by Ganganatha Jha | 1920 | 1,381,940 words | ISBN-10: 8120811550
This is the English translation of the Manusmriti, which is a collection of Sanskrit verses dealing with ‘Dharma’, a collective name for human purpose, their duties and the law. Various topics will be dealt with, but this volume of the series includes 12 discourses (adhyaya). The commentary on this text by Medhatithi elaborately explains various t...
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation by Ganganath Jha:
स्थावराः कृमिकीटाश्च मत्स्याः सर्पाः सकच्छपाः ।
पशवश्च मृगाश्चैव जघन्या तामसी गतिः ॥ ४२ ॥
हस्तिनश्च तुरङ्गाश्च शूद्रा म्लेच्छाश्च गर्हिताः ।
सिंहा व्याघ्रा वराहाश्च मध्यमा तामसी गतिः ॥ ४३ ॥
चारणाश्च सुपर्णाश्च पुरुषाश्चैव दाम्भिकाः ।
रक्षांसि च पिशाचाश्च तामसीषूत्तमा गतिः ॥ ४४ ॥
sthāvarāḥ kṛmikīṭāśca matsyāḥ sarpāḥ sakacchapāḥ |
paśavaśca mṛgāścaiva jaghanyā tāmasī gatiḥ || 42 ||
hastinaśca turaṅgāśca śūdrā mlecchāśca garhitāḥ |
siṃhā vyāghrā varāhāśca madhyamā tāmasī gatiḥ || 43 ||
cāraṇāśca suparṇāśca puruṣāścaiva dāmbhikāḥ |
rakṣāṃsi ca piśācāśca tāmasīṣūttamā gatiḥ || 44 ||
Inanimate beings, worms, insects, fishes, snakes, tortoise, cattle and wild animals,—represent the lowest state due to the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(42)
Elephants, horses, despised Śūdras, Mlecchas, lions, tigers and boars—represent the middling state due to the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(43)
Cāraṇas, Suparṇas, hypocritical men, Rākṣasas, and Piśācas—represent the highest state among those partaking of the quality of ‘Tamas.’—(44)
Medhātithi’s commentary (manubhāṣya):
‘Cāraṇas’—dancers, singers, pimps, and so forth.
‘Suparṇas’—a particular kind of birds.
The epithet ‘despised’ is to be construed with ‘Śūdras,’—i.e., those Śūdras who disregard the Brāhmaṇas, poach upon their livelihood, and are characterised by haughtiness, vanity, and such qualities. Such injurious persons as thieves and others are also included among the‘despised.’—(42-44)
Explanatory notes by Ganganath Jha
This verse is quoted in Aparārka (p. 1000);—in Madanapārijāta (p. 693);—in Parāśaramādhava (Prāyaścitta, p. 488);—and in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Prāyahschitta 41a.)
This verse is quoted in Aparārka (p. 1000);—in Madanapārijāta (p. 693);—in Parāśaramādhava (Prāyaścitta p. 488);—and in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Prāyaścitta 41a.)
‘Cāraṇaḥ’—‘Bards, singers etc,’ (Medhātithi);—‘rope-dancers’. (Nārāyaṇa),—‘a class of mythological beings’ (Rāghavānanda.)
This verse is quoted in Aparārka (p. 1000), which adds that the variation in the resultant condition is due to variations in the being’s past acts;—in Madanapārijāta (p. 693);—in Parāśaramādhava (Prāyaścitta, p. 488);—and in Nṛsiṃhaprasāda (Prāyaścitta 41 a).
Comparative notes by various authors
See Comparative notes for Verse 12.32.