Samhara, aka: Saṃhāra; 11 Definition(s)
Samhara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Saṃhāra (संहार):—Eighth of the nine padas, or ‘fields of authority or qualification’ representing one of the nine groups of Dūtīs in the Dūtīchakra, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. The eighth group of Dūtīs is presided over by the Bhairava named Diṅmaheśvara.Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Saṃhāra (संहार, “annihilation”) refers to the “annihilation of the world” and represents one of the “five-fold duties” (pañcakṛtya), according to Śivapurāna 1.10.1-5, “[...] the permanent cycle of the five-fold duties consists of creation, maintenance, annihilation, concealment, and blessing. [...] Saṃhāra is the annihilation [of the world]. [...] These five are my activities but are carried on by others silently as in the case of the statue at the Portal. The first four activities concern the evolution of the world and the fifth one is the cause of salvation. All these constitute my prerogatives. These activities are observed in the five elements by devotees—[...] Saṃhāra (annihilation) in the fire [...] everything is urged by the fire; [...] In order to look after these five-fold activities (pañcakṛtya) I have five faces, four in the four quarters and the fifth in the middle”.Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
1a) Saṃhāra (संहार).—A Bhairava god on the sixth parva of Geyacakra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 79.; 20. 92.
1b) The pralaya at the end of Kaliyuga; first covering by waters, next by tejas, then by ākāśa, then by bhūtadi, then by mahat, and lastly by avyakta;1 the period ending all manvantaras, each continuing for several yugas;2 impossible to be told in detail.3Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Saṃhāra (संहार) is the Sanskrit name of a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.
Saṃhāra has the following eight manifestations:
All these have a color resembling the lightning; they should carry in their hands the kuṇḍa, the kheṭaka, the parigha (a kind of club) and bhiṇḍipāla.Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Saṃhāra (संहार, “conclusion”) refers to one of the “five segments” of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. It is also known by the name Nirvahaṇa. These five segments are assigned to the principal plot (ādhikārika).
2) Saṃhāra (संहार) or Saṃharaṇa refers to one of the two limbs (aṅga) belonging to Khañjanātkuṭā type of song (dhruvā) defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32.9-16. Accordingly, “depending on different conditions, the dhruvās are known to be of five classes”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Saṃhāra (संहार).—Unnecessary contraction of the place (स्थान (sthāna))as also of the instrument (करण (karaṇa)), which results into a fault of utterance called पीडन (pīḍana); cf. विहार-संहायोर्व्यासपींडने (vihāra-saṃhāyorvyāsapīṃḍane) R. Pr.XIV.2.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Jainism)
Saṃhāra (संहार, “expansion”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.16.—How does the empirical soul with innumerable space point exist in one of the innumerable space-points of space? It is possible due to the capacity of expansion (saṃhāra) and contraction (visarpa) of the soul, like light. The empirical soul is of the size of the body it owns according to this capacity of expansion and contraction.
Is contraction (saṃhāra) and expansion (visarpa) nature of the soul or is it an attribute of kārmika bondage? Contraction expansion is not the nature of the sol. It is an attribute of the name karma associated with the soul. Do Siddhas have expansion and contraction? If not, why not? No, as they (Siddhas) is free from body-making karma. Contraction and expansion is an attribute of karma and not of the soul.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
saṃhāra : (m.) abridgement; compilation.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
saṃhāra (संहार).—m (S) Destroying or destruction (i. c. reduction into its original state) of the universe. 2 Extinction, exhaustion, consumption, extirpation, annihilation &c.; demolition of form, mode, or state, or destruction of being, in the widest acceptation; and, preëminently (in poetry and popularly), exterminating or extensive slaughter:--whether the act or the state. 3 S Collecting: also collectedness or a collection. 4 Abridging: also abridgedness or an abridgment. 5 Contracting or gathering together generally: also contracted or gathered state.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Saṃhāra (संहार).—1 Drawing or bringing together, collecting; अनुभवतु वेणीसंहारमहोत्सवम् (anubhavatu veṇīsaṃhāramahotsavam) Ve.6; कृत्स्नं च धनसंहारं कुर्वन्ति विधिकारणात् (kṛtsnaṃ ca dhanasaṃhāraṃ kurvanti vidhikāraṇāt) Mb.12.2.8.
2) Contraction, compression, abridgment.
3) Withholding, drawing back, withdrawal (opp. prayoga or vikṣepa); समर्थो धारणे मोक्षे संहारे चासि पाण्डव (samartho dhāraṇe mokṣe saṃhāre cāsi pāṇḍava) Mb.3.4.15; Bhāg.1.7.27; प्रयोगसंहारविभक्तमन्त्रम् (prayogasaṃhāravibhaktamantram) R.5.57,45.
4) Restraining, holding back.
5) Destruction, especially of the universe, universal destruction; संहारे समनुप्राप्ते व्यादितास्य इवान्तकः (saṃhāre samanuprāpte vyāditāsya ivāntakaḥ) Rām.7.62.5.
6) Close, end, conclusion.
7) An assemblage, a group.
8) A fault in pronunciation.
9) A charm or spell for withdrawing magical weapons.
1) Practice, skill.
11) A division of hell.
Derivable forms: saṃhāraḥ (संहारः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. Destruction, loss. 2. The destruction of the world. 3. A division of Tartarus. 4. Abridgment, abbreviation. 5. Collection, assemblage. 6. Restraining, suppressing. 7. Practice. 8. A fault in pronunciation. 9. Close, end, conclusion. 10. A charm or spell for restraining a magical weapon. E. sam together, hṛ to take, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Saṃhāramudrā (संहारमुद्रा).—Name of a particular posture in the Tantra worship; it is thus defi...
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Ṛtusaṃhāra (ऋतुसंहार).—'collection of the seasons, Name of Kālidāsa's work on the six seasons. ...
Veṇisaṃhāra (वेणिसंहार) or Veṇīsaṃhāra (वेणीसंहार).—1) tying the hair into a braid; Ve.6. 2) Na...
Viśvasaṃhāra (विश्वसंहार).—general destruction. Derivable forms: viśvasaṃhāraḥ (विश्वसंहारः).Vi...
Saṃhārapāda (संहारपाद).—The fourth pāda of the Purāṇa;1 of2 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇ...
Saṃhāramūrti (संहारमूर्ति) refers to “destructive aspects”. It is one of the five classes of...
Sūrasaṃhāra or Sūrasaṃhāramūrti is found depicted in the Subramanya Swamy Temple (or Subrahmaṇy...
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Search found 20 books and stories containing Samhara or Saṃhāra. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Kailasanathar Temple < [Chapter XIV - Conclusion]
Temples in Punjai < [Chapter VI - Temples of Aditya II’s Time]
Bronze, group 2: Age of Aditya I (a.d. 871-907) < [Chapter XI - Sculpture]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Tiruchchengattangudi (Sri Uttarapatisvarar Temple) < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 10 - The five-fold activities (pañcakṛtya) and the Oṃkāra-mantra < [Section 1 - Vidyeśvara-saṃhitā]
Chapter 36 - Mutual fight < [Section 2.5 - Rudra-saṃhitā (5): Yuddha-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 16 - The consecration of the disciple (śiṣya) < [Section 7.2 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (2)]