Sambhara, Sāmbharā, Sāmbhara, Shambhara, Sambhāra, Saṃbhāra: 25 definitions


Sambhara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Sambhar.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Śambhara (शम्भर) refers to the Sambar (Cervus Unicolor), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Saṃbhāra (संभार) refers to “ingredients” (for paying homage), according to the Netratantroddyota commentary on the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 4.4cd]—“[...] People with wealth [should pay homage] with lavish ingredients (mahā-saṃbhāra); for others it may be done even with such meager ingredients as dūrva grass, water, and sprouts. For in this way there is a supremacy of our teachers [who] lack laziness and [are] free of greed”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sambhara in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sambhāra (सम्भार) refers to “all the requisite things”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.42 (“Description of the meeting of the Lord and the Mountain”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “On hearing that the all-pervading Śiva had come very near his city, the lord of mountains Himavat rejoiced much. Then, gathering all the requisite things (sambhṛta-sambhāra) he sent mountains and the brahmins to welcome Siva. With his mind melting with devotion and joyously praising his luck, the mountain personally went to see Śiva as dear as the very vital air. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Saṃbhāra (संभार) refers to the “equipment” (for the Path of nirvāṇa), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 18).—Accordingly, “[...] The person who keeps the precepts (śīla) is reborn among the gods; trance, knowledge, purity of mind assure nirvāṇa. The merit inherent in generosity is the equipment (saṃbhāra) for the Path of nirvāṇa: indeed, by thinking of the gifts [which one has made], one rejoices; by rejoicing, one settles one’s mind; by settling the mind, one contemplates impermanence of birth and death; by contemplating the impermanence of birth and death, one obtains the Path”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Saṃbhāra (संभार) refers to “accumulation” (of qualities), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, from innumerable aeons ago (asaṃkhyeya-kalpa), the Bodhisatvas in the Mahāvyūha universe have been in accordance with the [perfection of] giving as adorned with generosity, have been completely pure in understanding as adorned with morality, have been without hostile thoughts towards any living beings as adorned with tolerance, have accumulated all qualities of the Buddha (sarvabuddha-dharma-saṃbhāra) as adorned with vigour, [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Sambhāra (सम्भार) or Sambhāraśīla refers to the “meritorious virtue” and represents one of the “three kinds of virtue” (śīla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 106). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., sambhāra). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

2) Sambhāra (सम्भार) refers to “two kinds of requisites” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 117).

  1. puṇya-sambhāra (the requisite of merit),
  2. jñāna-sambhāra (the requisite of knowledge).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Saṃbhāra (संभार) refers to a “multitude” (of flames), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice, fire, corrosive liquid or razor in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames (śikhā-saṃbhāra) from the fire of violent actions in the plant and animal world , and subject to unequalled trouble in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.

Synonyms: Samūha, Jāta, Prasara, Pracaya, Jāla, Paṭala.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Sambhara (or, Sāṃbharā) refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to various sources. The associated place of origin is known as Sambhara (or, Sāṃbhara). The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Sambhara), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Sambhara) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (e.g., Sambhara) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places (e.g., Sambhara), and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sambhāra.—(ML), provision. Note: sambhāra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sambhara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sambhāra : (m.) materials; requisite ingredients; accumulation; a heap.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sambhāra, (fr. saṃ+bhṛ) “what is carried together, ” viz. 1. accumulation, product, preparation; sambhāraseda bringing on sweating by artificial means Vin. I, 205.—2. materials, requisite ingredients (of food) Miln. 258; J. I, 481; V, 13, 506; J. I, 9; II, 18; IV, 492; dabba° an effective requisite DhA. I, 321; II, 114; bodhis° the necessary conditions for obtaining enlightening J. I, 1; vimokkhas° ThA. 214.—3. constituent part, element S. IV, 197; DhsA. 306. -4. bringing together, collocation S. I, 135; Miln. 28. (Page 694)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śambhara (शंभर).—m (śambara S) A sort of Elk. See sāmbara.

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śambhara (शंभर).—a (śata S) A hundred. Note. To express hundreds śēṃ is substituted, taking up a numeral prefix; as dōnaśēṃ, tīnaśēṃ, śambhara stands alone to express One hundred, and suffers not the numeral prefix ēka. śaṃ0 buḍyā mārūna āṅga kōraḍēṃ dākhaviṇārā (One who, after a hundred dips, still shows himself dry.) A term for a sharp and subtle knave whose knavery no one can establish. śaṃ0 hātānta yēūṃ na dēṇēṃ (Not to suffer to approach within a hundred cubits.) To keep well off.

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sambhāra (संभार).—m S Materials and implements (as of worship, sacrifice, war &c.) collectively; the apparatus and necessaries (of a business generally). 2 Assemblage, collection, mass, heap, load; a multitude or an aggregate quantity. Ex. jāhālē duṣkṛtīcē saṃ0 ॥. Also in comp. as aśvasambhāra, gajasaṃ- bhāra, sēnāsambhāra, sumanasambhāra. 3 Maintaining, supporting, upholding.

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sāmbhāra (सांभार).—m (sambhāra S) Prepared seasoning, viz. pulse with various spices and condiments well-mixed and dried over a fire. For use it is reduced to powder.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śambhara (शंभर).—a A hundred.

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sambhāra (संभार).—m Materials and implements collectively (as of worship, war &c.). An assemblage, a multitude.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃbhāra (संभार).—

1) Bringing together, collecting; पर्यायसेवामुत्सृज्य पुष्पसंभारतत्पराः (paryāyasevāmutsṛjya puṣpasaṃbhāratatparāḥ) Kumārasambhava 2.36.

