Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Third recitation section

On schism in the Order

Kd.17.4.1 Vin.2.199 Then Devadatta on that Observance day rising from his seat gave out voting tickets,[1] saying: “We, your reverences, having approached the recluse Gotama, asked for five items.[2] … The recluse Gotama does not allow these, but we live undertaking these five items. If these five items are pleasing to the venerable ones, let each one take a voting ticket.”


Now at that time as many as five hundred monks, Vajjis of Vesālī, were newly ordained and were not properly versed;[3] and these, thinking: “This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction,” took voting tickets. Then Devadatta, having split the Order, set out for Gayā Head taking as many as the five hundred monks. Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna[4] approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord: “Devadatta, Lord, having split the Order, is setting out for Gayā Head with as many as five hundred monks.”

“Can there not be for you, Sāriputta and Moggallāna,[5] compassion for these newly ordained monks? Go you along, Sāriputta and Moggallāna, before these monks fall into trouble and distress.”

“Very well, Lord,” and Sāriputta and Moggallāna having answered the Lord in assent, rising from their seats, having greeted the Lord, keeping their right sides towards him, BD.5.280 approached Gayā Head. Now at that time a certain monk was standing weeping not far from the Lord. Then the Lord spoke thus to that monk: “Why are you, monk, weeping?”

“Even those, Lord, who are the Lord’s chief disciples—Sāriputta and Moggallāna—even these are going to Devadatta approving of Devadatta’s dhamma.”

“This is not possible, monk, it cannot come to pass that Sāriputta and Moggallāna should approve Devadatta’s dhamma. They have merely gone so as to convince the monks.”[6]


Kd.17.4.2 Now at that time Devadatta, surrounded by the large company, was teaching dhamma sitting down. Then Devadatta saw Sāriputta and Moggallāna coming in the distance; seeing them, he addressed the monks, saying: “You see, monks, how well taught is dhamma by me that even these who are the recluse Gotama’s chief disciples—Sāriputta and Moggallāna—that even these are coming to me approving of my dhamma.” When he had spoken thus Kokālika spoke thus to Devadatta: “Reverend Devadatta, do not put your trust in Sāriputta and Moggallāna, Vin.2.200 Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires and are under the influence of evil desires.”[7]

“Enough, your reverence, let us give a welcome to these since they approve of my dhamma.” The Devadatta invited the venerable Sāriputta to half his seat, saying: “Come, reverend Sāriputta, sit here.”

“No, your reverence,” and the venerable Sāriputta, having taken another seat, sat down at a respectful distance; and the venerable Moggallāna too, having taken another seat, sat down at a respectful distance. Then Devadatta, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted the monks far into the night with talk on dhamma, asked[8] the venerable Sāriputta, saying:

“The Order of monks, reverend Sāriputta, is without sloth or drowsiness; may a talk on dhamma occur to[9] you, reverend Sāriputta, for the monks. My back aches and I will stretch it.”[10]

BD.5.281 “Very well, your reverence,” the venerable Sāriputta answered Devadatta in assent. Then Devadatta, having laid down his outer cloak folded in four, lay down to sleep on his right side,[11] and as he was tired, forgetful and inattentive, he fell asleep that very moment.

Kd.17.4.3 Then the venerable Sāriputta exhorted, instructed the monks with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of thought-reading;[12] the venerable Moggallāna exhorted, instructed the monks with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of psychic power. Then as the monks were being exhorted, instructed by the venerable Sāriputta with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of thought-reading; were being exhorted, instructed by the venerable Moggallāna with dhamma-talk by means of an instruction on the wonders of psychic power, dhamma-vision, dustless, stainless, arose to them, that ‘whatever is of the nature to uprise all that is of the nature to stop.’ Then the venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks, saying: “We are going, your reverences, to the Lord. Whoever approves of this Lord’s dhamma, let him come along.” Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna, taking those five hundred monks, approached the Bamboo Grove. Then Kokālika wakened Devadatta, saying: “Wake up,[13] reverend Devadatta, those monks have been led away by Sāriputta and Moggallāna. Now, did I not say to you, reverend Devadatta, ‘Reverend Devadatta, do not put your trust in Sāriputta and Moggallāna, Sāriputta and Moggallāna have evil desires and are under the influence of evil desires’?” Then at that very place hot blood issued from Devadatta’s mouth.[14]

Kd.17.4.4 Then Sāriputta and Moggallāna approached the Lord; having approached, having greeted the Lord, they sat down at a respectful distance. As they were sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Vin.2.201 Sāriputta spoke thus to the Lord: “It were well, Lord, if the monks who were partisans of the schismatics could be ordained again.”

