Maitra, Maitrā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Maitra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Maitra (मैत्र).—A demon tribe. Once a sage named Lomaśa persuaded Dharmaputra to attack this tribe.

2) Maitra (मैत्र).—An auspicious time (Muhūrta). Śrī Kṛṣṇa started on his historic journey to Hastināpura at Maitramuhūrta. (Śloka 6, Chapter 83, Udyoga Parva).

3) Maitra (मैत्र).—A constellation. Kṛtavarmā joined the Kaurava side on the day of this constellation. (Śloka 14, Chapter 35, Śalya Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Maitra (मैत्र).—One of the 8 muhūrtas of the afternoon.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 40.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Maitra (मैत्र).—The nakṣatra, Anurādhā which is presided over by Mitra. Note: Maitra is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Maitrā (मैत्रा, “loving-kindness”) or Maitrī refers to one of the “four immeasurables” (apramāṇa), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 32.—Accordingly, “Maitrī is to think about beings with love and always to seek for the safety (yogakṣema) and happy things in order to bring them good. Maitrī is practiced to remove hostility (vyāpāda) toward beings”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Maitra (मैत्र) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Maitra).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

maitra (मैत्र).—m (Properly mitra) A friend.

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maitra (मैत्र).—a S Friendly, amicable, relating to friend.

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maitra (मैत्र).—n S A name for the seventeenth lunar asterism or anurādhā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

maitra (मैत्र).—m A friend. a Friendly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maitra (मैत्र).—a. (-trī f.) [मित्र-अण् (mitra-aṇ)]

1) Belonging to a friend.

2) Given by a friend.

3) Friendly, well-disposed, amicable, kind; कुर्यादन्यन्न वा कुर्यान्मैत्रो ब्राह्मण उच्यते (kuryādanyanna vā kuryānmaitro brāhmaṇa ucyate) Ms.2. 87; अद्वेष्टा सर्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च (adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānāṃ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca) Bg.12.13.

4) Relating to the god Mitra (as a Muhūrta); Ku.7.6 (com. 'ārdraḥ sārdrastathā maitraḥ śubho vāsava eva ca' iti bṛhaspati- smaraṇāt); मैत्रे मुहूर्ते प्रययौ प्रयागवनमुत्तमम् (maitre muhūrte prayayau prayāgavanamuttamam) Rām.2.89.21 (com. udayāt tṛtīyamuhūrte).

-traḥ 1 A high or perfect Brāhmaṇa; परिनिष्ठितकार्यस्तु स्वाध्यायेनैव ब्राह्मणः । कुर्यादन्यत्र वा कुर्यान्मैत्रो ब्राह्मण उच्यते (pariniṣṭhitakāryastu svādhyāyenaiva brāhmaṇaḥ | kuryādanyatra vā kuryānmaitro brāhmaṇa ucyate) || Mb.12.6.12.

2) Name of a particular mixed tribe; Ms.1.23.

3) The anus; Ms.12. 72 (com.).

4) A friend.

-trī 1 Friendship, good will.

2) Intimate connection or association, union, contact; प्रत्यूषेषु स्फुटितकमलामोदमैत्रीकषायः (pratyūṣeṣu sphuṭitakamalāmodamaitrīkaṣāyaḥ) Me.31.

3) The lunar mansion called अनुराधा (anurādhā); तार्थयात्रां हलधरः (tārthayātrāṃ haladharaḥ) ...... मैत्र- नक्षत्रयोगे स्म (maitra- nakṣatrayoge sma) Mb.9.35.14.

-tram 1 Friendship.

2) Voiding or evacuation of excrement; मैत्रं प्रसाधनं स्नानम् (maitraṃ prasādhanaṃ snānam) (pūrvāhṇa eva kurvīta) Ms.4.152.

3) A prayer addressed to Mitra; अजातशत्रुः कृतमैत्रो हुताग्निः (ajātaśatruḥ kṛtamaitro hutāgniḥ) Bhāg.1.13.3.

4) The lunar mansion अनुराधा (anurādhā) (maitrabham in the same sense).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Maitrā (मैत्रा).—(rarely maitryā, q.v.; = Pali mettā; the Sanskrit equivalent maitrī is also extensively used, notably instead of this as one of the apramāṇa; Sanskrit also maitra, maitrya), love, benevolence; sometimes as one (the first) of the four apramāṇa or brahmavihāra, qq.v.: maitrāya, oblique case, Mahāvastu i.175.3 (verse; same line maitryāya iii.346.15, see maitryā); maitrāya (instr.; v.l. °tryāya) sphuṭā Mahāvastu ii.350.15; (compare maitryā, stem maitrī, sphāritvā Mahāvastu i.313.17, and see maitryā;) maitrā-vihārī Mahāvastu iii.421.18; Udānavarga xxxii.20 (22); (compare mahāmaitra-vihārī Lalitavistara 426.3, prose, with Sanskrit maitra;) maitrā-pariśuddho Mahāvastu ii.362.5; with the other three apramāṇa, maitrāyāṃ (loc.) Lalitavistara 164.15 (verse); maitrāya (gen.) 183.3 (verse); other cases, maitrā vijitya…mārapak- ṣāṃ Lalitavistara 343.6 (verse), by love (instr.); maitrām anusarati Kalpanāmaṇḍitikā, Lüders, Kl. Sanskrit Texte 2, 44; according to Kern, Preface viii, used in Kashgar recension of Saddharmapuṇḍarīka for text maitrī; maitrātmaka Divyāvadāna 319.20, 26, could contain this or Sanskrit maitra; see also next.

