Mano: 4 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Mano means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Mano (‘Mind’); cf. nāma.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Mano, & Mana(s) (nt.) (Vedic manaḥ, see etym. under maññati)

I. Declension. Like all other nouns of old s-stems mano has partly retained the s forms (cp. cetah›ceto) & partly follows the a-declension. The form mano is found throughout in cpds. as mano°, the other mana at the end of cpds. as °mana. From stem manas an adj. manasa is formed and the der. mānasa & manassa (-°).—Nom. mano frequent; & manaṃ Dh. 96, Acc. mano Sn. 270, 388; SnA 11, and frequent; also manaṃ Sn. 659=A. II, 3; V, 171=Nett 132; Sn. 678; Cp I. 85; Vism. 466; Gen. Dat. manaso Sn. 470, 967; Dh. 390 (manaso piya); Pv. II, 111 (manaso piya=manasā piya PvA. 71); Instr. manasā Sn. 330, 365, 834 (m. cintayanto), 1030; M. III, 179; Dh. 1; Pv. II, 97 (m. pi cetaye); also manena DhA. I, 42; DhsA. 72; Abl. manato S. IV, 65; DhA. I, 23; Vism. 466; Loc. manasmiṃ S. IV, 65; manamhi Vism. 466; also mane DhA. I, 23, & manasi (see this in compn manasi karoti, below).—

II. Meaning: mind, thought D. III, 96, 102, 206, 226, 244, 269, 281; S. I, 16, 172; II, 94; M. III, 55; A. III, 443; V, 171; Sn. 77, 424, 829, 873; Dh. 116, 300; Sdhp. 369.—

II.1. Mano represents the intellectual functioning of consciousness, while viñnāṇa represents the field of sense and sense-reaction (“perception”), and citta the subjective aspect of consciousness (cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhist Psychology p. 19) — The rendering with “mind” covers most of the connotation; sometimes it may be translated “thought. ” As “mind” it embodies the rational faculty of man, which, as the subjective side in our relation to the objective world, may be regarded as a special sense, acting on the world, a sense adapted to the rationality (reasonableness, dhamma) of the phenomena, as our eye is adapted to the visibility of the latter. Thus it ranges as the 6th sense in the classification of the senses and their respective spheres (the āyatanāni or relations of subject and object, the ajjhattikāni & the bāhirāni: see āyatana 3). These are: (1) cakkhu (eye) which deals with the sight of form (rūpa); (2) sota (ear) dealing with the hearing of sound (sadda); (3) ghāna (nose) with the smelling of smells (gandha); (4) jivhā (tongue), with the tasting of tastes (rasa); (5) kāya (touch), with the touching of tangible objects (phoṭṭhabba); (6) mano, with the sensing (viññāya) of rational objects or cognisables (dhamma). Thus it is the sensus communis (Mrs. Rh. D. Buddh. Psych. 140, 163) which recognises the world as a “mundus sensibilis” (dhamma). Both sides are an inseparable unity: the mind fits the world as the eye fits the light, or in other words: mano is the counterpart of dhammā, the subjective dh. Dhamma in this sense is the rationality or lawfulness of the Universe (see dhamma B. 1), Cosmic Order, Natural Law. It may even be taken quite generally as the “empirical. world” (as Geiger, e.g. interprets it in his Pali Dhamma p. 80—82, pointing out the substitution of vatthu for dhamma at Kvu 126 sq. i.e. the material world), as the world of “things, ” of phenomena in general without specification as regards sound, sight, smell, etc.—Dhamma as counterpart of mano is rather an abstract (pluralistic) representation of the world, i.e. the phenomena as such with a certain inherent rationality; manas is the receiver of these phenomena in their abstract meaning, it is the abstract sense, so to speak. Of course, to explain manas and its function one has to resort to terms of materiality, and thus it happens that the term vijānāti, used of manas, is also used of the 5th sense, that of touch (to which mano is closely related, cp. our E. expressions of touch as denoting rational, abstract processes: warm & cold used figuratively; to grasp anything; terror-stricken; deeply moved feeling›Lat. palpare to palpitate, etc.). We might say of the mind “sensing, ” that manas “senses” (as a refined sense of touch) the “sensibility” (dhamma) of the objects, or as Cpd. 183 expresses it “cognizable objects. ” See also kāya II.; and phassa.—