BD.5.282 “Be careful, Sāriputta, about any reordination of monks who were partisans of the schismatics. But do you, Sāriputta, make the monks who were partisans of the schismatics confess a grave offence. But what line of conduct, Sāriputta, did Devadatta follow in regard to you?”

“Even, Lord, as the Lord, having gladdened, rejoiced, roused, delighted monks with dhamma-talk far into the night, he asked me: ‘The Order of monks, Sāriputta, is without sloth or drowsiness, may a talk on dhamma occur to you, Sāriputta, for the monks. My back aches and I will stretch it.’ Just this, Lord, was the line of conduct which Devadatta followed.”

Kd.17.4.5 Then the Lord addressed the monks, saying: “Formerly,[15] monks, there was a great pond in a stretch of forest; bull elephants lived near it and these, having plunged into that pond,[16] having tugged out the lotus fibres and stalks with their trunks, having washed them well, and having chewed them free of mud, swallowed them. Thus there came to be for them both beauty and strength, and not for this reason did they incur death or suffering like unto death. But, monks, among these great bull elephants were young elephant calves and these, imitating them, having plunged into that pond, having tugged out the lotus fibres and stalks with their trunks, but not having washed them well, having chewed them with the mud, swallowed them. Thus there came to be for them neither beauty nor strength, and for this reason they incurred death or suffering like unto death. Likewise, monks, Devadatta will die, a wretched creature, copying me.

“While the great beast[17] is shaking the earth,
grazing on lotus stalks, keeping alert among the waters—
Copying me, the wretched creature will die,
like a calf having eaten mire.

Kd.17.4.6 “Monks, a monk who is possessed of eight qualities is fit to go a message.[18] What are the eight? Herein, monks, a BD.5.283 monk is a hearer and one who makes others hear and a learner and an instructor and a knower and an expounder and one skilled in (recognising) conformity and non-conformity[19] and not a maker of quarrels. Monks, if a monk is possessed of these eight qualities he is fit to go a message. Monks, because he is possessed of these eight qualities, Sāriputta is fit to go a message. What are the eight? Herein, monks, Sāriputta is a learner … and not a maker of quarrels. Vin.2.202 Monks, because Sāriputta is possessed of these eight qualities he is fit to go a message.

“Who, to some high assembled council come,
Wavers not, nor in discourse fails, nor hides
The teaching, nor speaks[20] in doubtfulness,[21]
And who, being questioned, is not agitated—
A monk like this is fit to go a message.

Kd.17.4.7 “Monks, Devadatta,[22] overcome and his mind controlled by eight wrong conditions,[23] is doomed to the Downfall,[24] to Niraya Hell,[25] staying there for an aeon, incurable.[26] What eight?

  1. Devadatta, monks, overcome and his mind controlled by gain[27] is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.
  2. Devadatta, monks, overcome and his mind controlled by lack of gain …
  3. … by fame …
  4. … by lack of fame …
  5. … by honours …
  6. … by lack-of honours …
  7. … by evil desire …
  8. … by evil friendship is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.

Monks, Devadatta, overcome and his mind controlled by these eight wrong conditions is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon, incurable.

