Patthana Dhamma

by Htoo Naing | 2005 | 57,704 words

This ebook is about Patthana Dhamma, the 7th text of abhidhamma pitaka or tipitaka, reffering to the teachings of The Buddha, also known as: the Exalted One, Fully Enlightened One, Tathagata, Well Gone One; 623 BC. The materials are from a small booklet of Chatthasangayanamula Patthana Pali and Abhidhammatthasangaha text written by Venerable Anur...

Chapter 14 - Purejāta paccayo (or prenascence condition)

Purejāta paccayo:

Purejāta paccayoti cakkhāyatanam cakkhuvinnāna dhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam purejāta paccayena paccayo.

Purejāta paccayo or prenascent condition is a kind of relationship between rūpa dhamma or non consciouscious things and nāma dhamma or conscious things. The supporting dhamma or conditioning dhamma or paccaya dhamma or causal dhamma here in this type of relation is rūpa dhamma or non conscious things.

The supported dhamma or the conditioned dhamma or paccayuppanna dhamma or resultant dhamma here is nāma dhamma or conscious things. Here the example is the arising of dhammas one before arising of another. Let us take and example of seeing consciousness or eye consciousness or cakkhuvinnāna citta.

This citta always has to depend on cakkāyatana or cakkhu pasada rūpa. But cakkhu pasada rūpa arises earlier than arising of cakkhuvinnana citta.

A being or a satta is in bhavanga citta flow. At a time there arises an arammana of rūpa (sight) and at the same time cakkhu pasada rūpa also arises. But at that time there is no cakkhu vinnana citta. Because there is a flow of bhavanaga citta. As soon as cakkhu pasada and ruparammana arise 1 bhavanga citta passes away and it is called atita bhavanga citta or past bhavanga consciousness.

In the 2nd moment of cakkhu pasada rūpa existence there cannot arise cakkhuvinnana citta. Because ruparammana is so weak to support cakkhuvinnana citta and there is still bhavanag citta. That bhavanaga citta receives a message from atita bhavanga that something is coming. So the citta at 2nd moment is bhavanaga citta that has been shaken or invigorated and called bhavanga calana citta.

The 3rd moment of cakkhu pasada rūpa and the 3rd moment of ruparammana there is still bhavanga citta. But that is the last one and it is called arrested bhavanaga or bhavanguppaccheda citta. Ruparammana is ready to serve as rūparammana for cakkhuvinnana citta.

But as a vithi citta or consciousnes mind cakkhuvinnana citta still cannot arise directly after bhavanga citta. Because the nature of arammana has not been known. This is assessed by pancadvara avajjana citta or 5-sense door adverting consciousness. Only after this citta, cakkhuvinnana citta arises at 5th moment of cakkhu pasada rūpa.

So there are 3 things here.

  1. rūpa arammana (vanno or sightor colour of a form or shape)
  2. cakkhu pasada (eye sensitivity)
  3. cakkhuvinnana citta (eye consciousness)

The 1st 2 dhammas are rūpa dhamma and the last dhamma is nāma dhamma. Nāma dhamma here arises at 5th moment of both rūpa dhamma existence. So rūpa dhamma arise earlier than nāma dhamma. And nāma dhamma arises a bit later after arising of rūpa dhamma.

So rūpa are pre born or prenascent. They arise first and they support the condition of later arising cakkhuvinnana citta which is nāma dhamma. The paccaya dhamma or conditioning dhamma is cakkhu pasada rupa and paccayuppanna dhamma or conditioned dhamma is cakkhuvinnana citta or eye consciousness.

