by Hermann Jacobi | 1884 | 24,941 words | ISBN-10: 8120801237 | ISBN-13: 9788120801233
The English translation of the Kalpa Sutra of Bhadrabahu, which represents one of the Cheda-sutras in Shvetambara Jainism. Traditionally dated to the 4th-century BCE, it contains the biographies of Mahavira and Parshvanatha, two of the twenty-four Tirthankaras. Alternative titles: Kalpa-sūtra (कल्प-सूत्र) or Kalpasūtra (कल्पसूत्र, kalpasutra)...
In that period, in that age lived the Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, four important moments of whose life happened when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Uttarāṣāḍhā; the fifth, when in conjunction with Abhijit: (204) in Uttarāṣāḍhā he descended from heaven, &c. (all down to) in Abhijit he obtained final liberation. (205)
In that period, in that age, in the fourth month of summer, in the seventh fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Aṣāḍha, on its fourth day, the Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, descended from the great Vimāna called Sarvārthasiddha, where he had lived for thirty-three Sāgaropamas, here on the continent Jambūdvīpa, in Bharatavarṣa, in Ikṣvākubhūmi, and in the middle of the night, &c., he took the form of an embryo in the womb of Marudevī, wife of the patriarch Nābhi. (206)
The knowledge of the Arhat Ṛṣabha about this, &c. (all as in the case of Mahāvīra, but note the following differences: the first dream is a bull ‘coming forward with his face,’ the other (mothers of Tīrthakaras see first) an elephant. She (Marudevī) relates them to Nābhi, the patriarch; there are no interpreters of dreams; Nābhi, the patriarch, himself interprets them). (207)
In that period, in that age the Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian,--in the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Caitra, on its eighth day, &c.,--(Marudevī), perfectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy. (208)
(The circumstances connected with the birth of Ṛṣabha are the same as in the case of that of Mahāvīra, only that the contents of §§ 100 and 101 do not apply to the present case.) (209)
The Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, clever, with the aspirations of a clever man, of great beauty, controlling (his senses), lucky, and modest, lived two millions of former years as a prince, and six millions three hundred thousand former years as a king. During his reign he taught, for the benefit of the people, the seventy-two sciences, of which writing is the first, arithmetic the most important, and the knowledge of omens the last, the sixty-four accomplishments of women, the hundred arts, and the three occupations of men. At last he anointed his hundred sons as kings, and gave each a kingdom. Then the Laukāntika god, following the established custom, &c. (see §§ 110-112, down to) indigent persons. In the first month of summer, in the first fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Caitra, on its eighth day, in the latter part of the day, riding in his palankin called Sudarsanā, followed on his way by a train of gods, men, and Asuras, &c. (Ṛṣabha) went right through the town Vinītā to the park called Siddhārtha Vana, and proceeded to the excellent tree Aśoka. There, &c. (see § 116, down to) four handfuls. When the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Aṣāḍhā, he, after fasting two and a half days without drinking water, put on a divine robe, and together with four thousand of high, noble, royal persons, and Kṣatriyas, he tore out his hair, and leaving the house entered the state of houselessness. (211)
The Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, for one thousand years neglected his body, &c. (see §§ 1 I7-120, down to) meditated upon himself for one thousand years. Thereupon--it was in the fourth month of winter, the seventh fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Phālguna, on its eleventh day, in the early part of the day, when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Aṣāḍhā, outside of the town Purimatāla, in the park called Śakaṭamukha, under the excellent tree Nyagrodha--(Ṛṣabha) after fasting three and a half days without drinking water, being engaged in deep meditation, reached the infinite, &c. (see § 120, down to) highest knowledge and intuition called Kevala, &c. (see § 121, down to) moment. (212) The Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, had eighty-four Gaṇas and eighty-four Gaṇadharas. (213)
The Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, had an excellent community of eighty-four thousand Śramaṇas with Ṛṣabhasena at their head; (214) three hundred thousand nuns with Brahmīsundarī at their head; (215) three hundred and five thousand lay votaries with Śreyāṃsa at their head; (216) five hundred and fifty-four thousand female lay votaries with Subhadrā at their head; (217) four thousand seven hundred and fifty sages who knew the fourteen Pūrvas, &c.; (218) nine thousand sages who were possessed of the Avadhi knowledge; (219) twenty thousand Kevalins; (220) twenty thousand six hundred sages who could transform themselves; (221) twelve thousand six hundred and fifty sages of vast intellect, &c.; (222) twelve thousand six hundred and fifty professors; (223) twenty thousand male and forty thousand female disciples who had reached perfection; (224) twenty-two thousand nine hundred sages in their last birth, &c. (225)
The Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, instituted, &c. (see § 146, down to) the former ended after numberless generations, the latter from the next Muhūrta after his Kevaliship. (226)
In that period, in that age the Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, lived two millions of former years as a prince, six millions three hundred thousand former years as a king, together eight millions three hundred thousand former years as a householder; a thousand (former) years in a state inferior to perfection, nine-and-ninety thousand former years as a Kevalin, together a hundred thousand former years as a Śramaṇa, and eight millions four hundred thousand years on the whole. When his fourfold Karman was exhausted, and in this Avasarpiṇī era the Suṣamaduḥshamā period had nearly elapsed, only three years and eight and a half months being left, in the third month of winter, in the fifth fortnight, the dark (fortnight) of Māgha, on its thirteenth day, in the early part of the day when the moon was in conjunction with the asterism Abhijit, (Ṛṣabha), after fasting six and a half days without drinking water, on the summit of mount Aṣṭāpada, in the company of ten thousand monks in the Samparyaṅka position, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains. (227)
Since the time that the Arhat Ṛṣabha, the Kośalian, died, &c. (all down to) freed from all pains, three years and eight and a half months elapsed; thereupon one koṭi of koṭis of Sāgaropamas, less forty-two thousand and three years and eight and a half months, elapsed. At that time the Venerable Ascetic Mahāvīra died; after his Nirvāṇa nine centuries elapsed, of the tenth century this is the eightieth year.
End of the Life of Ṛṣabha.
End of the Lives of the Jinas.
Footnotes and references:
The arts, as those of the potter, blacksmith, painter, weaver, and barber, each of which five principal arts is subdivided into twenty branches, are inventions and must be taught; while the occupations, agriculture, trade, &c. have everywhere developed, as it were, of themselves. The accomplishments of women are dancing, singing, &c. The commentator adds to these a detailed list of those questionable accomplishments which Vātsyāyana has so curiously described, and refers the reader to the Jayamaṅgala for further details. The latter work, a still extant commentary on the p. 283 Kāma Sūtra, must therefore be older than 1307, the date of Jinaprabhamuni’s commentary on the Kalpa Sūtra.