BD.5.284 “Monks, it is well that a monk should live constantly overcoming gain[28] that has arisen, lack of gain that has arisen, fame that has arisen, lack of fame that has arisen, honours that have arisen, lack of honours that has arisen, evil desire that has arisen, evil friendship that has arisen. And why, monks, for what good purpose should a monk live constantly overcoming gain … evil friendship that has arisen? Monks, if a monk live not constantly overcoming gain that has arisen, the cankers, that are destructive and consuming,[29] may arise, but if he lives constantly overcoming gain that has arisen, then it follows that the cankers, that are destructive and consuming, will not be in him … if he lives constantly overcoming evil friendship that has arisen, then it follows that the cankers, destructive and consuming, will not be in him.

“It is for this good purpose, monks, that a monk should live constantly overcoming gain that has arisen … evil friendship that has arisen. Wherefore, monks, saying, ‘We will live constantly overcoming gain that has arisen … evil friendship that has arisen’—thus it is that you, monks, should train.[30]

“Monks, Vin.2.203 Devadatta,[31] overcome and his mind controlled by three wrong conditions, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, staying there for an aeon, incurable. What three? Evil desire, evil friendship, the coming to a halt midway in his career because his special attainments are of trifling value.[32] Monks, a monk who is overcome … by these three wrong conditions is … incurable.

Kd.17.4.8 “Never[33] let anyone of evil desires arise in the world;
And know it by this: as the bourn of those of evil desires.
BD.5.285 Known as ‘sage,’[34] held as ‘one who made the self become,’
Devadatta stood shining as with fame—I heard tell.

“He, falling into recklessness,[35] assailing the Truth-finder,[36]
Attained Avīci Hell,[37] four-doored, frightful.
For he who would injure one without hatred, not doing an evil deed—
That evil touches only him of mind of hate, contemptuous.[38]

“Who should think to pollute the sea with pot of poison—
He would not pollute it with that, for sublime[39] is the great ocean.
So he who with abuse[40] afflicts the Truth-finder
Who has rightly gone, his mind tranquil—on him the abuse has no effect.

“A wise man should make a friend of such a one and follow him,
A monk following the way of him[41] should achieve destruction of ill.”

Questions of Upāli

Kd.17.5.1 Then the venerable Upāli approached the Lord, having approached, having greeted the Lord, he sat down at a respectful distance. As he was sitting down at a respectful distance, the venerable Upāli spoke thus to the Lord: “Lord, as to the words: Dissension in an Order,[42] dissension in an Order—to what extent, Lord, is there dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order? And then to what extent is there dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order?”

BD.5.286 “If, Upāli, there is one on one side[43] and two on another[44] and if a fourth[45] speaks out[46] and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction, take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order.

“If, Upāli, there are two on one side and two on another and if a fifth speaks out … two on one side and three on another and if a sixth speaks out … three on one side and three on another and if a seventh speaks out … three on one side and four on another and if an eighth speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is the rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction, take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order but not schism in an Order. Vin.2.204

“If, Upāli, there are four on one side and four on another and a ninth speaks out … this, Upāli, is dissension in an Order as well as schism in an Order. Dissension in an Order, Upāli, as well as schism in an Order is (due to there being) nine or more than nine.[47] Upāli, a nun does not split an Order even if she goes forward with a schism[48]… a probationer … a novice … a woman novice … a lay-follower … a woman lay-follower does not split an Order even if she goes forward with a schism. Only a regular monk, Upāli, belonging to the same communion, staying within the same boundary, splits an Order.”

Kd.17.5.2 “Lord, as to the words:[49] Schism in an Order, schism in an Order—to what extent, Lord, can an Order become split?”

“As to this, Upāli, monks explain non-dhamma as dhamma, they explain dhamma as non-dhamma, they explain non-discipline as discipline, they explain discipline as non-discipline, they explain what was not spoken, not uttered by the Truth-finder as spoken, uttered by the Truth-finder, they explain BD.5.287 what was spoken, uttered by the Truth-finder as not spoken, not uttered by the Truth-finder, they explain what was not practised by the Truth-finder as practised by the Truth-finder, they explain what was practised by the Truth-finder as not practised by the Truth-finder, they explain what was not laid down by the Truth-finder as laid down by the Truth-finder, they explain what was laid down by the Truth-finder as not laid down by the Truth-finder, they explain what is no offence as an offence, they explain an offence as no offence, they explain a slight offence as a serious offence, they explain a serious offence as a slight offence, they explain an offence that can be done away with as an offence that cannot be done away with, they explain an offence that cannot be done away with as an offence that can be done away with, they explain a bad offence as not a bad offence, they explain not a bad offence as a bad offence.[50] These, in regard to these eighteen points draw away and separate (a company),[51] they carry out a separate[52] Observance, they carry out a separate Invitation, they carry out a separate (formal) act of the Order. To this extent, Upāli, does an Order become split.”

