Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 8

BD.1.271 Bu-Ss.8.1.1 Vin.3.158 At one time[1] the enlightened one, the lord, was staying at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove at the squirrels’ feeding place. At that time perfection had been attained by the venerable Dabba,[2] the Mallian,[3] seven years after his birth. All that there is to be attained by a disciple had been fully attained by him[4]; for him there was nothing further to be done,[5] no increase[6] to (be added to) that which had been done. Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, as he was meditating alone and in solitude, thought: “Perfection was realised by me seven years after my birth. Whatever there is to be attained by a disciple, all this has been fully attained by me; for me there is nothing further to be done, no increase (to be added) to that which has been done. What now if I should render a service to the BD.1.272 Order?” Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, thought: “What now if I should assign lodgings to the Order, and should distribute the meals?”


Bu-Ss.8.1.2 Then the venerable, Dabba, the Mallian, rising up from his meditation at evening time, approached the lord, and having approached him and greeted him, he sat down to one side. As he was sitting to one side, the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, said to the lord: “Now, lord, as I was meditating alone and in solitude, I thought: ‘… What now if I were to render a service to the Order?’ I thought of this, lord: ‘What now if I were to assign lodgings to the Order? What if I should distribute the meals?’”

“It is good, it is good, Dabba; then, you, Dabba, assign the lodgings to the Order and distribute the meals.”

“Very well, lord,” the reverend Dabba, the Mallian, answered the lord.


Bu-Ss.8.1.3 Then the lord on this occasion, in this connection, having given dhamma-talk, addressed the monks: “Monks, let the Order consent that Dabba, the Mallian, should assign the lodgings, and should distribute the meals. Monks, this should be authorised thus: Dabba should first be asked and having been asked, the Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. If it is the right time for the Order, let the Order consent that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign the lodgings and distribute the meals. Vin.3.159 That is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order hear me. The Order agrees that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign the lodgings and distribute the meals. If it pleases the venerable ones and there is permission that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign lodgings and distribute the meals, then be silent; if it does not seem good, then you should speak. It is agreed by the Order that the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, should assign the lodgings and distribute the BD.1.273 meals. It is agreed … Thus do I understand.’[7]


Bu-Ss.8.1.4 Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, being so chosen, assigned one lodging in the same place for those monks who belonged to the same company. For those monks who knew the Suttantas he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: “These will be able to chant over[8] the Suttantas to one another.” For those monks versed in the Vinaya rules, he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: “They will decide upon the Vinaya with one another.” For those monks teaching dhamma he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: “They will discuss dhamma with one another.” For those monks who were musers he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: “They will not disturb one another.” For those monks who lived indulging in low talk[9] and who were athletic he assigned a lodging in the same place, saying: “These reverend ones will live[10] according to their pleasure.” For those monks who came in late at night[11] he, having attained the condition of heat,[12] assigned a lodging by this BD.1.274 light.[13] So much so, that the monks came in late at night on purpose, (and) they thought: “We will see the wonder of the psychic potency of the venerable Dabba, the Mallian.” And having approached the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, they spoke thus: “Reverend Dabba, assign a lodging to us.”

The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, spoke thus to them: “Where do your reverences desire it? Where shall I assign it?”

Then these (monks) would quote a distant place on purpose, saying: “Reverend Dabba, assign us a lodging on the Vulture’s Peak[14]; your reverence, assign us a lodging on the Robber’s Cliff; your reverence, assign us a lodging on the slopes of Isigili Hill[15] on the Black Rock; your reverence, assign us a lodging on the slopes of Vebhāra[16] at Sattapaṇṇi Cave; your reverence, assign us a lodging in Sītā’s Wood[17] on the slopes of the Snake Pool; your reverence, assign us a lodging at the Gomata Glen; your reverence, assign us a lodging at the Tinduka Glen; your reverence, assign us a lodging at the Tapodā Glen[18]; your reverence, assign us a lodging at the Tapodā Park[19]; your reverence, assign us Vin.3.160 a lodging at Jīvaka’s Mango Grove;[20] BD.1.275 your reverence, assign us a lodging in the deer-park at Maddakucchi.”[21]

The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, having attained the condition of heat for these (monks) went in front of each with his finger glowing; and they by the light of the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, went behind him. The venerable Dabba, the Mallian, assigned a lodging to them and said: “This is the couch, this the bed, this the bolster, this the pillow, this a privy, that a privy, this the drinking water, that the water for washing, this the staff, this is (the form of) the Order’s agreement, this is the time it should be entered upon, this the time it should be departed from.” Then the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, having assigned a lodging to these (men), went back again to the Bamboo Grove.[22]