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Maitrā (मैत्रा) or Maitryā.—(Sanskrit maitrī, and maitrya, nt.; our stem seems to be a rare blend of more than one of these), love, benevolence: maitryāya (instr.) sphāritvā Mahāvastu i.314.1 (prose; compare maitryā sphāritvā 313.17); tasmāt te sadṛśo nāsti maitryāya (obl.; loc., or instr.?) Mahāvastu iii.346.15 (verse; same line with maitrāya i.175.3).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maitra (मैत्र).—mfn.

(-traḥ-trī-traṃ) Of or belongining to a friend, friendly, amicable. m.

(-traḥ) 1. A Brahmana. 2. A mixed caste. 3. The anus. nf. (-traṃ-trī) 1. Friendship. 2. Evacuation of excrement. 3. Union. 4. A name of the seventeenth lunar asterism, (see the next.) E. mitra a friend, or the sun and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maitra (मैत्र).—properly maittra, i. e. mittra + a (see mittra), I. adj. 1. Relating to a friend, friendly, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 12, 13. 2. Given by a friend, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 206. 3. m. (viz. saṃdhi), Proceeding from friendship, the name of a kind of alliance, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 123. Ii. m. 1. A friend to all creatures, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 87. 2. A Brāhmaṇa. 3. The son of an outcaste Vaiśya, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 23. 4. The anus. 5. Discharging of excrement, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 152. Iii. n. 1. Friendship, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 47. 2. The seventeenth lunar asterism. Cf. maitrya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maitra (मैत्र).—[feminine] ī belonging to or coming from a friend, friendly, kind, benevolent, affectionate; also relating to Mitra. —[masculine] [Name] of a cert. mixed caste & of a cert. alliance (scil. saṃdhi), a man’s name; [feminine] maitrī friendship, benevolence, likeness with (—°); [neuter] friendship, [Name] of a lunar mansion, the evacuation of excrement (presided over by Mitra).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Maitra (मैत्र):—mf(ī)n. ([from] mitra, of, which it is also the Vṛddhi form in [compound]) coming from or given by or belonging to a friend, friendly, amicable, benevolent, affectionate, kind, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) belonging or relating to Mitra, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc. etc.

3) m. ‘friend of all creatures’, a Brāhman who has arrived at the highest state of human perfection, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) a [particular] mixed caste or degraded tribe (the offspring of an out-caste Vaiśya; cf. maitreyaka), [Manu-smṛti x, 23]

5) ([scilicet] saṃdhi) an alliance based on good-will, [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

6) a friend (= mitra), [Pāṇini 5-4, 36], [vArttika] 4, [Patañjali]

7) Name of the 12th [astrology] Yoga, [Colebrooke]

8) the anus, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti on Manu-smṛti xii, 72]

9) a man’s Name much used as the Name of an imaginary person in giving examples in gram. and philos. (cf. caitra and [Latin] Caius)

10) Name of an Āditya (= mitra), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

11) of a preceptor, [Catalogue(s)]

12) n. (ifc. ā) friendship, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

13) a multitude of friends, [Mahābhārata] ([Nīlakaṇṭha])

14) = -nakṣatra, [Sūryasiddhānta]

15) an early morning prayer addressed to Mitra, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

16) evacuation of excrement (presided over by Mitra; maitraṃ √1. kṛ, to void excr°), [Manu-smṛti iv, 152]

17) = -sūtra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Maitra (मैत्र):—[(traḥ-trī-traṃ) a.] Friendly, amicable. m. A brāhman; the anus. f. 9th lunar asterism; friendship.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Maitra (मैत्र):—

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Maitra (मैत्र):—

1) b) [Z. 7] lies (ye) te st. ye .

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Maitra (मैत्र):—

1) b) mati [Hemacandra] [Yogaśāstra 4, 117.] —

2) a) [Hemacandra] [Yogaśāstra 4, 116] (maitrī zu lesen).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Maitra (मैत्र):——

1) Adj. (f. ī) — a) vom Freunde kommend. — b) die Gefühle eines Freundes habend , — verrathend , wohlwollend , liebevoll. — c) dem Mitra gehörig u.s.w. —

2) m. — a) *ein Brahmane. — b) eine best. Mischlingskaste. — c) ein best. auf Zuneigung gegründetes Bündniss. — d) der 12te astrol. Yoga. — e) *After. — f) ein gangbarer Mannsname , der wie caitra dem lateinischen Cajus entspricht. — g) Nomen proprium — α) eines Āditya , = mitra [Wilson's Uebersetzung des Viṣṇupurāṇa 2,289.] — β) eines Lehrers. —

3) f. maitrī — a) Wohlwollen , freundschaftliche Gesinnung , ein freundschaftliches Verhältniss , Freundschaft. Auch Pl. — b) nahe Berührung , innige Verbindung (mit Unbelebtem). śrotramaitrīṃ gā so v.a. zu Ohren kommen [Vikramāṅkadevacarita 8,1.] — c) Gleichheit — , Aehnlichkeit mit (im Comp. vorangehend) [Vikramāṅkadevacarita 8,4.12,74.] [Jayadeva's Prasannarāghava 43,4.] — d) das personificirte Wohlwollen erscheint auch als Tochter Dakṣa’s und Gattin Dharma's. — e) *das Mondhaus Anurādhā.

4) n. — a) Freundschaft. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) Freundesschaar. (nach [Nīlakaṇṭha]) [Mahābhārata 5,143,9.] — c) das unter Mitra stehende Mondhaus Anurādhā. Auch nakṣatra n. und bha n. — d) das am frühen Morgen an Mitra gerichtete Gebet. — e) das unter Mitra stehende Geschäft der Ausleerung. maitraṃ kar seine Nothdurft verrichten. — f) = maitrasutra. — g) *Freund.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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