Kd.17.5.3 “Lord, as to the words:[53] Harmony in an Order, harmony in an Order—to what extent, Lord, does an Order come to be harmonious?”

“As to this, Upāli, monks explain non-dhamma as non-dhamma, they explain dhamma as dhamma … they explain not a bad offence as not a bad offence. These, in regard to these eighteen points, do not draw away, do not separate (a company), they do not carry out a separate Observance, they do not carry out a separate Invitation, they do not carry out a separate (formal) act of the Order. To this extent, Upāli, an Order comes to be harmonious.”

Kd.17.5.4 “But, Lord,[54] having split[55] an Order that was harmonious, what does he set up?”

BD.5.288 “Now, Upāli, having split an Order that was harmonious, he sets up demerit that endures for an aeon and he is boiled in hell for an aeon.[56] Vin.2.205

“A schismatic in the Order,
doomed to the Downfall,
to Niraya Hell for an aeon,
To disharmony prone,
standing on non-dhamma,
falls away from peace from bondage.
Having split an harmonious Order,
he boils for an aeon in hell.”[57]

“But, Lord,[58] having united an Order that was split, what does he set up?”

“Now, Upāli, having united an Order that was split,
he sets up sublime merit
and he rejoices in heaven for an aeon.
Blessed is harmony for an Order,
and the friend of those who are harmonious,

“To harmony prone,
standing on dhamma,
falls not away from peace from bondage.
Making an Order harmonious,
he rejoices for an aeon in heaven.”[59]

Kd.17.5.5 “Now, could it not be, Lord, that a schismatic in the Order is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable?”

“It could be, Upāli, that a schismatic in the Order is doomed to the Downfall … incurable.”

“But could it be, Lord, that a schismatic in the Order is not doomed to the Downfall, not to Niraya Hell, not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable?”

“It could be, Upāli, that a schismatic in the Order is not doomed to the Downfall … not incurable.”

“But which (kind of) schismatic in an Order, Lord is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable?”

“This is a case, Upāli, where a monk explains non-dhamma as dhamma; if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma, misrepresenting opinion, misrepresenting approval, misrepresenting pleasure, misrepresenting intention,[60] and BD.5.289 if he speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying: ‘This is rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction; take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—this schismatic in the Order, Upāli, is doomed to the Downfall, to Niraya Hell, remaining there for an aeon, incurable.

“And again, Upāli, if a monk explains non-dhamma as dhamma, if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma, misrepresenting opinion … incurable.

“And again, Upāli, if he explains non-dhamma as dhamma, if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is non-dhamma, if he is doubtful as to a schism … if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma … if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he is doubtful as to a schism … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he has the view that in schism there is non-dhamma … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma … if he is doubtful as to this (explanation), if he is doubtful as to a schism, misrepresenting opinion … incurable.”

Kd.17.5.6 “But which (kind of) schismatic in the Order, Lord, is not doomed to the Downfall, nor to Niraya Hell, Vin.2.206 not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable?”

“This is a case, Upāli, where a monk explains non-dhamma as dhamma; if he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma, if he has the view that in schism there is dhamma, yet not misrepresenting opinion, not misrepresenting approval, not misrepresenting pleasure, not misrepresenting intention, he speaks out and offers a voting ticket, saying, ‘This is rule, this is discipline, this is the Teacher’s instruction; take this (voting ticket), approve of this’—even this schismatic in the Order, Upāli, is not doomed to the Downfall, not doomed to Niraya Hell, not remaining there for an aeon, not incurable.

