Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 1: Origin story

First sub-story

Bu-Pj.1.5.1 MS.41 At that time not far from Vesālī was a village called Kalandaka. There lived Sudinna, the son of a prominent merchant.[1] BD.1.22 Now Sudinna the Kalandaka[2] went to Vesālī on some Vin.3.12 business together with many friends. At that time the Master was seated, surrounded by a great assembly of people, teaching the Dhamma. When Sudinna saw this he thought:[3] “Perhaps I should listen to the Dhamma?”[4] Then Sudinna approached the assembly and sat down to one side.

As he was sitting there, Sudinna thought: “So far as I understand the Dhamma taught by the Master, it is no easy matter for one who lives in a house to lead the spiritual life that is utterly perfect and pure as a polished conch shell. Perhaps I should cut off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robes and go forth from home into homelessness?”

When the crowd had been taught, roused, gladdened and delighted by the Master with talk on the Dhamma, they rose from their seats, paid homage to the Master, circumambulated him with their right side towards him and departed. MS.42 When the crowd had departed, Sudinna approached the Master, paid homage to him and sat down to one side. He then said to the Master:

“Master, so far as I understand the Dhamma taught by the Master, it is not an easy matter for one who lives in a house to lead the spiritual life that is utterly perfect and pure as a polished conch shell. Master, I wish to cut off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robes and go forth from home into homelessness. May the Master let me go forth.”

BD.1.23 “But, Sudinna, do you have your parentsʼ permission?”

“No, Master.”

“Sudinna, Tathāgatas do not ordain a child without the parentsʼ permission.”

“I will do whatever is necessary, Master, to get my parentsʼ permission.”

Bu-Pj.1.5.2 MS.43 Then Sudinna, having finished his business in Vesālī, returned to Kalandaka. There he approached his parents and said:

“Mother and father, in so far as I understand the Dhamma taught by the Master, it is no easy matter for one who lives in a house to lead the spiritual life that is utterly perfect and pure as a polished conch shell. I wish to cut off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robes and go forth from home Vin.3.13 into homelessness. Give me your permission to go forth.”

His parents replied:

“But, Sudinna, you are our only child, dear and beloved, you live in comfort and are well cared for. Sudinna, you have no experience of suffering. Even if you died, we would not willingly be without you. How can we, while you are still living, permit you to go forth from home into homelessness?”

MS.44 A second time Sudinna said to his parents: “Mother and father …” “… into homelessness?” A third time Sudinna said to his parents: “Mother and father …” “… into homelessness?”

MS.46 Thinking, “My parents do not permit me to go forth,” he lay down on the bare ground and said: “I will either die right here or go forth.” And he stopped eating and did not eat BD.1.24 at the next seven meals.[5]

MS.47 Then his parents said: “Dear Sudinna, you are our only child, dear and beloved, you live in comfort and are well cared for; you have no experience of suffering. Even if you died, we would not willingly be without you. How can we, while you are still living, permit you to go forth? Get up, Sudinna, eat, drink and amuse yourself. Find delight[6] in sensual pleasures and in doing meritorious actions.[7] We do not allow you to go forth.” When they had said this, Sudinna was silent.

MS.48 A second time and a third time the parents of Sudinna said: “… We do not permit you to go forth.”A third time Sudinna was silent.

Bu-Pj.1.5.3 MS.49 Then the friends of Sudinna approached him and said: “Sudinna, you are your Vin.3.14 parentsʼ only child, dear and beloved. You live in comfort and are well cared for; you have no experience of suffering. Even if you died, your parents would not willingly be without you. How can they, while you are still living, allow you to go forth? Get up, Sudinna, eat, drink and amuse yourself. Find delight in sensual pleasures and in doing meritorious actions. Your parents BD.1.25 will not allow you to go forth.”

When they had said this, Sudinna was silent. A second and a third time the friends of Sudinna said: “Sudinna, you are …” and a third time Sudinna was silent.

Bu-Pj.1.5.4 MS.50 Then the friends of Sudinna approached his parents and said: “Mother and father, Sudinna says that he will either die right there on the bare ground or go forth. If you do not allow Sudinna to go forth, he will die there. But if you allow him to go forth, you will see him again afterwards. And if he does not enjoy the going forth, what alternative[8] will he have but to come back here? Allow Sudinna to go forth.”

