by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words
The Bhagavad-gita Verse 8.4, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse 4 from the chapter 8 called “Taraka-brahma-yoga (the Yoga of Absolute Deliverance)”
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 8.4:
अधिभूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश् चाधिदैवतम् ।
अधियज्ञोऽहम् एवात्र देहे देह-भृतां वर ॥ ४ ॥
adhibhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ puruṣaś cādhidaivatam |
adhiyajño'ham evātra dehe deha-bhṛtāṃ vara || 4 ||
adhibhūtam–the manifestation of the five gross elements; kṣaraḥ–destruct-ible; bhāvaḥ–nature; puruṣaḥ–the universal form; ca–and; adhidaivatam–the original Lord of the demigods; adhiyajñaḥ–the Lord of sacrifice, in the form of the indwelling Paramātmā (who inspires all to perform activities, such as sacrifice); aham–I; eva–indeed; atra–here; dehe–within the material body; deha-bhṛtāṃ–of embodied beings; vara–O best.
O Arjuna, best among embodied beings, all that is perishable is called adhibhūta, and the universal form is known as adhidaiva, the presiding Lord of all demigods. I alone am adhiyajña, situated in the body as Antaryāmī, the indwelling witness, and I inspire a person to engage in activities such as sacrifice.
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā
Adhibhūta refers to perishable objects such as pots and cloth. According to the Nirukta dictionary, adhidaiva refers to the universal form of Viṣṇu, who has authority over the demigods such as Sūrya, the sun-god. “I inspire activity such as sacrifice by My partial expansion as the indwelling Supersoul; hence I am adhiyajña.” Śrī Bhagavān anticipates the doubt, “How are You situated as adhiyajña?” and thus He speaks the words aham eva–only I. “Only I am to be known in My non-different expansion of Paramātmā (Antaryāmī). Unlike the living entities (adhyātma), My plenary portion, the Supersoul, is non-different from Me. The living entity is My separated part (vibhinnāṃśa), and Paramātmā, who is non-different from Me, is My direct, personal expansion (svaṃśa). Because you are My friend, you are the best among the embodied beings.”
Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
Here Śrī Bhagavān is answering three of Arjuna’s questions:
Adhibhūta: Gross articles such as pots or cloth, which are perishable and which alter at every moment, exist by taking the support of the living entities.
Adhiyajña: The word adhiyajña refers to the personality who is situated in the bodies of the jīvas as the all-pervading Supersoul, or Antaryāmī, and who inspires action (karma) such as the performance of sacrifice. Antaryāmī also gives the results of action. The indwelling Supersoul is svāṃśa-tattva, a personal plenary portion of Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu and the living entity live as two friendly birds on the branch of a banyan tree, which is likened to this temporary material body. The living entity tastes the fruit of the tree according to his activities, while the other bird, Paramātmā, is not engaged in enjoying the fruit but simply witnesses the living entity’s actions.
The word prādeśa-mātra has been translated by Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī to mean the distance from the thumb to the tip of the first finger. Śrīla Cakravartī Ṭhākura says, “By His power of inconceivability (acintya-śakti), He is situated within the area of the heart as a fifteen year old youth.” Moreover, it is said in Kaṭha Upaniṣad (2.1.12), “anguṣṭha-mātraḥ puruṣo madhya ātmani tiṣtḥati–the indwelling Supreme Person is the size of a thumb and is situated within the heart.”
All this evidence proves that Paramātmā is situated within the heart of the ordinary jīva and occupies a space the size of the thumb. For His special bhaktas, however, Kṛṣṇa Himself is situated in their hearts in His form as a fifteen year old youth.
For example, the Antaryāmī situated within the heart of Bilvamaṅgala is none other than the transcendental youth Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself:
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta (Maṅgalācaraṇa)
All glories to Cintāmaṇi, whom I consider to be my guru, and who has fulfilled all desires. All glories to my guru, Somagiri, and to my śikṣā-guru, Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who has a peacock feather in His hair and who is situated in my heart.
The indwelling Lord, Antaryāmī, situated in the heart of Arjuna, is the same ever youthful Śrī Kṛṣṇa Himself, who is situated on his chariot.