Pancama, Pañcama: 19 definitions



Pancama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Panchama.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Pañcama (पञ्चम) refers to the fifth of the seven “musical notes” (svara), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6, chapter 19 and chapter 28. These seven notes are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The seven notes (svara) are to be used in different sentiments (rasa). For example, madhyama and pañcama are to be used in the heroic (vīra), the furious (raudra) and the marvellous (adbhuta) sentiment.

The presiding deity of the pañcama musical note (svara) is defined by various sources:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.13-14 mentions that the pañcama note is sung by Nārada.
Bṛhaddeśī 75-76 mentions Indra as the presiding deity of pañcama.
Saṅgītaratnākara 1.3.57-58 mentions Viṣṇu as the presiding deity of pañcama.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.38, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

The following animal sounds are associated with this note:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.3 assigns this note to the call of the cuckoo (kokila: cucculus indicus) in spring-time.
Bṛhaddeśī 64, p13, 2.1-5, Idem.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.13, Idem, names the cuckoo pika.
Saṅgītaratnākara, Idem Nāradīyā-śīkṣā.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pañcama (पञ्चम).—A pupil of Kṛta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 51.

1b) Outside the pale of the four āśramas a mixed caste.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 15. 37.

1c) The twenty-first Kalpa; consisting of prāṇa, apāna, samāna, udāna, and vyāna; mind-born sons of Brahmā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 47.

1d) The fifth note in music.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 49. 86. 37.

1e) A pupil of Hiraṇyanābha's son; a Sāmaga.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 44.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Pañcama (पञ्चम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.48.7, I.53) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pañcama) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music [shiksha]

Pañcama (पञ्चम) refers to the fifth of six notes (svara) in Indian music.—The air, which, rising from the navel and striking the chest, the heart, the throat and the head, sptrings from these five places, is accounted to be the essence of pañcama. (Nāradīyā-śikṣā 1. 5.7-11)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Śikṣā

Pañcama (पञ्चम, “the fifth”) is the name of a note (svara) used by singers of the sāmas (religious songs from Sāmaveda), corresponding to the dhaivata-svara of the flute, according to the Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.1. The Nāradīyā-śīkṣā is an ancient Sanskrit treatise dealing phonetics and musicology. Its proclaimed author is the Nārada.

context information

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—Illustration of the pañcama-svara according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of pañcama-svara is white. He has six hands. He holds a conch in his uper right hand and a lotus flower in the left hand, with the two middle hands hold a vīṇā (Indian lute); his lower one hand is in varadamudrā and the other in abhayamudrā. His vehicle is a cuckoo. The colour of his scarf is rosy with a red design and the colour of his lower garment is green with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Pañcama) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—The fifth consonant of the five classes of consonants; the nasal consonant, called also वर्गपञ्चम (vargapañcama); cf. यथा तृतीयास्तथा पञ्चमा आनुनासिक्यवर्जम् (yathā tṛtīyāstathā pañcamā ānunāsikyavarjam) M. Bh. on P. I. 1.9 Vārt. 2.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Pancama (or, Panchama, Pañcama) refers to one of the 84 castes (gaccha) in the Jain community according to various sources. The associated place of origin is known as Pancama-nagara (or, Pañcama-nagara). The Jain caste and sub-caste system was a comparatively later development within their community, and it may have arisen from the ancient classification of Brāhmaṇa, Kṣatriya, Vaiśya and Śūdra. Before distinction of these classes (such as Pancama), the society was not divided into distinct separate sections, but all were considered as different ways of life and utmost importance was attached to individual chartacter and mode of behaviour.

According to Dr. Vilas Adinath Sangava, “Jainism does not recognise castes (viz., Pancama) as such and at the same time the Jaina books do not specifically obstruct the observance of caste rules by the members of the Jaina community. The attitude of Jainism towards caste is that it is one of the social practices, unconnected with religion, observed by people; and it was none of its business to regulate the working of the caste system” (source).