“We allow him,” they said.

Then the friends of Sudinna approached him and said: “Get up, Sudinna, your parents allow you to go forth from home into homelessness.”

MS.51 Then Sudinna thought: “They say that my parents will allow me to go forth from home into homelessness.” And he rose, joyful, delighted and elated, stroking his limbs with his hands. Then Sudinna, having spent a few days regaining his strength, approached the Master, paid homage to him and sat down at one side. He then said to the Master:

“I am permitted by my parents, Master, to go forth from home into homelessness. May the Master allow me to go forth.” Vin.3.15

BD.1.26 Then Sudinna received the going forth in the presence of the Master, and he received the full ordination. And not long afterwards Venerable Sudinna practised these kinds of ascetic practises:[9] living in the wilderness, going on alms-round, wearing rags, going on continuous alms-round; and he dwelt depending on a certain village of the Vajjians.

Bu-Pj.1.5.5 MS.52 At that time the Vajjians[10] were short of food[11] and stricken by hunger, with crops blighted and turned to straw, and it was not easy to keep oneself going by collecting alms. Now Venerable Sudinna thought to himself: “At present the Vajjians are short of food and stricken by hunger, with crops blighted and turned to straw, and it is not easy to keep oneself going by collecting alms. But I have many relations in Vesālī who are rich, have great wealth and property, much gold and silver,[12] many resources and requisites, much wealth in grain.[13] Perhaps I should live in dependence on my relatives? Because of me my relations will be able to make offerings and make merit, the monks will obtain requisites and I will not go short of almsfood.”

MS.53 Then Venerable Sudinna, having put his lodging in order, took his bowl and robe and set out for Vesālī, where he arrived by travelling in stages. There the Venerable Sudinna stayed in the hall with the peaked roof in the Great Wood. The relations of Venerable Sudinna heard that he BD.1.27 had arrived in Vesālī and they brought him sixty offerings of barley as a gift of food.[14] Then Venerable Sudinna, having given these sixty offerings of barley to the monks, dressed in the morning, took his bowl and robe and entered the village of Kalandaka for alms. As he was going about Kalandaka on a continuous alms-tour, he came to his own fatherʼs house.

Bu-Pj.1.5.6 MS.54 At that time the female slave of Venerable Sudinnaʼs relations wanted to throw away the previous eveningʼs porridge. But Venerable Sudinna said to her:

“If that is to be thrown away, sister, put it here in my bowl.”

As the slave-girl of Venerable Sudinnaʼs relations was putting the previous eveningʼs porridge into his bowl, she recognised his hands, feet and voice.[15] She then went to his mother and said:

“Please know,[16] madam, that the young master Sudinna is back.”

“If you speak the truth, I will make you a freed woman.”

MS.55 Just then Venerable Sudinna was eating the previous eveningʼs porridge at the base of a certain wall.[17] The Vin.3.16 Venerable Sudinnaʼs father, coming from work, saw him BD.1.28 there. He approached him and said:

“But, Sudinna, isnʼt there … and you are eating old porridge! Isnʼt there your own home to go to?”

“We went to your house, householder. Thatʼs where we received this porridge.”

Then Venerable Sudinnaʼs father took him by the arm and said: “Come, Sudinna, letʼs go to the house.”

Then Venerable Sudinna went to his own fatherʼs house and sat down on a prepared seat. And his father said to him: “Eat, dear Sudinna.”

“There is no need, householder, I have finished eating for today.”

“Then please come back for the meal tomorrow.”

Venerable Sudinna consented by keeping silent. He then rose from his seat and departed.

MS.56 Then Venerable Sudinnaʼs mother had the ground smeared with fresh cow-dung, had two heaps made, one of gold coins[18] and the other BD.1.29 of gold. The heaps were so large that a man standing on one side could not see a man standing on the other. Hiding these heaps with screens and preparing a seat between them surrounded by a curtain, she addressed Venerable Sudinnaʼs former wife:

“Daughter-in-law, adorn yourself in the way BD.1.30 that our son Sudinna found you especially attractive.”

“Yes, madam,” she responded.