II.2. In Buddhist Psychological Logic the concept mano is often more definitely circumscribed by the addition of the terms (man-)āyatana, (man-)indriya and (mano-)dhātu, which are practically all the same as mano (and its objective correspondent dhammā). Cp. also below No. 3. The additional terms try to give it the rank of a category of thought. On mano-dhātu and m-āyatana see also the discourse by S. Z. Aung. Cpd. 256—59, with Mrs. Rh. D. ’s apt remarks on p. 259.—The position of manas among the 6 āyatanas (or indriyas) is one of control over the other 5 (pure and simple senses). This is expressed e.g. at M. I, 295 (commented on at DhsA. 72) and S. V, 217 (mano nesaṃ gocara-visayaṃ paccanubhoti: mano enjoys the function-spheres of the other senses; cp. Geiger, Dhamma 81; as in the Sāṅkhya: Garbe, Sāṅkhya Philosophie 252 sq.). Cp. Vin. I, 36; “ettha ca te mano na ramittha rūpesu saddesu atho rasesu. ” —

II.3. As regards the relation of manas to citta, it may be stated, that citta is more substantial (as indicated by translation “heart”), more elemental as the seat of emotion, whereas manas is the finer element, a subtler feeling or thinking as such. See also citta2 I. , and on rel. to viññāṇa & citta see citta2 IV. 2b. In the more popular opinion and general phraseology however manas is almost synonymous with citta as opposed to body, cittaṃ iti pi mano iti pi S. II, 94. So in the triad “thought (i.e. intention) speech and action” manas interchanges with citta: see kāya III, — The formula runs kāyena vācāya manasā, e.g. M. III, 178 (sucaritaṃ caritvā); Dh. 391 (natthi dukkaṭaṃ), cp. Dh. 96; santaṃ tassa manaṃ, santā vācā ca kamma ca. Besides with citta: kāyena vācāya uda cetasā S. I, 93, 102; A. I, 63. rakkhitena k. vācāya cittena S. II, 231; IV, 112.—It is further combined with citta in the scholastic (popular) definition of manas, found in identical words at all Cy. passages: “mano” is “cittaṃ mano mānasaṃ hadayaṃ, paṇḍaraṃ, man-āyatanaṃ ... mano-viññāna-dhātu” (mind sensibility). Thus e.g. at Nd1 3 (for mano), 176 (id.); Nd2 494 (which however leaves out cittaṃ in exegesis of Sn. 1142, 1413, but has it in No. 495 in exegesis of Sn. 1039); Dhs. 6 (in definition of citta), 17 (of man’indriyaṃ), 65 (of man-āyatanaṃ), 68 (of mano-viññṇa-dhātu). ‹-› The close relation between the two appears further from their combination in the formula of the ādesanā-pāṭihāriyaṃ (wonder of manifestation, i.e. the discovery of other peoples’thoughts & intentions), viz. evam pi te mano ittham pi te mano iti pi te cittaṃ: “so & so is in your mind ... so & so are your emotions”; D. I, 213= III, 103=A. I, 170.—At S. I, 53 both are mutually influenced in their state of unsteadiness and fear: niccaṃ utrastaṃ idaṃ cittaṃ (heart), niccaṃ ubbiggaṃ idaṃ mano (mind). The same relation (citta as instrument or manifestation of mano) is evident from J. I, 36, where the passage runs: sīho cittaṃ pasādesi. Satthā tassa manaṃ oloketva vyākāsi ... At PvA. 264 mano (of Pv IV. 71) is explained by cittaṃ; pīti mano of Sn. 766 (glad of heart) explained at SnA 512 by santuṭṭha-citto; nibbānamanaso of Sn. 942 at SnA 567 by nibbāna-ninna-citto. In the phrase yathā-manena “from his heart, ” i.e. sincerely, voluntarily DhA. I, 42, mano clearly acts as citta.—