“And again, Upāli, a monk explains dhamma as non-dhamma … explains a not bad offence as a bad offence, but (although) he has the view that in this (explanation) there is dhamma the view that in schism there is dhamma, yet not misrepresenting opinion … not incurable.”

Told is the Third Portion for Repeating.

BD.5.290 Told is the Seventh Section: that on Schism in an Order.

This is its key:

In Anupiyā, distinguished, the delicately nurtured one did not want to,
ploughing, sowing, leading in, led away, digging up and reaping,
Harvesting, making into stooks, threshing and winnowing, sifting, bringing in,
the next and they do not stop, fathers and grandfathers.
Bhaddiya, Anuruddha and Ānanda, Bhagu, Kimbila,
and the Sakyan pride, at Kosambī, he declined, and about Kakudha.
He informed against, and a father’s, by a man, Nālāgiri,
a triad, five, a serious matter, he splits, and about a grave offence,
three, eight, three again, dissension, schism, “Could it not be?” Vin.2.207

Footnotes and references:

1.

salāka. Method of appointing distributor of voting tickets laid down at Kd.14.9Kd.14.10. On process to be followed when voting by ticket see Kd.14.14.26. This incident is briefly recounted at Dhp-a.i.142Dhp-a.i.143.

3.

apakataññuno, or, did not know what had been appointed; cf. Vin.4.112, Vin.4.143.

4.

Sāriputtamoggallānā. “The venerable” is not used in such cases.

5.

Sāriputtā.

6.

bhikkhusaññatiyā. Cf. same expression at Kd.22.2.8. Cf. gihisañatti at SN.i.199, translated at KS.i.254 “imparting matters to the laity”; and explanation at SN-a.i.292, KS.i.254, n.1. Also cf. AN.i.75.

7.

Quoted at Dhp-a.i.143.

8.

ajjhesi, as at Kd.5.13.9.

9.

paṭibhātu, as at Kd.5.13.9 and see note at BD.4.264, n.1.

10.

Cf. MN.i.354, where these same words are ascribed to Gotama.

11.

Cf. MN.i.354. But here Gotama lies down mindful and circumspect.

12.

Among the three “wonders” mentioned at AN.i.170AN.i.171, DN.i.212DN.i.214 and explained at both passages. Cf. AN.v.327.

13.

Quoted at Dhp-a.i.143.

14.

The same is recorded of Sañjaya at Kd.1.24.3.

15.

As at SN.ii.269.

17.

mahāvarāha, which as pointed out at Vinaya Texts iii.261, n.1 can also mean a boar.

18.

dūteyyaṃ gantuṃ arahati. This paragraph recurs at AN.iv.196. Cf. the qualities of a messenger, dūta, at Manu 7.63ff. Also see DN.i.5, DN.i.8 where it is held by some ordinary people that Gotama abstains from sending messages and going on them.

19.

I copy the note at GS.iv.135: sahitāsahita; cf. DN.i.8, AN.ii.138; Dialogues of the Buddha i.14, n.6. Some of these terms recur at DN.i.56. Cf. S.B.E. xxi, p.352f. for what may be the Mahāyāna version of this sutta.

20.

akkhāti. AN.iv.196 reads bhaṇati.

21.

asandiddho. AN.iv.196 reads asandiṭṭhan, but AN-a.iv.106 has asandiddhaṃ which it glosses as vigatasaṃsayaṃ, without doubts. Vin-a.1276 reads asandiṭṭho ca akkhāti ti nissandeho hutvā akkhātā anusandhivasena yojetvā. At Mil.295 sandeha occurs, meaning “doubt.” At DN-a.282 sandiddha occurs with variant reading sandiṭṭha. See GS.iv.135, n.4.

22.

Down to “thus it is that you, monks, should train” = AN.iv.160AN.iv.161.

23.

asaddhammehi. See Vinaya Texts iii.262, n.2.

24.

āpāyika nerayika. See Vinaya Texts iii.262, n.3.

25.

āpāyika nerayika. See Vinaya Texts iii.262, n.3.

