The Commentary on AN.ii.80 and at DN-a.ii.593 say that by pacchimaka, Ānanda is meant. Our the Commentary (Vin-a.195) naturally does not refer to him.

106.

A usual formula for stream-entrants.

107.

Pacchāsamaṇa, the junior monk who walks behind the senior on his rounds. Ānanda accompanies Gotama again at Vin.4.78.

108.

Defined at Vin.4.92.

109.

dussayuga, cf. Vin.1.278 and Vinaya Texts ii.190, n.; MN.i.215 = SN.v.71.

110.

A town near Takkasilā; mentioned also in connection with these other two towns at Vin.2.299.

111.

A town, said by Fausböll to be the locus of Dhp.181. At its gate Sāriputta interpreted a problem, on which Jātaka 134 is based. See Ja.i.473.

112.

The modern Allahabad.

113.

Capital of the Vajji country. See B.C. Law, Geography of Early Buddhism, p.12f.

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