Bu-Pj.1.5.7 MS.57 Then, in the morning, Venerable Sudinna dressed, took his bowl and robe and went to his fatherʼs house, where he sat down on the prepared seat. His father approached him, uncovered the heaps and said:

“This dowry, dear Sudinna, the fortune from your mother, is yours. Another is the fortune from your father and another from your ancestors.[19] It is possible, Sudinna, to return to the low life, enjoy wealth and make merit. Come, Sudinna, please Vin.3.17 do so.”

“I am not able to do so, father, I cannot. I am enjoying[20] the spiritual life.”

A second and a third time Venerable Sudinnaʼs father repeated his request. Venerable Sudinna replied:

“If you would not get offended, householder, we could tell you what to do.”

“Speak, Sudinna.”

“Well then, householder, make some large bags of hemp-cloth, fill them with the coins and the gold, take them away BD.1.31 in carts and dump them in the middle of the Ganges. And why? Because you would avoid the danger, fear,[21] terror, and (trouble with) protection that they will cause you.”

When he had said this, his father became displeased and thought, “How could our son Sudinna speak like this.”

MS.58 Then he addressed Venerable Sudinnaʼs former wife: “Well now, daughter-in-law, as you were dear and beloved by him, perhaps our son Sudinna will listen to you.”

Then the former wife of Venerable Sudinna took hold of his feet and said: “What are these nymphs like, my lordʼs son, for whose sake you lead the spiritual life?”

“I do not lead the spiritual life, sister, for the sake of nymphs.”

Then the former wife of Venerable Sudinna thought:

“From today my lordʼs son calls me ʻsisterʼ” and she fainted on the spot.

Bu-Pj.1.5.8 MS.59 Then Venerable Sudinna said to his father: “If, householder, there is food to be given, give it, but do not annoy me.”

“Eat, Sudinna,” he said.

Then, with their own hands, Venerable Sudinnaʼs mother and father served and satisfied him with various kinds of delicious food.

Then, when Venerable Sudinna had finished his meal, his mother said to him:

“This family, dear Sudinna, is rich, has great wealth and property, much gold and silver, many resources and requisites, much wealth in grain. It is possible, dear Sudinna, to return to the low life, enjoy wealth and make BD.1.32 merit. Come, Sudinna, please do so.”

“Mother, I am not able to do so, Vin.3.18 I cannot. I am enjoying[22] the spiritual life.”

MS.60 A second time … a third time Venerable Sudinnaʼs mother said: “This family, Sudinna, is rich … much wealth in grain. For this reason, dear Sudinna, beget offspring; do not let the Licchavis[23] take over our heirless property.”

“It is possible for me to do this,[24] mother.”

“Where are you staying at present?”

“In the Great Wood,” he said. Then Venerable Sudinna rose from his seat and departed.

Bu-Pj.1.5.9 MS.61 Then the mother of Venerable Sudinna addressed his former wife: “Daughter-in-law, as soon as you menstruate, please tell me.”

“Very well, madam,” she replied. Not long afterwards Venerable Sudinnaʼs former wife menstruated, and she reported it to Venerable Sudinnaʼs mother.

“Daughter-in-law, adorn yourself in the way that our son Sudinna found you especially attractive.”

“Very well, madam,” she replied.

BD.1.33 Then Venerable Sudinnaʼs mother, together with his former wife, approached Venerable Sudinna in the Great Wood. There she said to him:

“This family, dear Sudinna, is rich, has great wealth and property, much gold and silver, many resources and requisites, much wealth in grain. For this reason, Sudinna, beget offspring; do not let the Licchavis take over our heirless property.”

“It is possible for me to do this, mother,” he said. He then took his former wife by the arm, plunged into the Great Wood and—there being no training rule and he seeing no danger—had sexual intercourse with his former wife three times. As a result she conceived.

MS.63 The earth-gods cried out: “Good sirs, the Sangha of monks has been healthy[25] and free from danger. But Sudinna the Kalandaka has produced a tumour, has produced danger.”

