by Shreebas Debnath | 2018 | 68,763 words
This page relates ‘Kumarila Bhatta and Prabhakara Mishra on Vidhi’ of the study on the Mimamsa theory of interpretation of Vedic Injunctions (vidhi). The Mimamsakas (such as Jaimini, Shabara, etc.) and the Mimamsa philosophy emphasizes on the Karmakanda (the ritualistic aspect of the Veda). Accordingly to Mimamsa, a careful study of the Veda is necessary in order to properly understand dharma (religious and spiritual achievement—the ideal of human life).
(The suffix liṅ etc. which is related to meaning [has some meaning] and which is complete by its different parts expected by itself is capable of prompting a person to an action. In scripture the sentence having that suffix is called ‘codanā’).
According to Kumālila Bhaṭṭa ‘abhidhābhāvanā’ is the meaning of ‘liṅ’ and ‘ārthībhāvanā’ is the denoted meaning of every ‘ākyāta’ (verbal suffix expressing tense or mood).
He said in his Tantravārtika (2.1.1)–
“abhidhābhāvanām āhur anyām eva liṅādayaḥ |
arthātmabhāvanā tvanyā sarvākyāteṣu gamyate ||”
He says in the above mentioned book—
“‘abhidhābhāvanām āhuḥ’ ityasyāpi vārtikasya ayam eva arthaḥ. abhidhīyate ityabhidhā pravartanā. saiva ca puruṣapravṛttiṃ bhāvayatīti bhāvanām āhur iti. athavā abhidhāyāḥ sabdasya bhāvanā abhidhābhāvanā. saiva ca pravartanā.”
According to Kumārila, the liṅ suffix expresses the śābdī bhāvanā by the state of being an ‘ākhyāta’ and it expresses ārthī bhāvanā by the state of being an optative suffix (liṅtva, lottva etc.). Śābdī bhāvana is called ‘pravartanā’ (inducement) and ārthī bhāvanā is called ‘vyāpāra’ (exertion or effort). But the Prābhākara school admits that both the verbal urge and the objective urge can not be expressed by one and the same suffix. Because one optative suffix can not generate two knowledges. Prābhākaras say that all ‘ākhyātas’ do not convey the meaning of ‘bhāvanā’, but only the liṅ, lot etc. express it. Volition is expressed by these optative suffix only.
So, Śālikanātha Miśra says in his ‘Prakaraṇapañcikā’—
“na sarvākhyātapratyayānāṃ bhāvanāvacanatvam abhyupemaḥ, kintu kāryābhidhāyino liṅādayaḥ kāryasya anyathābhidhānāt kṛtyabhidhāyina iṣyante.”
The opinion of the Prābhākaras is that the liṅ expresses action (kārya) and urge (bhāvanā); but urge is subordinate to action. So, according to them bhāvanā is not the meaning of a vedic sentence, but action or what should be performed is the meaning of it.
So, Rāmānuja says in his ‘Tantrarahasya’–
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