Bu-Ss.8.1.5 Now at that time the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka[23] were newly ordained and of little merit; they obtained whatever inferior lodgings belonged to the Order and inferior meals. At that time the people in Kājagaha wished to give the Elder monks alms-food having a specially good seasoning,[24] and ghee and oil and dainties.[25] But to the monks who were the BD.1.276 followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka they gave ordinary food, unseasoned porridge of broken rice[26] accompanied by sour gruel. These, after they had eaten and had returned from their meal, asked the Elder monks: “What did you get, your reverences, at the refectory? What did you?”

Some Elders spoke thus: “There was ghee for us, your reverences, there was oil for us, there were dainties for us.”

But the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka spoke thus: “Your reverences, there was nothing for us, (only) ordinary food, unseasoned porridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel.”


Bu-Ss.8.1.6 At that time a householder who had nice food gave to the Order in continuous food supply a meal for four monks. He, together with his wife and children, attended and served in the refectory. One offered boiled rice, another offered curry, another offered oil, another offered dainties. Now at that time a meal given by the householder who had nice food was apportioned for the following day to the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka. Then the householder who had nice food went to the park on some business and approached the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, and having approached the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, and greeted him, he sat down to one side. As he was sitting to one side, Vin.3.161 the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, rejoiced … gladdened with dhamma-talk the householder who had nice food. Then when the householder who had nice food had been rejoiced … gladdened with dhamma-talk by the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, he said to the venerable Dabba, the Mallian: “For whom, honoured sir, is the meal apportioned for tomorrow in our house?”

“Householder, the food apportioned in your house for tomorrow is for the monks who are the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka.”

BD.1.277 Then the householder who had nice food was sorry and said: “How can these depraved monks[27] enjoy themselves in our house?” And going to his house, he gave orders to a female slave, saying: “Having prepared for those who come to eat tomorrow a seat in the store-room,[28] serve them with porridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel.”

“Very well, master,” the female slave answered the householder who had nice food.


Bu-Ss.8.1.7 Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka said to one another: “Yesterday, your reverences, a meal was allotted to us by the householder who has nice food. Tomorrow the householder who has nice food, attending with his wife and children, will serve us. Some will offer boiled rice, some will offer curry, some will offer oil, some will offer dainties.” These, because of their happiness, did not sleep that night as much as they had expected.

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, rising up early and setting out taking their bowls and robes, approached the dwelling of the householder who had nice food. The female slave saw the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka coming from afar; and seeing them and making ready a seat in the store-room, she said to the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka: “Sit here, honoured sirs.”

Then the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka thought: “But undoubtedly the food will BD.1.278 not be ready,[29] since we are made to sit in the store-room.”

Then the female slave came up with the porridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel and said: “Eat, honoured sirs.”

“But, sister, we are those who enjoy a continuous supply of food.”

“I know that the masters enjoy a continuous supply of food. But yesterday I was ordered by the householder: ‘Having prepared a seat in the store-room for those who come for a meal today, serve them with porridge of broken rice accompanied by sour gruel.’ Eat, honoured sirs,” she said.

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka said: “Yesterday, your reverences, the householder who has nice things to eat went to Dabba, the Mallian,[30] in the park; doubtless Dabba, the Mallian, set the householder at variance with us.” These (monks) on account of their lamentations did not eat as much as was expected.

Then the monks who were the followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, after Vin.3.162 they had eaten and had returned from their meal, going to the park and putting aside their bowls, sat down outside the store-room of the park,[31] squatting against their outer cloaks,[32] silent, abashed, their shoulders bent,[33] their heads lowered, brooding, speechless.[34]


Bu-Ss.8.1.8 BD.1.279 Then the nun Mettiyā[35] approached the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, and having approached them she said to the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka: “I salute you, masters.” When she had spoken thus the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did not respond. A second time … A third time the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka did not respond.

“Do I offend against the masters? Why do the masters not respond to me?” she said.

“It is because you neglect us, sister, when we are got into difficulties by Dabba, the Mallian.”

“What can I do, masters?” she said.

“If you would like, sister, this very day you could make the lord expel Dabba, the Mallian.”