The gods belonging to the heaven of the four great kings hearing the cry of the earth-gods in turn cried out … the Tāvatiṃsa gods … the Yāma gods … the Tusita gods … the gods who delight in creation … Vin.3.19 the gods who control the creation of others … the gods belonging to the retinue of the supreme beings in turn cried out:

“Good sirs, the Sangha of monks has been healthy and free from danger. But Sudinna the Kalandaka has produced a tumour, has produced danger.” Thus in that moment, in that instance, the report spread as far as the Brahmā-world.[26]

MS.64 Then the pregnancy of Venerable Sudinnaʼs wife developed and she eventually gave birth to a son. Now the friends of Venerable Sudinna called this boy Bījaka[27]; they called Venerable Sudinnaʼs former wife Bījakaʼs mother; they called Venerable BD.1.34 Sudinna Bījakaʼs father. After some time they both[28] went forth from home into homelessness, and they realised arahantship.

Bu-Pj.1.5.10 MS.65 But Venerable Sudinna was anxious and remorseful, and he thought: “Indeed, itʼs a loss for me, itʼs no gain; indeed, itʼs badly gained by me, not well-gained: having gone forth in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma and training, I was not able for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life.” And because of his anxiety and remorse, he became thin, haggard and pale, his veins protruding all over his limbs; he became sad, of sluggish mind, miserable, depressed, remorseful, weighed down with grief.[29]

MS.66 Then the monks who were Venerable Sudinnaʼs friends said to him: “Formerly, friend Sudinna, you were handsome, your features rounded, your face a good colour, your skin clear. But now you are thin, haggard and pale, your veins protruding all over your limbs; and you are sad, of sluggish mind, miserable, depressed, remorseful, weighed down with grief. Could it be, friend Sudinna, that you lead the spiritual life dissatisfied?”[30]

MS.67 “I do not, friends, lead the spiritual life dissatisfied. I have done an bad deed. I have had sexual intercourse with my former wife. That is why I am anxious … I was not able for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life.”

MS.68 “Friend Sudinna, no wonder you are anxious,[31] no wonder you feel remorse, in that, having gone forth in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma and training, you were not able for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life. BD.1.35 Is not, friend, the Dhamma taught by the Master in various ways for the sake of dispassion, not for the sake of passion; for the sake of freedom from bondage, not for the sake of bondage; for the sake of non-grasping, not for the sake of grasping? When the Dhamma is taught by the Master for the sake of dispassion, how can you be intent upon passion? When the Dhamma is taught by the Master for the sake of freedom from bondage, Vin.3.20 how can you be intent upon bondage? When the Dhamma is taught by the Master for the sake of non-grasping, how can you be intent upon grasping? Friend, has not the Dhamma been taught in many ways by the Master for the waning of passion, for the subduing of intoxication, for the restraint of desire, for the abolition of clinging, for the annihilation of the round of existence,[32] for the destruction of craving, for fading away, for cessation, for extinguishment?[33] Has not the abandoning of sense pleasures been declared in many ways by the Master, the full understanding of the perception of sense pleasures, the abolishing of thirst for sense pleasures, the elimination of thoughts of sense pleasures, the stilling of the fever of sense pleasures? It will not, friend, give rise to confidence in those without it, nor increase the confidence of those who have it, but it will hinder confidence in those without it and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.”

Bu-Pj.1.5.11 MS.69 Having rebuked Venerable Sudinna in various way, those monks told this matter to the Master. And in this connection the Master convened the Sangha of monks and questioned Venerable Sudinna:

BD.1.36 “Is it true, Sudinna, that you had sexual intercourse with your former wife?”

“It is true, Master.”

MS.70 The Buddha, the Master, rebuked him: “Foolish man, it is not suitable it is not becoming, it is not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it is not to be done. How could you go forth in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma and training and not be able for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life? Have I not taught the Dhamma in many ways for the sake of dispassion … When the Dhamma has been taught by me for the sake of dispassion, how can you be intent upon passion? … Have I not in many ways declared the abandoning of sense pleasures … the stilling of the fever of sense pleasures? It would be better, foolish man, for your male organ to enter the mouth of a terrible and poisonous snake than to enter a woman. It would be better for your male organ to enter the mouth of a black snake than to enter a woman. It would be better for your male organ to enter a charcoal pit, burning, ablaze, afire, than to enter a woman. Why is that? Because for that reason you might die or experience deadly suffering, but you would not on that account, at the breaking up of the body after death, be reborn in the plane of misery, a bad destination, the abyss, hell. But for this reason, at the breaking up of the body after death, you might be reborn in the plane of misery, Vin.3.21 a bad destination, the abyss, hell.[34] Foolish man, you have practised what is contrary to the true Dhamma,[35] the common BD.1.37 practice, the low practice,[36] the coarse practice, that which ends with a wash,[37] that which is done in private, that which is done wherever there are couples. You are the forerunner, the first performer of many unwholesome things. It will not give rise to confidence in those without it, nor increase the confidence of those who have it, but it will hinder confidence in those without it and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.”