The relationship is purejāta paccayo or prenascent condition. This is the first example. Other examples of purejāta paccaya or prenascent conditions are

  1. sotāyatana or ear sensitivity (sota pasada rūpa ) and sotavinnana citta or ear consciousness
  2. ghānayatana or nose sensitivity(ghana pasada) and ghanavinnana citta or nose consciousness
  3. jivhāyatana or tongue sensitivity(jivhā pasāda) and jivhāvinnana citta or tongue consciousness
  4. kāyāyatana or body sensitivity(kāya pasada) and kāyavinnāna citta or body consciousness
  5. rūpāyatana or rūpa arammana( form/shape/colour) and cakkhuvinnana citta or eye consciousness
  6. saddāyatana or sadda arammana (sound ) and sotavinnana citta or ear consciousness
  7. gandhāyatana or gandha arammana(smell) and ghanavinnana citta or nose consciousness
  8. rasāyatana or rasa arammana (taste) and jivhāvinnana citta or tongue consciousnress
  9. photthabbāyatana or photthabba arammana (pathavi solidity/tejo temperature/vayo pressure) and kāyavinnana citta or body consciousness.

There are 10 ayatanas or 10 sense bases that are all rūpa dhamma or non conscious things. They all do not have any faculty of consciousness. 5 of them serve as arammana or object and another 5 serve as vatthu or base for arising of consciousness and they are also called pasada rūpa or sensitivity.

5 ayatanas that serve as arammana or object are

  1. rupayatana (form/shape/colour)
  2. saddayatana (sound)
  3. gandhayatana (smell)
  4. rasayatana (taste)
  5. photthabbayatana (touch_pathavi/solidity,tejo/temperature,vayo/pressure).

All these serve as prenascent condition for their corresponding consciousness of cakkhuvinnana citta or eye consciousness, sotavinnana citta or ear consciousness, ghanavinnana citta or nose consciousness, jivhavinnana citta or tongue consciousness, and kayavinnana citta or body consciousness. Because these 5 rūpa arise before their corresponding vinnana citta or sense consciousness.

5 ayatana that serve as sense base vatthu or ground for consciousness are

  1. cakkhāyatana or cakkhu pasada rupa or eye sensitivity
  2. sotāyatana or sota pasada rupa or ear sensitivity
  3. ghānayatana or ghana pasada rupa or nose sensitivity
  4. jivhāyatana or jivhā pasada or tongue sensitivity
  5. kāyayatana or kāya pasada or body sensitivity.

These 5 rūpa arise earlier than theircorresponding sense consciousness or vinnana citta and they serve prenascent condition or purejāta paccayo for their corresponding vinnana citta.

Rūpayatam sadāyatanam gandhāyatanam rasāyatanam photthabbāyatanam manodhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam purejāta paccayena paccayo.

These 5 ayatana of rūpayatana (form/shape/colour/light), saddayatana(sound), gandhāyatana (smell), rasayatana (taste), and photthabbāyatana (touch_solidity,temperature,pressure) also serve as prenascent condition or purejāta paccayo for manodhātu and accompanying dhamma of manodhātu.

Manodhāta are 3. They are pancadvaravajjana citta or 5-sense door adverting consciousness and 2 sampaticchana citta or 2 receiving consciousness. These 3 manodhātu arise later than 5 arammana. So 5 arammana serve as prenascent condition or purejāta paccaya for 3 manodhātus.

Unlike 5 vinnana cittas these 3 manodhātu do not home on panca vatthu namely cakku pasada, sota pasada, ghana pasada, jivha pasada, kaya pasada. Instead all 3 manodhātu have to depend or ground or stand or home on hadaya vatthu or heart base.

In a vithi vara there are a total of 14 vithi cittas in case of ati mahanta arammana. Vithi vara means a turn of a series of consciousness, all of whom are conscious to the current objects. Vithi cittas are consciousness that are conscious to current objects. Ati means exceedingly. Mahanta means great. Ati mahanta means very great. Arammana means object for mental attention. In this series of ati mahanta arammana there are a total of 14 vithi cittas. Just before this series there were many bhavanga cittas or life continūm consciousness.

Whenever an object of panca arammana arises that is sight, sound, smell, taste, touch direct consciousness to that object cannot arise. Why? Because at the time of arising of object the mind is not yet ready to perceive as it is occupied by the object of marana asanna javana cittas of previous life. After passing away of 3 bhavanga cittas then the first vithi citta arises.