“What can I do, masters? How am I able to do that?” she said.

“Come, sister, go up to the lord, and having gone up, say to the lord: ‘Now, lord, it is not suitable, it is not becoming that this quarter which should be without fear, secure, without danger is the very quarter which is full of fear, insecure, and full of danger. Where there was a calm, now there is a gale. It seems the very water is blazing. I have been assaulted by master[36] Dabba, the Mallian.’”

“Very well, masters,” the nun Mettiyā answered the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka, and she approached the lord. Having approached and greeted the lord, she stood to one side. As she was standing to one side, the nun Mettiyā spoke thus to the lord: “Now, lord, it is not suitable … by master Dabba, the Mallian.”


Bu-Ss.8.1.9 BD.1.280 Now the lord on this occasion and in this connection, having had the Order of monks convened, asked the venerable Dabba, the Mallian:

“Dabba, do you remember doing as the nun Mettiyā says?”

“Lord, the lord knows with regard to me,” he said. A second time … a third time the lord said to the venerable Dabba, the Mallian …“with regard to me.”

“Dabba, the Dabbas[37] do not give evasive answers like that. If what was done was done by you, say so; if it was not done by you, say it was not.”

“Lord, since I was born, I cannot call to mind[38] ever indulging in sexual intercourse even in a dream; much less so when I was awake.”

Then the lord addressed the monks, saying: “Because of this, expel the nun Mettiyā,[39] Vin.3.163 and take these monks to task.”

Having spoken thus, the lord rising up from his seat entered the vihāra. Then these monks expelled the nun Mettiyā. Then the monks who were followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka said to those monks:

“Your reverences, do not expel the nun Mettiyā; she has not committed any sin; she was urged on by us, because we were angry, displeased and wanted him out of the way.”

“But are not your reverences defaming the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving defeat?”

“It is so, your reverences,” they said.

Then those who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed and angry, and said: “How can the monks who BD.1.281 are followers of Mettiya and Bhummajaka defame the venerable Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving defeat?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that you defamed Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving defeat?”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying: “How can you, foolish men, defame Dabba, the Mallian, with an unfounded charge involving defeat? It is not, foolish men, for the benefit of unbelievers… Thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, malignant, malicious and ill-tempered, should defame a monk with an unfounded charge involving defeat, thinking: ‘Thus perhaps may I drive him away from this Brahma-life,’ then, if afterwards he, being pressed or not being pressed, the legal question turning out to be unfounded, if the monk confesses[40] his malice, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.8.2.1 Whatever means: who …

Monk[41] means: … in this meaning monk is to be understood.

Monk means: another monk.

Malignant, malicious means: angry, displeased, dissatisfied, the mind worsened, stubborn.[42]

Ill-tempered means: with this anger, with this hatred, and with this displeasure, and with this dissatisfaction he is angry.

BD.1.282 Unfounded means: unseen,[43] unheard, unsuspected.

Involving defeat means: of one of the four (headings involving defeat).

Should defame means: should reprove or should cause to reprove.[44]

Thus perhaps may I drive him away from this Brahma-life means: Vin.3.164 I may drive (him) away from monkdom, I may drive (him) away from recluse-dhamma,[45] I may drive (him) away from the aggregates of morality, I may drive (him) away from the advantage of religious austerity.[46]

Afterwards means: in the moment in which he is defamed that moment, that minute, that second has passed.

Being pressed means: he is defamed in that matter in which he is pressed.

Not being pressed means: not being spoken to by anyone.

A legal question[47] means: there are four legal questions: legal questions arising out of disputes, legal questions arising out of censure, legal questions arising out of transgressions, legal questions arising out of obligations.

If the monk confesses his malice means: empty words have been spoken by me, a lie has been spoken by me, untruth has been spoken by me, it has been spoken by me not knowing.