MS.71 Then the Master, having rebuked Venerable Sudinna in various ways, spoke in dispraise of being difficult to support and maintain, in dispraise of great desires, lack of contentment, socialising[38] and laziness, but he spoke in praise in various ways of being easy to support and maintain, of desiring little, contentment, self-effacement,[39] ascetic practices, serenity, decrease of defilements,[40] and of the putting forth of energy.[41] Having given a Dhamma talk on what was right and seemly, he addressed the monks:

“On account of this,[42] monks, I will lay down a training rule for the monks for the following ten reasons: for the well-being of the Sangha, for the comfort of the Sangha, for the restraint of recalcitrant people, for the ease BD.1.38 of well-behaved monks, for the restraint of corruptions that pertain to the present life and for warding off corruptions that pertain to future lives, to give rise to confidence in those without it and to increase the confidence of those who have it, for the continuation of the true Dhamma[43] and for supporting the training.[44] And, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

First preliminary ruling

MS.72 If a monk has sexual intercourse, he is expelled[45] and not in communion.”

MS.73 Thus the Master laid down this training rule for the monks.

MS.74 The section on Sudinna is finished.

Second sub-story

MS.75 At one time a certain monk in the Great Wood near Vesālī won over a female monkey with food and had sexual intercourse with her. Then, in the morning, he dressed, took his bowl and robe and entered Vesālī for alms. Now at that time a number of monks who were engaged in touring the lodgings came to this monkʼs dwelling. The female monkey, seeing those monks coming, went up to them and shook her buttocks in front of them, wagged her tail, presented her buttocks and made a gesture. Vin.3.22 Then the BD.1.39 monks thought: “Undoubtedly this monk is having sexual intercourse with this monkey,” and they hid to one side. Then, when that monk had gone for alms in Vesālī and had returned with his almsfood, he ate one part himself and gave the rest to the female monkey. Having eaten the food, the monkey presented her buttocks to the monk. He then had sexual intercourse with her.

MS.77 Then those monks said to that monk: “Friend, hasnʼt a training rule been laid down by the Master? Why then do you have sexual intercourse with a monkey?”

“It is true, friends, that a training rule has been laid down by the Master, but it refers to human women, not to animals.”

“But, friend, that is just the same. It is not suitable, it is not becoming, it is not proper, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is not allowable, it ought not to be done. How could you go forth in this well-proclaimed Dhamma and training and not be able for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life? Has not the Dhamma been taught in various ways by the Master for the sake of dispassion and not for the sake of passion[46] … for the stilling of the fever of sense pleasures? Friend, it will not give rise to confidence in those without it … and it will cause some with confidence to change their minds.”

Having rebuked that monk in various ways, they told this matter to the Master. MS.78 The Master then had the Sangha of monks convened, and questioned that monk:

“Is it true, monk, that you had sexual intercourse with a monkey?”

“It is true, Master.”

Then the Master rebuked him, saying: = Bu-Pj.1.5.11 above. Instead of of a woman, read of a monkey “… Foolish BD.1.40 man, it will not give rise to confidence in those without it … And so, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Second preliminary ruling

MS.79 “If a monk has sexual intercourse, even with an animal,[47] he is expelled and not in communion.”

MS.80 Thus the Master laid down this training rule for the monks.

MS.81 The story of the female monkey is finished.