II.4. Phrases: manaṃ uppādeti to make up one’s mind, to resolve DhA. II, 140 (cp. citt’uppāda); manaṃ karoti: (a) to fix one’s mind upon, to give thought to, find pleasure or to delight in (Loc.) J. IV, 223 (rūpe na manaṃ kare=itthi-rūpe nimittaṃ na gaṇheyyāsi C. Cp. the similar & usual manasi-karoti in same sense); VI, 45 (Pass. gīte karute mano); (b) to make up one’s mind DhA. II, 87; manaṃ gaṃhāti to “take the mind, ” take the fancy, to please, to win approval J. IV, 132; DhA. II, 48.—

III. °mana: dhamm-uddhacca-viggahita° A. II, 157 (read °mano for °manā); saṃkiliṭṭha-manā narā Th. 2, 344; atta° pleased; gedhita° greedy Pv. II, 82; dum° depressed in mind, sad or sick at heart D. II, 148; S. I, 103; Vin. I, 21; A. II, 59, 61, 198; Th. 2, 484; J. I, 189; opp. sumana elated, joyful Pv. II, 948 (=somanassajāta PvA. 132); pīti° glad or joyful of heart Sn. 766 (explained by tuṭṭha-mano, haṭṭha-mano, attamano etc. at Nd1 3; by santuṭṭha-citto at SnA 512).—

IV. manasi-karoti (etc.) to fix the mind intently, to bear in mind, take to heart, ponder, think upon, consider, recognise.—

IV.1. (v.) pres. 1st pl. °karoma Vin. I, 103; imper. 2nd sg. °karohi, often in formula “suṇāhi sādhukaṃ m. -k. ” “harken and pay attention” D. I, 124, 157, 249; cp. M. I. 7; A. I, 227; pl. 2nd °karotha A. I, 171; D. I, 214 (+vitakketha); Pot. °kareyyātha D. I, 90 (taṃ atthaṃ sādhukaṃ k.); ppr. °karonto DhsA. 207; ger. °katvā A. II, 116 (aṭṭhikatvā+... ohitasoto suṇāti); Pv III, 25 (a°=anāvajjetvā PvA. 181); VvA. 87, 92; PvA. 62; grd. °kātabba Vism. 244, 278; DhsA. 205; aor. manas-âkāsi M. II, 61; 2nd pl. (Prohib.) (mā) manasâkattha D. I, 214; A. I, 171. Pass. manasi-karīyati Vism. 284.—

IV.2. (n.) manasikāra attention, pondering, fixed thought (cp. Cpd. 12, 28, 40, 282) D. III, 104, 108 sq. , 112, 227 (yoniso), 273 (ayoniso); M. I, 296; S. II, 3 (cetanā phasso m.); IV, 297 (sabba-nimittānaṃ a° inattention to all outward signs of allurement); Nd1 501 (ayoniso); Vbh. 320, 325, 373 (yoniso), 425; Vism. 241 (paṭikūla°); VbhA. 148 (ayoniso), 248 sq. (as regards the 32 ākāras), 251 (paṭikkūla°), 255 (n’âtisīghato etc.), 270 (ayoniso), 500; DhA. II, 87 (paṭikkula°); DhsA. 133.—sammā manasikāraṃ anvāya by careful pondering D. I, 13, 18≈. As adj. (thoughtful) at ThA. 273.—The definition of m. at Vism. 466 runs as follows: “kiriyā-kāro, manamhi kāro m. purima-manato visadisaṃ manaṃ karotī ti pi m. Svāyaṃ: ārammaṇa-paṭipādako vīthi-paṭipādako javana-p. ° ti ti-ppakāro. ” — Cpds. : —kusalatā proficiency in attention D. III, 211;—kosalla id. VbhA. 56 (in detail), 224, 226 sq.; Vism. 241 (tenfold), 243 (id. , viz. anupubbato, nâtisīghato, nâtisāṇikato etc.); PvA. 63 (yoniso°);—vidhāna arrangement of attention VbhA. 69, 71;—vidhi rule or form of attention Vism. 278 (eightfold, viz. gaṇanā, anubandhanā, phusanā, ṭhapanā, sallakhaṇā, vivaṭṭanā, pārisuddhi, tesañ ca paṭipassanā ti).—The composition form of manas is mano°, except before vowels, when man’takes its place (as man-āyatana VbhA. 46 sq.).

Mano, compounds:

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

mano : (from taken by mana in cpds.)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mano (मनो):—[from man] in [compound] for manas.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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