Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra

by Helen M. Johnson | 1931 | 742,503 words

This page describes The Vyantaras which is the nineteenth part of chapter III of the English translation of the Ajitanatha-caritra, contained within the “Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra”: a massive Jain narrative relgious text composed by Hemacandra in the 12th century. Ajitanatha in jainism is the second Tirthankara (Jina) and one of the 63 illustrious beings or worthy persons.

One thousand yojanas above Ratnaprabhā, with the exception of 100 yojanas above and below, live the eight classes of the Vyantaras in northern and southern rows within the 800 yojanas. In these are:

  1. the Piśācas with the kadamba tree as lāñchana;
  2. the Bhūtas with the sulasa tree as lāñchana;
  3. the Yakṣas with the vaṭa tree as lāñchana;
  4. the Rākṣasas with the khaṭvāṅga tree as lāñchana;
  5. the Kinnaras with the aśoka tree as lāñchana;
  6. the Kimpuruṣas with the campaka tree as lāñchana;
  7. the Mahoragas with the nāgadru tree as lāñchana;
  8. the Gandharvas with the beautiful tumburu tree as lāñchana.

Kāla and Mahākāla are overlords of the Piśācas; Surūpa and Apratirūpa are lords of the Bhutas; Pūrṇabhadra and Māṇibhadra of the Yakṣas; Bhīma and Mahābhīma of the Rākṣasas; Kinnara and Kimpuruṣa of the Kinnaras; Satpuruṣa and Mahāpuruṣa of the Kimpuruṣas; Atikāya and Mahākāya of the Mahoragas; Gītarati and Gītayaśas of the Gandharvas. These are the 16 Indras of the Vyantaras.

In the first 100 yojanas of Ratnaprabhā, with the exception of 10 above and 10 below, i.e., in 80 yojanas, there are 8 classes of Vyantaras: Aprajñaptikas, Pañcaprajñaptis, Ṛṣivāditas, Bhūtavāditas, Kranditas, Mahākranditas, Kūṣmāṇḍas, Pacakas. The two Indras in these classes are respectively: Sannihita and Samāna; Dhātṛ and Vidhātṛka; Ṛṣi and Ṛṣipāla; Īśvara and Maheśvara; Suvatsaka and Viśāla; Hāsa and Hāsarati; Śveta and Mahāśveta; Pacaka and Pacakādhipa.

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