Third sub-story

Bu-Pj.1.7.1 Vin.3.23 MS.82 At that time a number of Vajjian monks from Vesālī ate, slept and bathed as much as they liked. Doing so and not paying proper attention, they had sexual intercourse, without first renouncing the training[48] and disclosing their weakness. After some time they were affected by loss of relatives, by loss of property and by illness. They then approached Venerable Ānanda and said:

Bhante Ānanda, we do not blame the Buddha, the Dhamma or the Sangha; we BD.1.41 only blame ourselves. We were unfortunate, we had little merit: having gone forth in such a well-proclaimed Dhamma and training, we were unable for life to practice the perfectly complete and pure spiritual life. If, bhante Ānanda, we were now to obtain the going forth and the full ordination in the presence of the Master, we would have clarity about wholesome qualities and be devoted day after day to developing the aids to awakening.[49] Bhante Ānanda, please inform the Master of this matter.”

“Yes, friends,” he replied. He then went to the Master and informed him of this matter.

MS.83 “It is impossible, Ānanda, it cannot happen,[50] that the Tathāgata should abolish a training rule that entails expulsion because of the Vajjians.”

MS.84 The Master then gave a Dhamma talk and addressed the monks: “Monks, if a monk, without first renouncing the training and disclosing his weakness, has sexual intercourse, he may not receive the full ordination. But, monks, if someone has sexual intercourse after first renouncing the training and disclosing his weakness, he may receive the full ordination.

“And so, monks, this training rule should be recited thus:

Footnotes and references:

1.

Vin-a.202 says that as other people there were called Kalanda(ka), Sudinna was also called “son of the great merchant” (seṭṭhiputta)—to distinguish him.

2.

Referred to at Vin.2.286 as “the first pārājika, promulgated at Vesālī on account of Sudinna with regard to sexual intercourse.” Referred to at Mil.170.

3.

Vin-a.202, “because having in former births been very meritorious, he was incited, a clansman’s son, bound to become” (bhabbakulaputta).

4.

This same story is told in practically the same words about Raṭṭhapāla at MN.ii.55ff.

5.

This passage omitted at MN.ii.57, see MN.ii.57, n.7.

6.

Abhiramassu or “indulge in love”; but from the context I think not here. Cf. below, BD.1.114.

7.

Vin-a.205, “giving gifts, cleansing the way to a good bourn, doing good actions.”

8.

gati, literally going or bourn.

9.

Vin-a.206, dhutaguṇe = kilesaniddhunanake guṇe.

10.

Tribes belonging to one of the sixteen stock mahājanapadas (AN.i.213, AN.iv.252, AN.iv.256, AN.iv.260). See E.J. Thomas, The Life of Buddha, p.13, and, on the Vajjis or Vajjians, T.W. Rhys Davids, Buddhist India, p.25.

11.

Cf. above Bu-Pj.1.2.1, and below, Bu-Pj.4.1.1.

12.

jātarūpa-rajata. See below, BD.1.28, n.1.

13.

For this stock phrase cf. AN.ii.86; SN.i.17. On prosperity of Vesālī, cf. Vin.1.268.

14.

Vin-a.207 explains that each offering would feed ten monks, therefore sixty would feed six hundred.

15.

Vin-a.208 explains that Sudinna had been a monk for eight years, so although the slave did not know him at once, she recognized the character of his hands, feet and voice.

16.

yagghe.

17.

aññataran kuḍḍamūlaṃ nissāya. Pali-English Dictionary calls kuḍḍamūla, “a sort of root.” But Vin-a.209 says it means “that in this district there are rooms in the houses of the large householders where there are seats prepared, and where those going for alms sit down and eat the gruel offered to them.” cf. MN.i.62, where kuḍḍaṃ with variant reading kuḍḍamūlaṇ. MN-a.iii.297 = Vin-a.210. Lord Chalmers translates “under the hedge.” May mean “leaning against a wall.”

18.