The legendary account of the origin of these 84 Jain castes (e.g., Pancama) relate that once a rich Jain invited members of the Jain community in order to establish a vaiśya-mahāsabhā (i.e. Central Association of Traders). In response, 84 representatives came from different places (e.g., Pancama-nagara), and they were later seen as the progenitors of these castes. Various sources however mention differences in the list.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pancama in Pali glossary
Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Pañcama, (adj.) (compar. -superl. formation fr. pañca, with °ma as in Lat. supremus, for the usual °to as in Gr. pέmptos, Lat. quintus, also Sk. pañcathaḥ) num. ord. the fifth D. I, 88; Sn. 84, 99, 101; VvA. 102; PvA. 52 (°e māse in the 5th month the Petī has to die); DhA. III, 195 (°e sattāhe in the 5th week).—f. pañcamā PvA. 78 (ito °āya jātiyā) and pañcamī Sn. 437 (senā); PvA. 79 (jāti). (Page 389)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pañcama (पंचम).—m (S) or pañcamasvara n The fifth note of the gamut. 2 A Rag or musical mode. 3 A covert term for tobacco (when wanted to be chewed). 4 One of two divisions (pañcama & catura) of the śrāvaka-people. They are traders. 5 The name of the first chord of the vīṇā or lute. So called because it sounds the fifth note. The two following chords are called jōḍa, and the fourth or brass one, sounding the bass, ghōra. 6 fig. Notoriety. v kara g. of o. 7 or pañcamasālī A distinction, or an individual of it, amongst the worshipers of the lingam. See the four distinctions under cilavanta.

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pañcama (पंचम).—a (S) Fifth.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pañcama (पंचम).—m pañcamasvara n The fifth note of the gamut A Rag or musical mode. A covert term for tobacco (when wanted to be chewed).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—a. (-bhī f.) The fifth.

2) Forming a fifth part.

3) Dexterous, clever.

4) Beautiful, brilliant.

-maḥ 1 The fifth (or in later times the seventh) note of the Indian gamut; it is said to be produced by the cuckoo (kokilo rauti pañcamam Nārada), and is so called because it is produced from 5 parts of the body:-- वायुः समुद्गतो नाभेरुरोहृत्कण्ठमूर्धसु । विचरन् पञ्चमस्थानप्राप्त्या पञ्चम उच्यते (vāyuḥ samudgato nābherurohṛtkaṇṭhamūrdhasu | vicaran pañcamasthānaprāptyā pañcama ucyate) ||.

2) Name of a Rāga or musical mode (sung in the above note); व्यथयति वृथा मौनं तन्वि प्रपञ्चय पञ्चमम् (vyathayati vṛthā maunaṃ tanvi prapañcaya pañcamam) Gīt.1; so उदञ्चितपञ्चमरागम् (udañcitapañcamarāgam) Gīt.1.

3) The fifth consonant of a class; i. e. a nasal.

-mam 1 A fifth.

2) Sexual intercourse (maithuna), the fifth मकार (makāra) of the Tāntrikas.

-mam ind. For the fifth time, fifthly; Ms.8.125.

-mī 1 The fifth day of a lunar fortnight.

2) The ablative case (in gram.).

3) An epithet of Draupadī.

4) A chequered board for playing at draughts.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—mfn.

(-maḥ-mī-maṃ) 1. Fifth. 2. Beautiful, pleasing. 3. Dexterous, clever. m.

(-maḥ) 1. The fifth note of the Hindu musical scale. It is called Panchama, from being said to be formed by air drawn from five places; the navel, the breast, the heart, the throat, and forehead. 2. One of the Ragas or modes of music. f. (-mī) 1. A name of Draupadi, the wife of the five Pandus. 2. A chequered cloth for playing at draughts, &c. a chess board. 3. The fifth day of a half month. 4. The ablative case, (in gram.) n.

(-maṃ) 1. The fifth. 2. Sexual intercourse. E. pañcan five, and ḍaṭi aff. with maṭa augment; or pañcapatīn minoti vadhnāti premṇā . mī-vandhe .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—i. e. pañcan + ma, I. ordinal number, f. , Fifth, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 37, Ii. acc. n. mam, adv. Fifthly, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 125. Iii. with aṃśa, A fifth part, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 164. Iv. m. 1. One of the seven musical notes, originally the fifth, afterwards the seventh, Mahābhārata 14, 1419. 2. One of the modes of music, [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 10, 13. V. f. . 1. The fifth day of the half month, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 10241. 2. The name of a river, Mahābhārata 6, 333.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pañcama (पञ्चम).—[feminine] ī fifth or forming the fifth part, [with] aṃśa [masculine] a fifth. —[feminine] ī the fifth day of the half month, the fifth case & his endings ([grammar]); [neuter] a fifth, [adverb] for the fifth time, fifthly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pañcama (पञ्चम):—[from pañca] mf(ī)n. the fifth, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (cf. [Pāṇini 5-2, 49])