Rūpa as an object and rūpa as a vatthu or ground for perception arise with the first bhavanga citta called atita bhavanga citta. When those 2 rūpa are 3 moments old the last bhavanga citta arises and passes away. When rūpas enter 4th moment of their life pancadvara avajjana citta (which is also called mano dhātu ) arise and it is followed by panca vinnana cittas.

So rūpas serve as prenascent conditions for panca vinnana cittas. Panca vinnana citta is followed by one of 2 sampaticchana cittas or receiving consciousness. They are also mano dhātu. The first vithi citta is also mano dhātu.

Therefore rūpas serve as prenascent condition for pancavinnana cittas, manodhātu and they also serve for mano vinnana dhātu that follow mano dhātu. All accompanying dhamma of mano dhātu and pre existing rūpa are related. Rūpa serve them as prenascent condition.

mano vinnāna dhātuyā tam sampayuttakānanca dhammānam kinci kāle purejāta paccayena paccayo, kinci kāle na purejāta paccayena paccayo.

There are mano vinnana dhātus and their accompaniments. They are consciousness after manodhātu in vithi vara. Sometimes there is prenascent condition and sometimes there is no prenascent condition.

Chavatthūni pavattiyam sattannam vinnānadhātunam, pancārammanāni ca pancavinnānavīthiyā purejāta vaseneti ekadhāva rūpam namassa paccayo hoti.

Chavattūni = cha vatthu + ni. Vatthu is a base. Vatthū are bases. Cha means six. Chavatthū means 6 bases. Chavattūni means at 6 bases.

Sattannam means being seven and vinnāna dhātunam means consciousness elements. Sattannam vinnānadhātu means 7 vinnāna dhātus or 7 consciousness elements.

These 7 vinnāna dhātus are

  1. cakkhuvinnāna dhātu or eye consciousness element
  2. sotavinnāna dhātu or ear consciousness element
  3. ghānavinnāna dhātu or nose consciousness element
  4. jivhāvinnāna dhātu or tongue consciousness element
  5. kāyavinnāna dhātu or body consciousness element
  6. mano dhātu or mind element
  7. mano vinnāna dhātu or mind consciousness elements.

The first 5 consciousness are so specific that they are parituclarly conscious to their respective object. So they are called consciousness element or vinnāna dhātu. The last consciousness is manovinnāna dhātu and these consciousness all arise at mind and depend on hadaya vatthu or heart base. They are particularly conscious to their specific object as processed by earlier consciousness.

Unlike these 6 kinds of vinnāna dhātu or consciousness elements there are 3 consciousness that are not panca vinnāna cittas or mano vinnāna dhātu. They are panca dvaravajjana citta or 5-sense door adverting consciousness and 2 sampaticchana cittas or 2 receiving consciousness. Unlike other consciousness these 3 cittas just do their job and they cannot fully conscious to any specific object. So as they just do their job they are just called mano dhātu. They do not have any vinnāna element.

Pavatti means happening existing established. Chavattūni pavattiyam means by means of 6 bases that are established or that have happened or that have arisen. In this paccayo or condition, the condition is called prenascent condition and it is by means of 6 bases and it supports or conditions 7 vinnāna dhātus that are mentioned above.

Ca means and then. So 6 bases condition 7 vinnāna dhātu with prenascent condition and then pancārammanāni ca pancavinnānavīthiyā or 5 objects condition 5-consciousness procession. This second part means that there are 5 objects namely rūpa arammana or sight, saddārammana or sound, gandharammana or smell, rasarammana or taste and photthabbarammana or touches and they serve as conditioning dhamma for pancavinnāna vithi cittas.

Vaseneti means by means of. Ekadhā va means only one way a single means.

Rūpam namassa paccayo hoti means rūpa or non consciousness matters condition nāma or consciousness matters.

Therefore there is just only one paccayo that rūpa condition nāma and that paccayo or condition is purejāta paccayo or prenascent condition.

There are 2 purejāta paccaya. They are vattu purejāta paccayo and ārammana purejāta paccayo.