26.

This quartet of words occurs at AN.iii.402, AN.iv.160, MN.i.393 also in connection with Devadatta. Vin-a.1276 says “now it is not possible to cure him even with a thousand Buddhas.”

27.

Gain, lack of gain, fame, lack of fame are four of the eight worldly conditions mentioned at DN.iii.260, AN.ii.188, AN.iv.157.

28.

Also see DN.i.8 where an ordinary man would say that Gotama abstains from avariciously adding gain to gain, or benefit to benefit.

29.

As at AN.ii.197; MN.i.9.

30.

Version at AN.iv.160–1 stops here.

31.

Rest of this paragraph and the whole of the next (the verses) given also at It. BD.5.85ff.

32.

Cf. AN.v.157, AN.v.164, DN.ii.78.

33.

These verses occur also at It.p.85It.p.86. See Woodward’s translation and notes at Minor Anthologies ii.p.177–178.

34.

Cf. SN.i.65.

35.

so pamādaṃ anuciṇṇo. Iti-a.ii.100Iti-a.ii.101 says “Devadatta, saying ‘I am the awakened one,’ and so on, not knowing his own measure (attano pamāṇaṃ ajānitvā)” falling into recklessness (or perhaps ‘error,’ pamādaṃ āpajjanto) as to himself as an awakened one, said, “Now I will become an awakened one, I will lead the Order of monks.”

36.

āsajja taṃ (or naṃ) tathāgataṃ. Text reads āsajjanaṃ, but Sinhalese and Siamese editions have āsajja taṃ. Iti-a.ii.101 explains as āsādetvā viheṭhetvā, having assailed (insulted, offended), having annoyed.

37.

Described at AN.i.141.

38.

This resembles Dhp.125.

39.

Reading bhesmā with Sinhalese and Siamese editions, Vin-a.1277 and Iti-a.ii.101, instead of text’s bhasmā and It. tasmā. Bhesmā means awful, terrible, and hence may be taken as sublime.

40.

vādena. Iti-a.ii.101 explains by dosena, anger, hatred.

41.

yassa maggānugo bhikkhu.

42.

saṅgharāji. Cf. Vin.4.37, Vin.4.128, Vin.4.153, Vin.4.217, Vb-a.428, and Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.193ff. Other expressions for differences in the Order occur at e.g. Vin.1.339. There is also cakkabheda, “breaking of the concord,” as at Vin.3.171, and above Kd.17.8.14.

43.

Vin-a.1277, “if there is one on the side (or in the faction or party) of dhamma-speakers.”

44.

Vin-a.1277, “on the side of non-dhamma speakers.”

45.

Vin-a.1277, “if there is a fourth, a non-dhamma speaker, who thinks ‘I will split the Order’.”

46.

anussāveti, not here I think in the technical sense of making a proclamation. Vin-a.1277 says, “fawning, he announces, sāveti.”

47.

Thus for a schism to occur at least nine monks must break off from the main body of the Order.

48.

Cf. Vin.1.151.

49.

Cf. AN.v.73, AN.v.75.

50.

As at Kd.10.5.4, Kd.10.5.5; Kd.14.14.2, Cf. AN.i.19AN.i.20.

51.

Oldenberg’s text reads apakāsanti avapakāsanti, which Vin-a.1280 interprets: they draw over a company, extract it (vijaṭenti) and set it up (ussādenti) on one side. They make it widely known that they are separated. AN.v.74, AN.v.75 reads avakassanti vavakassanti (with variant reading). Cf. AN.iii.145.

52.

āveṇi. Vin-a.1280 gives visuṃ.

53.

Cf. AN.v.74, AN.v.76.

54.

Cf. AN.v.75.

55.

bhinditvā. AN.v.75 reads bhetvā with variant readings chetvā, bhinditvā.

56.

Cf. Kd.17.3.16 for many of these expressions.

57.

Cf. AN.v.76.

58.

Cf. AN.v.76.

59.

Cf. AN.v.76.

60.

On these four psychological modalities, see BD.1.163, n.