Ashvamukha, Ashva-mukha, Aśvamukha: 16 definitions
Ashvamukha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Aśvamukha can be transliterated into English as Asvamukha or Ashvamukha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) or Aśvakamukhya (अश्वकमुख्य):—They are mentioned in the Bṛhatsaṃhitā and were probably a north-western people. Its literal meaning “horse-faced” is interesting and there appears to have been a similar inference about them from the Greek sources also. They are probably the same as the Assekenoi of the Greeks or the Aśvakas.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) is another name for the Kinnaras, who, like Yakṣas, are the attendants of Kubera. They are represented as mythical beings with a human figure and the head of a horse or with a horse’s body and the head of a man. They are described as celestial choristers and musicians who dwell in the paradise of Kuvera on Kailāsa. They are called Aśvamukhas, Turaṅgavaktras, “horse-faced” and Mayus.
2) Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) or Turaṅgavadana refers to a group of deities, abounding the top of the Himālaya mountain, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] On the top of the mountain near the city of Himālaya (śailarājapura), Śiva sported about for a long time in the company of Satī. [...] Many kinds of semid-ivine beings the Aśvamukhas, the Siddhas, the Apsaras, the Guhyakas, etc. roamed there. Their women-folk, the Vidyādharīs, the Kinnarīs and the mountain lasses played about here and there. The celestial damsels played on their lutes, tabours and drums and danced with enthusiasm.”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख).—A horse-faced image on the figure of God of Love.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 261. 53.
1b) A group of people, perhaps Gandharvas;1 kingdom of.2
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 22. 56; Matsya-purāṇa 4. 53; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 57; 69. 31.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 121. 58.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) [=Śvamukha ?] refers to a country belonging to “Uttaratas or Uttaradeśa (northern division)” classified under the constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada represent the northern division consisting of [i.e., Aśvamukha] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) is the name of a ‘river mouth’ (mukha) into which the lake Anavatapta flows from its western corner, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Accordingly, At the northern boundaries (of Jambudvīpa), in the Snowy Mountains (Himavat), there is lake called Anavatapta. At the four corners of the lake there are four mouths from which the water flows out: at the west, the Horse’s Mouth (Ma t’eou = aśvamukha). In the south, the Ox’s Mouth empties into the Sin t’eou (Sindhu). In the west, the Horse’s Mouth empties into the P’o tch’a (Vakṣu). Its bed also consists of golden sand (suvarānavālukā). The Vakṣu comes from the mountain in the north and empties into the western ocean (paścimasamudra).Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) (in Chinese: Ma-mien) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Kṛttikā or Kṛttikānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Kṛttikā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Aśvamukha] for the sake of protection and prosperity.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख) is the name of an Antaradvīpa, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“The Mlecchas are free from (knowledge of) virtue and vice, and also those born in the Antaradvīpas. The 56 Antaradvīpas are as follows: Half of them are to the east and west of Kṣudrahimavat in the four intermediate directions, beginning with northeast. [...] Beyond them (i.e., after Ādarśamukha, Meṣamukha, Hayamukha, and Gajamukha) come Aśvamukha, Hastimukha, Siṃhamukha, Vyāghramukha, 600 yojanas in distance, length, and width”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख).—a. [aśvasya mukhamiva mukhamasya] having the head or face of a horse.
-khaḥ a horse-faced creature, a Kinnara or celestial chorister; (according to others) a kind of demigod distinct from the preceding.
-khī a Kinnara woman; भिन्दन्ति मन्दां गतिमश्वमुख्यः (bhindanti mandāṃ gatimaśvamukhyaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.11.
Aśvamukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms aśva and mukha (मुख).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-khaḥ) A Kinnara or celestial quirister. E. aśva and mukha a face; this kind of demigod being represented with a horse’s head.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख).—adj., f. khī, having a horse’s head, a Kiṃnara, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 44, 38. Udaṅmukha, i. e.
Aśvamukha is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms aśva and mukha (मुख).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख).—[feminine] ī having the head of a horse; [masculine] & [feminine] ī = kiṃnara, ī q.v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख):—[=aśva-mukha] [from aśva] mf(ī)n. having the head of a horse, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a mythical being, [Suparṇādhyāya]
3) [v.s. ...] a Kiṃnara, [Kādambarī]
4) [=aśva-mukha] [from aśva] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ([varia lectio] śva-mukha). 1.
5) Aśvāmukha (अश्वामुख):—[=aś-vā-mukha] [from aśva] m. submarine fire, [Naiṣadha-carita]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Aśvamukha (अश्वमुख):—[aśva-mukha] (khaḥ) 1. m. Celestial quirister.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
1) [noun] a member of a class of semi gods with horse-head.
2) [noun] an incarnation of Viṣṇu, with horse-head.
3) [noun] a horse-headed demon slain by Viṣṇu.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Partial matches: Ashva, Mukha.
Full-text (+14): Ashvavaktra, Ashvamukhi, Ashvavadana, Kinnara, Turangavadana, Turangavaktra, Mayu, Vikalanga, Bhaksha, Mlecchajati, Kandara, Girisikhara, Gomayu, Vinivishta, Kinnari, Kinnaranara, Gomayubhaksha, Vipanci, Mridanga, Vidyadhari.
Search found 8 books and stories containing Ashvamukha, Ashva-mukha, Aśvamukha, Asvamukha, Aśva-mukha, Asva-mukha, Aśvāmukha, Aśvā-mukha; (plurals include: Ashvamukhas, mukhas, Aśvamukhas, Asvamukhas, Aśvāmukhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Blue Annals (deb-ther sngon-po) (by George N. Roerich)
Chapter 29 - Sonam Gyatso (bsod nams rgya mtsho) < [Book 10 - The Kālacakra]
Chapter 5a - Author colophon < [Book 15 - Monastic Systems]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 31: The Antaradvīpas < [Chapter III - The initiation and omniscience of Ajita]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 102 - Jalandhara Plays a Trick < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 20 - Fight between Śiva and Jalandhara < [Section 4 - Kārttikamāsa-māhātmya]
Chapter 39 - The Greatness of Barkareśvara < [Section 2 - Kaumārikā-khaṇḍa]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 19 - The friendship of Śiva and Kubera < [Section 2.1 - Rudra-saṃhitā (1): Sṛśṭi-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 22 - The dalliance of Śivā and Śiva on the Himālayas < [Section 2.2 - Rudra-saṃhitā (2): Satī-khaṇḍa]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)