2) Preparation, provisions, necessaries, requisites, apparatus, things requisite for any act; बहूपकरणा यज्ञा नानासंभारविस्तराः (bahūpakaraṇā yajñā nānāsaṃbhāravistarāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3. 82.14; सविशेषमद्य पूजासंभारो मया संनिधापनीयः (saviśeṣamadya pūjāsaṃbhāro mayā saṃnidhāpanīyaḥ) Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 5; R. 12.4; V.2.

3) An ingredient, a constituent part.

4) Multitude, heap, quantity, assemblage; as in शस्त्रास्त्रसंभार (śastrāstrasaṃbhāra).

5) Fulness.

6) Wealth, affluence.

7) Maintenance, support.

8) High degree, excess of.

Derivable forms: saṃbhāraḥ (संभारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Saṃbhāra (संभार).—m., equipment (as in Sanskrit); technically, sc. bodhi-saṃ° (compare next, and in Pali Jātaka (Pali) i.1 verse 5 anante bodhisaṃbhāre, not named), or °ro bodhisattvānāṃ Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xviii.38, equipment for (those destined for) enlighten- ment; consists of two things, puṇya and jñāna, according to Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra), Dharmasaṃgraha 117, and Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. vii.80—81; in Lalitavistara 35.12 ff. four are named, each being a dharmāloka- mukha, viz. the above two plus śamatha and vidarśanā. See next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sambhāra (सम्भार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Multitude, number, quantity, heap, assemblage. 2. Maintaining, supporting. 3. Provision, preparation, getting everything ready or complete. 4. Fulness, completion. 5. Apparatus, necessaries, things required for any act or affair. E. sam before bhṛ to maintain, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃbhāra (संभार).—i. e. sam-bhṛ + a, m. 1. Maintaining, supporting. 2. Apparatus, things required for any act or affair, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 11, 13; [Pañcatantra] 157, 22. 3. Provision, getting everything ready. 4. Completion, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 171, 5. 5. Fullness, wealth, [Nala] 26, 24. 6. Multitude, heap, quantity, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 141, 8; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 35; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 273.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃbhara (संभर).—[adjective] bringing together or near.

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Saṃbhāra (संभार).—[masculine] bringing together or near; preparation, provision, materials, necessaries; possession, property; plenty, abundance, high degree.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śambhara (शम्भर):—[=śam-bhara] [from śam] m. Name of a man (cf. śāmbhara).

2) Śāmbhara (शाम्भर):—m. [patronymic] [from] śambhara, [Pravara texts]

3) n. ([probably]) Name of a lake in Rājputāna (commonly called Sāmbhar, where a kind of fossil salt is found), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

4) Sambhara (सम्भर):—[=sam-bhara] a etc. See sam-√bhṛ.

5) [=sam-bhara] [from sam-bhṛ] b mfn. one who brings together, a supporter, bestower, [Ṛg-veda]

6) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a district and lake in Rājputāna (the lake commonly called Sambhar, where the salt gaḍa-lavaṇa is found, lies between the Jaipur and Jodhpur states), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Sambhāra (सम्भार):—[=sam-bhāra] [from sam-bhṛ] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) bringing together, collecting (= sam-bhṛti), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] preparation, equipment, provision, necessaries, materials, requisite, collection of things required for any purpose (with Buddhists twofold, viz. 1. puṇya-s, ‘meritorious acts’, and 2. jñāna-s, ‘science’; others add 3. śamatha-s, ‘quietude’, and 4. vidarśana-s, ‘farsightedness’ [Dharmasaṃgraha 117]), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

9) [v.s. ...] = -yajus, [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] property, wealth, [Mahābhārata]

11) [v.s. ...] fulness, completeness, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] multitude, number, quantity, [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

13) [v.s. ...] high degree, excess of (love, anger etc.), [Ratnāvalī; Vāsavadattā]

14) [v.s. ...] maintenance, support, nourishment, [Horace H. Wilson]

15) Sāmbhara (साम्भर):—n. ([from] sam-bhara) a kind of salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sambhāra (सम्भार):—[sa-mbhāra] (raḥ) 1. m. Multitude; making provision; supporting; fulness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Saṃbhāra (संभार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saṃbhāra, Saṃhara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Sambhara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Sambhara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Saṃbhāra (संभार) [Also spelled sambhar]:—(nm) equipment; accumulation/collection.

2) Saṃbhāra (संभार) [Also spelled sambhar]:—(nf) maintenance upkeep.

3) Sāṃbhara (सांभर):—(nm) a kind of Indian antelope.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Saṃbhara (संभर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Saṃbhṛ.

2) Saṃbhara (संभर) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃsmṛ.

3) Saṃbhāra (संभार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃbhāra.

4) Saṃbhāra (संभार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Saṃbhāra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Saṃbhara (ಸಂಭರ):—[noun] = ಸಂಬಾರ [sambara].

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Saṃbhāra (ಸಂಭಾರ):—

1) [noun] the act of collecting, gathering; accumulation.

2) [noun] any collection of articles, usu. things used in some activity.

3) [noun] any of several vegetable substances, as cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg or pepper, that have distinctive flavours and aromas, used to season food.

4) [noun] such substances collectively or as a material; spice.

5) [noun] a unit or branch of a whole.

6) [noun] a crowd; a multitude.

7) [noun] abundance; plentifulness.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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