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means … on account of this it is called an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.8.3.1 BD.1.283 He is unseen by him committing[48] an offence involving defeat,[49] but if he reprimands him saying: “Seen by me, you are one who has committed[50] a matter involving defeat, you are not a (true) recluse, you are not a (true) son of the Sakyans, there is no (holding) the observance-day (ceremony),[51] or the ceremony held at the end of the rains,[52] or the ceremony performed by a chapter of monks[53] with you,”—for each speech[54] there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.[55]

He is unheard by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Heard by me, you are …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is unsuspected by him of committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Suspected by me, you are …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.8.3.2 He is unseen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Seen and heard by me, you are one who has committed an offence involving defeat …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is unseen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Seen and suspected by me … Seen, heard and suspected by me …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is unheard by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Heard and BD.1.284 suspected by me … Heard and seen by me … Heard, seen and suspected by me …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is unsuspected by him of committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Suspected and seen by me … Suspected and heard by me … Suspected, seen and heard by me …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.3.165


Bu-Ss.8.3.3 He is seen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Heard by me … Suspected by me … Heard and suspected by me, you are one who has committed an offence involving defeat …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is heard by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Suspected by me … Seen by me … Suspected and seen by me … ”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is suspected by him of committing an offence involving defeat, but if he reprimands him saying: “Seen by me … Heard by me … Seen and heard by me …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.8.3.4 He is seen by him committing an offence involving defeat; but he is in doubt as to the sight, he does not trust the sight, does not remember the sight, is confused as to the sight. He is in doubt as to what he has heard … is confused as to what he heard. He is in doubt as to the suspicion … he is confused as to what he suspected; yet he reprimands him saying: “Suspected and seen by me … Suspected and heard byme … Suspected and seen and heard by me …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.8.3.5 BD.1.285 He is unseen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are seen, you are one who has committed an offence involving defeat …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

He is unheard … He is unsuspected …


Bu-Ss.8.3.6 He is unseen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are seen and heard … You are seen and suspected … You are seen and heard and suspected …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.8.3.7 He is seen by him committing an offence involving defeat, but if he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are heard … You are suspected … You are heard and suspected …”

He is heard by him … He is suspected by him …


Bu-Ss.8.3.8 He is seen by him committing an offence involving defeat; he is in doubt as to the sight … he is confused as to what he suspected, yet he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are suspected and seen …” … he is confused as to what he suspected, yet he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are suspected and heard …” … he is confused as to what he suspected, yet he causes him to be reprimanded saying: “You are suspected and seen and heard … involving defeat …”—for each speech there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.3.166


Bu-Ss.8.4.1 There is a view of what is pure in what is impure, a view of what is impure in what is pure, there is a view of what is impure in what is impure, a view of what is pure in what is pure.


Bu-Ss.8.4.2 BD.1.286 If a man is impure, committing a certain offence involving defeat, even though there exist a view of purity, if he speaks desiring his expulsion, but without having gained his leave,[56] there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence requiring a formal-meeting of the Order.

If a man is impure … if he speaks desiring his expulsion, but having gained his leave, it is an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order.

If a man is impure … not having gained his leave, he spoke intending abuse, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with one of insulting speech.

If a man is impure … having gained his leave, he spoke intending abuse, it is an offence of insulting speech.


Bu-Ss.8.4.3 If a man is pure, not committing a certain offence involving defeat, even though there exist a view of impurity, if he speaks desiring his expulsion, but without having gained his leave, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If a man is pure … having gained his leave, he speaks intending his expulsion, there is no offence.

If it is a pure man … without having gained his leave, he speaks intending abuse, it is an offence of wrong-doing with one of insulting speech.

If it is a pure man … having gained his leave, he speaks intending abuse, it is an offence of insulting speech.


Bu-Ss.8.4.4 If a man is impure, committing a certain offence involving defeat, even though there exist a view as to impurity, he speaks wishing his expulsion, but not having gained his leave, there is an offence of wrong-doing … it is not an offence … it is an offence of wrong-doing with one of insulting speech … it is an offence of insulting speech.


Bu-Ss.8.4.5 BD.1.287 If a man is pure, not committing an offence leading to defeat, even though there exist a view as to purity … there is an offence of wrong-doing with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order … it is an offence requiring a formal meeting of the Order … it is an offence of wrong-doing with one of insulting speech … it is an offence of insulting speech.


Bu-Ss.8.4.6 There is no offence if there is a view as to what is impure in what is pure, if there is a view as to what is impure in what is impure, if he is mad, if he is a beginner.

Told is the Eighth Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order: that concerned with what is unfounded

Footnotes and references:

1.

From here to BD.1.9 below = Vin.2.74–79; translated at Vinaya Texts iii.4–18.

2.

Vin-a.576, “he realised arahanship in the tonsure hall”—i.e., as his curls were being cut off. Cf. Thag.5, and Psalms of the Brethren, p.10; at AN.i.24 he is called “chief among those who assign quarters.”

3.