2) [v.s. ...] forming the 5th part (with or sc. aṃśa = 1/5), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] = rucira or dakṣa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] m. (in music) the 5th (later 7th) note of the gamut (supposed to be produced by the air drawn from 5 parts of the body), [Mahābhārata; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] = -rāga, [Gīta-govinda]

6) [v.s. ...] the 21st Kalpa (called after the musical note), [Vāyu-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] the 5th consonant of a Varga (id est. the nasal), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā-prātiśākhya; Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a Muni, [Catalogue(s)]

9) [from pañca] n. the fifth part, 1/5 (cf. above and, [Pāṇini 5-3, 49])

10) [v.s. ...] copulation (as the 5th of the Tattvas of the Tāntrikas; cf. pañca-tattva)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pañcama (पञ्चम):—[(maḥ-mī-maṃ) a.] Fifth; beautiful; clever. m. A musical note. f. () Draupadī; a chequered cloth for chess; the fifth day of the half month.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Pañcama (पञ्चम):—(von pañcan)

1) adj. f. ī a) oxyt. der fünfte [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 2, 49.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 7. 37.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 299.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 469.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 48 fg.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 25, 4.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 13, 4. 17.] [Aitareyabrāhmaṇa 1, 6.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 8, 6, 1, 11.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 37. 90. 136. Nalopākhyāna 6, 9.] [Hitopadeśa I. 100.] ardhapañcamān (māsān) vierundeinhalb [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 4, 95.] pañcamam adv. zum fünften Mal [Taittirīyabrāhmaṇa 2, 1, 2, 4.] fünftens [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 125.] — b) den fünften Theil bildend, n. ein Fünftel; proparox. in der nachved. Zeit [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 3, 49.] pañcamamindriyamasyāpākramat (oxyt.) ved. [Scholiast] aṃśa Fünftel [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 9, 164.] subst. [Taittirīyabrāhmaṇa 2, 3, 4, 3.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 16, 8, 3.] — c) glänzend, schön (rucira). — d) geschickt (dakṣa) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] —

2) m. a) die fünfte (später die siebente) Note der indischen Tonleiter [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 1.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1401.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 48.] [CHANDAS] in [Weber’s Verzeichniss 100, 22.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 67. 4, 140,] [Nalopākhyāna] [Mahābhārata 14. 1419. 12, 6859.] mādyantaḥ kalayantu cūtaśikhare kelīpikāḥ pañcamam [Sāhityadarpana 79. 15.] [KUVALAY. 185,a,5.] — b) ein best. Rāga (musikalische Weise) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] prapañcaya pañcamam [Gītagovinda 10, 13.] udañcitapañcamarāga [1, 39.] — c) N. des 21sten Kalpa (nach der Note benannt) [Vāyupurāṇa] in [Oxforder Handschriften 52,a,2.] — d) der fünfte Consonant eines Varga, ein Nasal [Prātiśākhya zur Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 4, 11 116. 117. 120. 160. 161.] [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 1, 1, 9,] [Scholiast] —

3) f. ī a) (sc. tithi) der fünfte Tag im Halbmonat [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 7, 1, 26. 24, 7, 1.] [ĀŚV. GṚHY. 3, 5.] [Mahābhārata 3, 14453.] [Harivaṃśa 10241.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 33, 19.] — b) die Endungen des fünften Casus (Ablativs), ein Wort im Ablativ [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 12. 37. 3, 7. 10. 24. 28. 42. 5, 3, 7. 4, 44. 6, 3, 2.] — c) = śāriśṛṅkhalā (s. d.) [BHŪRIPRAYOGA im Śabdakalpadruma]; vgl. pañcanī, pañcārī, pañcālī . — d) Beiname der Draupadī (als Gattin von Fünfen, vgl. übrigens auch pāñcālī) [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — e) Nomen proprium eines Flusses [Mahābhārata 6, 333] [?(Viṣṇupurāṇa 183).] —

4) n. der Beischlaf (das fünfte der 5 Tattva bei den Tāntrika; s. u. pañcatattva und pañcamakāra) [SAMAYĀCĀRATANTRA 2 im Śabdakalpadruma]

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Pañcama (पञ्चम):—

2) a) [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 259. fg. 269]; vgl. vīṇāpañcamadhvani [Kathāsaritsāgara 49, 217.] — e) Nomen proprium eines Muni [Oxforder Handschriften 55,b,22.] —

3) b) [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda 2, 67.]

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Pañcama (पञ्चम):—

3) b) auch eine Personalendung des Imperativs [KĀTANTRA 3, 1, 18. 26.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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