ekaṃ hiraññassa ekaṃ suvaṇṇassa. At MN.ii.63 the reading is hiraññasuvaṇṇassa (puñjaṃ), translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha ii.32,“of gold and bullion,” and then again “treasure.” Rhys Davids, Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, p.5, gives other and earlier translations for both these passages. There is no doubt that two heaps are meant, cf. MN-a.iii.299, and that therefore the two words hirañña and suvaṇṇa are intended to represent a difference in the materials of which the heaps were composed. Cf. below, Vin.3.48, Vin.3.216, hiraññaṃ vā suvaṇṇaṃ vā. I think that there is little doubt that suvaṇṇa is the worked or refined gold, but it does not appear to follow in the least that hirañña is therefore the unworked, unrefined gold. For at AN.i.253 jātarūpa is clearly the unworked (sterling) gold; the process of working this is described, and when finished some gold ornament is the result. (At Vin.3.238 jātarūpa is called satthuvaṇṇa, the colour of the Teacher.) I therefore cannot subscribe to the translation of hiraññasuvaṇṇa at Further Dialogues of the Buddha ii.94 (= MN.ii.166) as “wrought and unwrought gold.” Jātarūpa is gold in its unwrought state, therefore, hirañña will almost certainly have some other meaning, with a greater or lesser shade of difference. At BD.1.79 the Commentary leads one to suppose that hirañña is an ornament; cf. Monier-Williams, Sanskrit-English Dictionary under hiraṇya, where one of the meanings given is “a golden ornament (Ved.).” But I think that hirañña most probably means “gold coins.” N.B.—use of the plural at Vin.3.219. According to Boehtlingk (Sanskrit-Wörterbuch) it meant “Gold, später auch Geld,” and this is the interpretation put upon it in some commentarial passages, and I think also at SN.i.89 where hirañña is balanced by rūpiya, silver (= rajata, see Vin.3.238, Vin.3.240, except that at Vin.3.240 rūpiya is also called satthuvaṇṇa, which at Vin.3.238 is reserved for jātarūpa). Vin-a.210 on the above passage says that “here hirañña should be called kahāpaṇa.” And at Snp-a.323, on Snp.307, and Snp-a.513 on Snp.769 hirañña is explained as kahāpaṇasaṃkhāta, while at Snp-a.315 on Snp.285 it is said that na hirañña means that “there was not even quarter of a māsaka,” (on māsaka, see below, BD.1.72). In none of these Sutta Nipāta passages is hirañña combined with suvaṇṇa, which is interesting and curious. Although the Commentator shows a tendency to call hirañña kahāpaṇa, this does not get us much further. For we do not exactly know what a kahāpaṇa was at any given time. At Vin.3.238, Vin.3.240 it appears in the definitions of rajata and rūpiya, but at the time of the Vinaya its value may have been different from that which it had at Buddhaghosa’s time. All we can say is that the kahāpaṇa was the medium of exchange in Pali literature, and because the Commentators sometimes explain hirañña by kahāpaṇa, then the nearest we can get to a translation at present is “gold coins.” This seems a more likely translation than “gold leaf” (which so far as I know has never been suggested). Hirañña is undoubtedly connected with hari, meaning “yellow, yellowish, green, greenish,” and I find that in the Encyclopædia Britannica it is said of gold that “while in very thin leaves it transmits a greenish light.” Before the days when it was fashionable to plaster stupas and images of the Buddha with gold-leaf, it is not, however, very likely that this substance would have been used in any large quantities. Rich people would have been more apt to have “heaps of gold coins.” Although more Pali literature is available to us than was to Rhys Davids, we must still say with him (Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon, BD.1.5) that “to decide these points we must have more texts before us.”

19.

It is curious that here there seem to be three heaps, whereas just above it is said that two were made.

20.

abhirato, to be translated in this context as above. But see below, BD.1.114.

21.

Chambhitatta, see below, BD.1.119, n.3.

22.

abhirato, here I think meaning simply as translated above. But see below, BD.1.114.

23.

Their capital was at Vesālī.

24.

Vin-a.212 says that he said this thinking that if he had issue his relations would no longer bother him about looking after the property, and so he would be able to follow the dhamma of recluses at ease.

25.

nirabbuda, cf. above, BD.1.19, n.4.

26.

Vin-a.215, brahmalokā = akaniṭṭhabrahmalokā, i.e. the worlds of the Elder Brahmā-devas.

27.

Brahmali: Literally, “Seed.”

28.

Ibid.—i.e., Bījaka and his mother.

29.

Stock.

30.

anabhirato, Vin-a.217, “fretting, longing to be a householder … but I find no delight (anabhirato) in making become the conditions of higher righteousness.” See below, BD.1.114, notes.

32.

Vin-a.218, tebhūmakavaṭṭaṃ ucchijjati (i.e. the kāma, rūpa and arūpa becomings).

33.

Cf. AN.ii.34, and various passages in SN.v.