The son of the rāja or chief of the Mallians.

4.

Vin-a.576,“the threefold wisdom, the four branches of logical analysis, the six super-knowings, the nine other-worldly matters.”

5.

Vin-a.576. “It is said that by him there is nothing further to be done in the four true things, the four Ways, owing to the commission of the sixteenfold thing that ought to be done.”

6.

paticaya. This is translated at Vinaya Texts iii.4 as “nothing left that he ought to gather up as the fruit of his past labour.” But this, I think, is reading more into these words than is justified. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.576 says, “there is no increasing (vaḍḍhana) of what ought to be done,” such as cleansing (a cleaned bowl). I think that this is the right interpretation. Cf. Vin.1.183, Vin.1.185; AN.iii.376; AN.iv.355 for phrase katassa vā paṭicayaṃ. Pati° as at Vin.3.158 above is unusual.

7.

Cf. Vin.2.176, where it is said that “at that time there was no one who allotted lodgings for the Order,” and Vin.2.175, where it is said that “at that time there was no one who distributed meals for the Order.”

8.

N.B. not to read: writing was apparently very little used at this date.

9.

tiracchānakathikā, literally talkers about animals, so: talkers on low or childish subjects.

10.

acchissantī ti viharissanti, Vin-a.579.

11.

vikāle

12.

tejodhātuṃ samāpajjitvā. At Ud.92 Dabba is credited with this same power, which he exerted at the time of his utter waning out. This power is also ascribed to Gotama at Vin.1.25; and to Uppalavaṇṇā at Thig-a.190. See Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, ii. Sacred Books of the Buddhists viii., p.11, n.1, where Mr. Woodward considers that this “power over the fire-element is probably the basis of śakti (suttee) in India.” I think, however, that suttee is connected with satī, the good, virtuous wife; while śakti is literally ability, willpower, influence. Cf. SN.i.144 and KS.i.182, n.2; also AN.i.176; AN.ii.165; DN.iii.27, DN.iii.228, DN.iii.247.

13.

Vin-a.579, “having entered upon the fourth jhāna by meditation on fire, arising from that his fingers were glowing as a result of knowledge in the six super-knowings”: the power of iddhi, or psychic potency, was one of the six abhiññā.

14.

A mountain near Rājagaha. These place-names also occur at DN.ii.116.

15.

Isigilipassa. Here at the Black Rock, Godhika took his own life, SN.i.120, and Vakkali, SN.iii.123. From here the other peaks round Rājagaha could be seen, MN.iii.68.

16.

One of the mountains near Rājagaha. See Psalms of the Bretheren p.45, notes, and illustrations facing p.364.

18.

The river Tapodā (hot waters) ran beneath the Vebhāra Hill. See above, BD.1.188, and n.1. Samiddhi was tempted by a devatā as he was bathing in the Tapodā, SN.i.8ff., which is very similar to the Samiddhi Jātaka, Ja.2.56.

19.

See previous note.

20.

A garden at Rājagaha belonging to the physician Jīvaka Komārabhacca. Mentioned at MN.i.368 (cf. MN-a.3.45). The Sāmaññaphala Suttanta was spoken here, DN.i.47; this is referred to at Vin.2.287.

21.

At Vin.1.105 the Bhagavan appeared to Mahākappina here and exhorted him to observe the Uposatha. At both SN.i.27 and SN.i.110 it is said that in this garden Gotama’s foot was hurt by a splinter.

22.

Vin-a.579, “talking to them with talk about the country, he did not sit down, but returned to his own dwelling.”

23.

Vin-a.579, “the chief men of the sixfold group.” At Vin-a.614 (on Vin.3.179) it is said that Assaji and Punabbasuka are the foremost in this group, and at MN-a.3.186, they are called “among these six, two teachers of the crowd.”

24.

abhisaṃkhārika piṇḍapāta. Abhi° means what specially belongs to the saṃkhāras, merit-accumulating. Pali-English Dictionary suggests tentatively “specially prepared.” The parallel passage at Vin.2.77 omits piṇḍapāta. The reading there is probably defective, and has led translators of Vinaya Texts iii.9, to render abhi° as a “wishing-gift.” See Vinaya Texts iii.9 n.3.

25.

uttaribhaṅga; also at Vin.4.259; Ja.1.349. Ghee, oil and uttari° are mentioned together at Vin.2.214.

