Rishika, Ṛṣika, Ṛṣikā, Ṛṣīka: 12 definitions

Introduction:

Rishika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ṛṣika and Ṛṣikā and Ṛṣīka can be transliterated into English as Rsika or Rishika, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Ṛṣikā (ऋषिका) refers to a country belonging to “Dakṣiṇa or Dakṣiṇadeśa (southern division)” classified under the constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Uttaraphālguni, Hasta and Citrā represent the southern division consisting of [i.e., Ṛṣikā] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Ṛṣikā (ऋषिका).—Name of a river originating from Śuktimān, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.

Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Ṛṣika (ऋषिक).—A Rājarṣi. Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 67, Verses 32 and 33 state that he was the rebirth of Arka, the Asura leader.

2) Ṛṣika (ऋषिक).—A town in North India. A terrible battle took place here between Arjuna and Ṛṣika, the Rājarṣi. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27, Verse 25).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Ṛṣika (ऋषिक).—A kingdom watered by Hlādinī.*

  • * ^1 Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 54; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 53.

1b) (see ṛṣikas).1 Sons of sages by several union.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 91 & 103; 33. 27; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 51.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 145. 86; Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 84-94.

2) Ṛṣikā (ऋषिका).—A river originating from the Śuktimatī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 107.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Ṛṣika (ऋषिक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.30) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Ṛṣika) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rshikas were an ancient tribe living in the northern division of ancient India. They find references in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Brhat Samhita, Markendeya Purana etc. Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini does not mention the Rishikas, but Mahabhasya of Patanjali does make reference to this people. Mahabharata refers to the Rishikas as Uttara Rishikas as well as Parama Rishikas.

Rishikas are stated to have been living as neighbors to the Parama-Kambojas and the Lohas in Transoxiana region, in Saka-dvipa. In 2nd century prior to Current era, a section of them is believed to have migrated to south-west India via Afghanistan, Balochistan, Sindhu, Sovira and settled in a region, later known as Khandesh (north-western Maharashtra). This settlement of the Rishikas is known as Southern Rishikas. The southern Rshikas are also attested as Saha.isikas, Saha.chaisika and Saha.vaisikyas in Puranic literature. The Prakrit form of Rishika is said to be Isika/Ishika, Esika/Eshika or Asika/Ashika (Dr Motichandra). The Prishakas of Al biruni, are stated to be same as the Rishikas. The Uttara Rishikas were the military allies as well as the cultural & geographical neighbors of the Parama Kambojas.

Source: Mantra Śāstra: Hinduism

Ṛṣika (ऋषिक) is the inferior or lower ṛṣi like the senior-most disciple of a ṛṣi. For example Maitreya was the ṛṣika of Maharṣi Parāśara. The learned senior female disciples are called ऋषिका (ṛṣikā). This word is sometimes used to refer to the spouse of a ṛṣika.

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṛṣika (ऋषिक) or Ṛṣīka (ऋषीक).—

1) A Ṛiṣi of a lower degree.

2) Name of a country or its inhabitants (pl.).

Derivable forms: ṛṣikaḥ (ऋषिकः), ṛṣīkaḥ (ऋषीकः).

--- OR ---

Ṛṣikā (ऋषिका).—f. A female author composing the Ṛiks e. g. Viśvavārā, Romaśā &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ṛṣīka (ऋषीक).—name of a nāga: Mahā-Māyūrī 221.29.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṛṣika (ऋषिक):—[from ṛṣi] m. a Ṛṣi of lower degree

2) [v.s. ...] Name of the king of the Ṛṣikas

3) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

4) Ṛṣikā (ऋषिका):—[from ṛṣika > ṛṣi] f. the wife of an inferior Ṛṣi

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

6) Ṛṣīka (ऋषीक):—[from ṛṣi] m. a species of grass, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

7) Riṣīka (रिषीक):—[from riṣ] mfn. ([probably]) destructive, injurious, [Harivaṃśa]

[Sanskrit to German]

Rishika in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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