34.

Cf. below, BD.1.155.

35.

asaddkamma. Vin-a.221, “You would follow untrue Dhamma of inferior people.” On prefix sa- see Mrs. Rhys Davids, introduction to GS.i.ix.f.

36.

Vin-a.221, “outcastes (vasala) rain down evil dhamma; the dhamma of the outcaste, low men is outcaste, or it is a dhamma pouring out the kilesas.” Vasala at Snp.116ff. translated by Lord Chalmers, Suttanipāta, Harvard Oriental Series 37., as “wastrel.”

37.

Odakantika—i.e., following the sexual act. Vin-a.221 explains: udakakiccaṃ antikaṃ avasānaṃ assā ti, the water-libation (the cleansing, the washing) is at an end, finished for him. The word udakakicca occurs at DN.ii.15, but DN-a is silent.

38.

Saṃganika = kilesasaṃganika, Vin-a.222.

39.

Sallekhana = niddhunana, Vin-a.222.

40.

Apacaya = sabbakilesāpacayabhūtā, Vin-a.222.

41.

= Vin.1.45 = Vin.2.2 = Vin.3.171 = Vin.4.213, where this standing dhamma-talk is given. These are doubtless the subjects to be filled in where the text in so many places baldly states that Gotama “gave dhamma-talk.” All my renderings differ from those given at Vinaya Texts i.153, Vinaya Texts ii.331; Vinaya Texts iii.252. Cf. MN.i.13. The Commentary on Vin.3.171 is silent.

42.

I.e., Sudinna’s offence, Vin-a.223.

43.

Vin-a.225 says that saddhamma is threefold: (1) the Tipiṭaka, all the utterances of the Buddha (cf. Kp-a.191ff.); (2) the thirteen scrupulous ways of life, the fourteen duties, virtue, contemplation, insight; (3) the four ariyan Ways and the four fruits of samaṇaship and nibbāna.

44.

Vin-a.226 says that Vinaya or discipline is fourfold: discipline by restraint, by rejection, by calm, by making known.

45.

On derivation of pārājika, see Vinaya Texts i.3, n.2. Editor takes it as “involving or suffering defeat,” either specifically as defeat in the struggle with Māra; or more probably defeat in the struggle against evil generally, defeat in the effort to accomplish the supreme goal of arahantship. Vin-a.259 gives pārājiko ti parājito, parājayam āpanno, defeated, fallen on defeat. “In this meaning pārājika exists for those people for whom there is an offence (āpatti) against the training. Whoever transgresses against the course of training, it defeats him (parājeti), therefore it is called a defeat. Whoever commits an offence, that defeats him, therefore that is called a defeat. The man, inasmuch as defeated, fallen on defeat, is thereby called a defeated one.” We thus get a neuter, feminine and masculine reference for pārājika. Childers says, “meriting expulsion.”

46.

Cf. above, Bu-Pj.1.5.10.

47.

Cf. Vin.1.96.

48.

sikkhaṃ apaccakkhāya, not having denied the teaching, not having said: “I renounce (formally) my submission to the discipline,” i.e. “I am no longer a monk.” Cf. Vinaya Texts i.275, n.2, where editor thinks this is a formal renunciation of the Order as opposed to the Vinaya’s term vibbhamati, “he returns to the house.” Cf. AN.iv.372, where among the nine Impossibles (abhabba) is that the monk who is an arahant should disavow the Buddha, dhamma or Order. At SN.ii.231 a monk, assailed by passion, disavows the training and hīnāyāvattati, the Sutta word for returning to the low life of the layman, and cf. SN.ii.271.
Paccakkhāti is paṭi+akkhāti = ā + khyā, and not paṭi + akkh. The root akkh is purely theoretical and would certainly not explain the ā of paccakkhāti, paccakkhāya.

49.

The term bodhipakkhiyadhamma, or as it is here bodhipakkhika°, is not usually considered to belong to the earlier literature. The later literature and Commentaries reckon these states as thirty-seven. On their arrangement see Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya, p.395, and KS.v.vi.

50.

Following Woodward’s translation at GS.i.25 and see GS.i.25 n.6. Vin-a.229 elucidates anavakāso by kāraṇapaṭikkhepavacanaṃ.

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