26.

kaṇājakaṃ = sakuṇḍakabhattaṃ, a meal with husk-powder cake. Cf. Ja.5.383.

27.

This acquiescence in “pāpabhikkhū” is curious. It reminds one of the lax monks, not uncommon in Burma at the present day, who do not keep the Vinaya precepts. There are said to be good and earnest monks who do keep them, but who are not seen about much for the very reason that they lead the good life, as intended.

28.

koṭṭhaka, a store-room for various things. At Vin.2.153 a koṭṭhaka is allowed to the monks. It was usually built over the gateway. Here Vin-a.580, says it was outside the gateway of the vihāra in the Bamboo Grove. See Vinaya Texts iii.109 for meanings and references.

29.

siddha. This is past participle of (1) sijjati, to boil, to cook; (2) sijjhati, to be accomplished, (see Pali-English Dictionary).

30.

Note that the monks now drop the epithet “venerable” or “reverend” in speaking of Dabba.

31.

Vin-a.580, “outside the door of the store-room of the vihāra of the Bamboo Grove.”

32.

sanghāṭi-pallatthikāya, a curious expression. Palla° also means “lolling,” cf. Vin.4.129.

33.

pattakkhandhā. Khandha here, I think, in one of its crude meanings, of back or shoulder, and not as suggested at Vinaya Texts iii.13, n.1, “faculties.” See KS.i.155, n.5. Vin-a.580 = MN-a.2.104 explains pattakkhandhā as patitakkhandhā.

34.

All this is stock. Cf. AN.iii.57; SN.i.124 = MN.i.258.

35.

The following narrative down to Bu-Ss.8.1.9 = Vin.2.78–79 and is almost exactly the same as that recorded at Vin.2.124–127, except that here the monks send Vaddha to the lord to say that Dabba has assaulted Vaḍḍha’s wife.

36.

ayyena, instrumentive, therefore not “lord” (vocative) as at Vinaya Texts iii.14. Ayya was a usual way in which the laity and nuns addressed the monks, but I do not think that anyone ever addressed the lord thus.

37.

They are wise, Vin-a.581.

38.

abhijānāmi.

39.

This is, I think, clear evidence of monkish gloss. In every case of supposed wrong-doing the lord has always asked the supposed wrongdoer “Is it true?” and has never condemned anyone without first hearing what he has to say. It is so noteworthy as to be suspicious: where a woman is involved she is given no chance to exculpate herself to the lord. See Horner, Women under Primitive Buddhism, p.266.

40.

patiṭṭhāti with more general meaning of “to stand fast.” But here, judging by the Old Commentary, see below at end of Bu-Ss.8.1.2, it must mean “confess” with the sense that his words were standing on or founded in malice. The verb, however, in such meanings is followed by the locative. But paṭi governs the accusative.

41.

Accusative.

42.

Cf. Vin.4.236, Vin.4.238; DN.iii.238, MN.i.101.

43.

Vin-a.585, not seen by self or others, nor by the bodily eye, nor by clairvoyance.

44.

Vin-a.587, “should reprove means he reproves him himself with the words ‘you have fallen into defeat’ … should cause to reprove means … he enjoins another monk and this one reproves him with his (i.e. the enjoiner’s) words.”

45.

samaṇa-dhamma, explained at AN.iii.371: therefore not “the ascetic’s path” as at. Ja.1.31.

46.

tapoguṇa.

47.

adhikaraṇa. = Vin.4.126 = Vin.4.238. Cf. Vin.2.88ff., where the nature of these questions is explained, and Vin.2.99ff., which explains the ways of settling these questions. At MN.ii.247ff. Gotama is represented as explaining all this to Ānanda.

48.

ajjhāpajjanta, present participle.

49.

Pārājika dhamma.

50.

Ajjhāpanna, past participle.

51.

Uposatha, a chapter of monks meeting on the fifteenth day of each half-month to expound dhamma, Vin.1.102. E.M. Hare, GS.4.140, GS.4.170, gives “observance-day” for uposatha.

52.

Pavāraṇā, when the monks invite one another to tell of anything seen, heard or suspected to be wrong, Vin.1.160 and cf. Vin.2.32.

53.

Saṅghakamma, the monks being assembled together in solemn conclave. Cf. Vin.1.123, Vin.1.143.

54.

Vācāya vācāya.

55.

Cf. below, BD.1.292.

56.

See Vin.1.114, where it is said that no monk who has not given leave may be reproved for an offence.