Jivanandana of Anadaraya Makhin (Study)

by G. D. Jayalakshmi | 2019 | 58,344 words

This page relates ‘Act II (Summary)’ of the study on the Jivanandana (in English) which is a dramatic play written by Anadaraya Makhin in the 18th century. The Jivanandana praises the excellence of Advaita Vedanta, Ayurveda (medical science) and Dramatic literature as the triple agency for obtaining everlasting bliss.

Dramatis Personae.

Kāsa–(Cough) an attendant of King Yakṣmā
Chardi–(Vomiting, emesis) Kāsa's second wife
Pāṇḍu–(Anaemia, low levels of hemoglobin in blood) Son of Rājayakṣmā and also his minister.
Galagaṇḍa–(Goiter) Dauvārika, Door-keeper.
Sannipātas–(Fever) the commanders of Yakṣmā.
Kuṣṭhas–(Skin diseases) An eighteen member team
Unmādas–(Mania; Psychiatric illness) A six member team
Vraṇas–(Ulcers) A team of fifteen types
Arśobhedas–(Hemorrhoids or piles) A team of six types
Pramehas–(Carbuncle) A team of twenty types.
Aśmaris–(Renal Calculus) A twenty member team
Atisāras–(Diarrhoea or loose bowels) A seven member team.
Gulma-plīhānas–(Phatom or false tumor and spleen diseases) Gulma are four and Plīha are four.
Karṇamūla–(Ṣotajvara) (Parotitis)–Inflammation of the parotid gland–A spy.

Note: Kuṣṭha to Gulma–Plīhānas are the various factions of the army of King Yakṣmā.

Scene I: Enemy Side: Near Prince Pāṇḍu’s Secret Place: Dawn

Kāsa, a servant of king Yakṣmā, is sent by him to meet his son and minister Pāṇḍu and find out whether he was aware of the news of king Jīva taking steps to undermine his (Yakṣmā’s) power. Kāsa is proceeding towards Pāṇḍu’s abode. On his way, he meets his wife Chardi. Fearing that if Chardi identifies him she may pester him about his promise, he tries to avoid her. However, on being accosted by her, he explains to her reluctantly his secret mission.

Unexpectedly, Chardi informs him that the prince is surrounded by a five member team of powerful warriors headed by Svāsa. She had heard this news being reported to queen Viṣūci, mother of Pāṇḍu. She further assures Kāsa, that prince Pāṇḍu is watchful of king Jīva’s movements and is quite aware of the fact that Jīva had gone to perform penance. Making an assignation to meet later they part–Kāsa to meet prince Pāṇḍu and Chardi to the place of Kāmala (Jaundice), wife of Pāṇḍu. (End of Praveśaka)

Scene II: Prince Pāṇḍu’s Secret Chamber: Morning

The main Act begins with the entry of prince Pāṇḍu, who has just then woken up. He calls the door-keeper Galagaṇḍa and orders him to bring in all the army chiefs. The thirteen Sannipātas[1] enter with folded hands.

Looking at the worried Prince, they wait upon him to take order from him. Pāṇḍu tells them about the message of their king Yakṣmā and asks them to be ready with their army.

To allay the worries, these Sannipātas speak together to Pāṇḍu encouraging him. They enlist the powerful groups of their army and request Galagaṇḍa the door-keeper to bring the army-units before the prince. When they stand before the prince, he asks for their opinions about the impending war. Then, Kuṣṭhas, Unmādas, Vraṇas, Arśas and Pramehas tell him about their special features one by one and their prowess. Then Aśmaris, Atiśaras, Gulmas and Plīhas also proclaim their capability. By their speeches, the prince gains confidence.

In the meantime, their spy Karṇamūla who had been to Jīva’s camp returns there. Pāṇḍu asks him for details. Karṇamūla reports that on the orders of Pāṇḍu when he entered the Puṇḍarīkapura, he saw king Jīva having his eyes fixed on one-object, ears listening to Vedic hymns, and offering floral tribute at the holy feet of the Lord Śiva. There was not a bit of place on Jīva’s body which was not protected and hence he could not carry out his master's orders of overpowering king Jīva.

As he wandered around the city, he found three people (Vāta, Pitta and Kapha). Two of them (Pitta and Kapha) were lame and the third one (Vāta) was carrying them. They were wandering in between three places namely between neck and heart, between heart and naval and below the naval area. Being quite alert, they drove him away at first.

However, after gaining their confidence Karṇamūla told them about his intention to get a place for the night-stay there. All the three consulted each other, and said that since their king was extremely busy with an important new assignment, permission for a stranger’s night-stay in that place was strictly prohibited. Karṇamūla, had to return to report the matter.

On hearing this, Pāṇḍu much enraged, ridicules this effort of the enemies; he declares that inspite of obtaining the desired Rasa and Gandhaka, their power can be mitigated by irregular food habits and that deep devotion and penance towards lord Śiva shall also be disturbed.

On being asked by Pāṇḍu about the nature of the citizens there, Karṇamūla states that they are three-folded as Vāta, Pitta and Kapha. Of them, the popular and powerful one is Vāta who is inspired by oil-applications (medicinal oil). Going along with Vāta is Pitta who can be controlled by the sweet and tasty preparations. The helpless third one Kapha can also be managed by the intakes of a few of the six tastes with medicinal effect.

Regarding the state of mind of king Jīva, Karṇamūla says that the brilliant minister Vijñāna Śarmā's guidance helps the king in his every movement. He very cleverly organizes the day-to-day affairs of the kingdom and the people remain safe and well protected. When enquired about the other minister Jñāna Śarmā, Karṇamūla reports that he remains silent.

Pāṇḍu now decides that it would be easy luring the mind, which is by nature fickle, with the help of four in-born inimical qualities like desire and anger by this process it would be easy to destroy the entire enemy-force.

By then, Kāsa comes back from king Yakṣmā and whispers the king's message in Pāṇḍu's ears. On hearing this, Pāṇḍu asks the entire team to go to their places of duty; he also tells them that the further course of their task would be decided after hearing the plans of king Yakṣmā. All exit and the Act comes to an end.

Note: There are seven verses in the interlude of which the first six verses are in Kāsa's speech and the seventh one is spoken by Chardi who switches over to Sanskrit here.

There are thirty four verses in this main Act. The total number of verses in the second Act is forty one.

Footnotes and references:


Sannipātas are fever caused by the aggravation of Vāta, Pitta and Kapha and totally thirteen types). They are: Visphāraka, Āsukāri, Kampana, Babhru, Viddhakhya, Phalgu, Kūtapākala, Sammohaka, Pākala, Yāmya, Krakaca, Karkotaka and Vaidārika.

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