Vatthu purejāta paccaya are 6 vatthus.

1. cakkhuvatthu ; This rupa arises at the same time when rupa arammana or form shape light arises. It conditions cakkhuvinnāna citta. But it arises earlier than cakkhuvinnana citta. So it serves as vatthu purejāta paccaya or base prenascent condition.

2. sotavatthu ; This rupa arises at the same time when sadda or sound arises. It conditions sotavinnāna citta. But it arises earlier than sotavinnāna citta.

3. ghanavatthu ; This rupa arises earlier than ghanavinnāna citta but it conditions ghānavinnana citta. So the condition is called purejata or prenascent condition.

4. jivhāvatthu ; This rupa arises earlier and conditions later arising jivhāvinnana citta and the condition is called vatthu purejāta paccayo or base prenascent condition.

5. kāyavatthu ; This rūpa arises earlier and conditions later arising kāyavinnāna citta and the condition is called prenascent condition.

6. hadayavatthu ;

At patisandhi or as soon as a life starts there arise hadaya vatthu or heart base. This rūpa conditions later arising mano vinnāna dhātu.

At pavatti or when in life and there is continuous arising of rūpa and nāma and in the process of consciousness or vithi vāra or just in bhavanga sota or life continūm flow there are nāma or consciousness and their associates. They are all conditioned by hadaya vatthu as vatthu purejāta paccaya or base prenascent condition.

In vattu purejāta paccaya or base prenascent condition there are 6 bases or 6 vatthus that conditions 7 vinnāna dhātus. 5 vatthus or 5 sense bases of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body each condition their respective sense consciousness.

But hadaya vatthu or heart base behaves a bit different from these 5 sense bases.

Heart base or hadaya vatthu arises as soon as a life starts. This rupa last arises 17 moments back from cuti citta or dying consciousness and it passes away at the same time cuti citta passes away. As long as living heart base or hadaya vatthu serves as prenascent condition to later arising consciousness as vatthu purejāta or base prenascent condition.

When in panca vokāra bhūmi or when in realms where there are all 5 khandhas hadaya vatthu or heart base is the seat of all mind elements with the exception of 10 vinnāna cittas or dvi panca vinnana cittas. Dvi pancavinnana cittas or 10 sense consciousness take their seat at panca vatthu or 5 sense base namely eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body.

Another purejāta paccayo is arammana purejāta paccayo. This condition is called object prenascent condition.
There are 5 object or panca arammana and they arise earlier than the dhamma that they condition. There are many examples to reveal this relationship between rūpa and nāma.

There are panca vinnāna vithis. Or they can also be called as panca dvāra vithis.

Vithis are series of consciousness that come in procession in definite order and they never miss a thing as they arise. That is they arise in the exact order and this never goes wrong.

To see or hear or smell or taste or touch there has to be an initial series of consciousness. It is the very first vithi vara. Depending on the amount of consciousness in the procession vithis are named as

  1. ati mahanta arammana vithi vara or tadārammana vithi vara
  2. mahanta arammana vithi vara or javana vithi vara
  3. parita arammana vithi vara or votthabbana vithi vara
  4. ati paritta arammana vithi vara or mogha vithi vara

Mahanta means great. Ati means exceeding or exceedingly. Paritta means small little inferior. There are 14 consciousness in ati mahanta arammana vithi vara, 12 consciousness in mahanta arammana vithi vara, 6 consciousness in paritta arammana and 0 or no vithi citta in ati paritta arammana vithi vara. The last vithi vara is called mogha vithi vara. Mogha means empty vain useless. There is no vithi citta and it is empty of or void of vithi citta. But there are just bhavanga cittas and there are only 2 bhavanga calana cittas.

In all these series there arise an object. That object serves as prenascent condition for later arising consciousness in the same vithi vara. So all these 5 arammana are arammana purejāta paccaya or object prenascent condition.
In this relationship the conditioning dhammas are rūpa and the conditioned dhammas are all nāma dhamma.

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: