Tapa, aka: Tāpa, Tapā; 12 Definition(s)


Tapa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands of The Seven Upper Worlds.—Tapa: the Patāka hand twisted upwards is applicable.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Tapa (तप).—A Deva of fire-like splendour. Born of the power of penance of five sages named Kaśyapa, Vasiṣṭha, Prāṇaka, Cyavana and Trivarcas, this Deva has got a name Pāñcajanya (born of five) also. He did severe penance (tapas) and got the name Tapa. His head is like fire, his hands like Sun, his skin and eyes are of golden hue and his waist, blue. (Śloka 4, Chapter 220, Vana Parva).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Tapa (तप).—A part of Vibhu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 4. 24.

1b) One of the twenty Sutapa gaṇas.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 14.

1c) A Sukha God.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 19.

1d) A God of Rohita gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 85.

1e) A son of Satarūpā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 25.

1f) The third kalpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 29.

1g) One of the Mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.

1h) A son of Raucya Manu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 108.

1i) (also Tapoloka) a celestial world,1 forming the forehead of Virāṭpuruṣa; the sixth loka, the residence of Ṛbhu, Sanatkumāra and others, originators of Manvantaras; each of them resides conjointly with yoga, tapa and satya; four crores of yojanas above Janaloka; the residence of the celestial Vairājas; above it, the Satyaloka or Brahmaloka.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 28; VIII. 20. 34; XI. 24. 14; Matsya-purāṇa 61. 1; 184. 23.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 17, 37, 211; 101. 208; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 14-15.

1j) The month of Māśi, (Feb.-Mar.) sacred to Pūṣa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 9; 50. 202.

1k) The essence milked by Bṛhaspati from cow-earth in the vessel of the Veda; practised by Yayātī; greater than sacrifices.1 Fasting and restraint lead to vairāgya; other features are celibacy, prayer and silence.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 10. 17; 35. 15-17; 143. 33-40; Vāyu-purāṇa 57. 121-5.
  • 2) Vā 57. 116-17; 59. 41.

2) Tapā (तपा).—An adopted son of Vastāvana.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 190.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Tāpa (ताप, “agony”) refers to “the feeling of distress owing to disgrace” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending unpleasant feelings (asātāvedanīya).

Tāpa is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Tapa (तप) or Austerities are of two kinds: external and internal; external austerities are of six kinds and internal austerities are of six kinds. The body is prepared to bear suffering (parīṣaḥ) and to practice renunciation of pleasure through the external tapa. The soul starts glittering through the internal tapa. The meaning of tapa in reference to nirjarā is internal tapa. The importance of tapa is stated in all spiritual philosophies.

Source: HereNow4U: Bhagwaan Mahaveer Evam Jain Darshan
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

tapa : (m.; nt.) (mano-group) penance; religious austerity; morality. (in cpds. this changes it's last vowel a to o and stands as tapo.)

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Tapa, & Tapo (from tapati, cp. Lat. tepor, heat) 1. torment, punishment, penance, esp. religious austerity, selfchastisement, ascetic practice. This was condemned by the Buddha: Gotamo sabbaṃ tapaṃ garahati tapassiṃ lūkhajīviṃ upavadati D. I, 161=S. IV, 330; anattha-sañhitaṃ ñatvā yaṃ kiñci aparaṃ tapaṃ S. I, 103; J. IV, 306 (tattatapa: see tatta).—2. mental devotion, self-control, abstinence, practice of morality (often= brahmacariyā & saṃvara); in this sense held up as an ideal by the Buddha. D. III, 42 sq. , 232 (attan & paran°), 239; S. I, 38, 43; IV, 118, 180; M. II, 155, 199; D. II, 49= Dh. 184 (paramaṃ tapo), 194 (tapo sukho); Sn. 77= S. I, 172 (saddhā bījaṃ tapo vuṭṭhi); Sn. 267 (t. ca brahmacariyā ca), 655 (id.), 901; Pv. I, 32 (Instr. tapasā= brahmacariyena PvA. 15); J. I, 293; Nett 121 (+indriyasaṃvara); KhA 151 (pāpake dhamme tapatī ti tapo): VvA. 114 (Instr. tapasā); PvA. 98.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

ṭapa (टप).—m A large marble, a taw. 2 Either half of a tent. khālalēṃ ṭapa or āntalēṃ ṭapa The shell. varalēṃ ṭapa The fly.

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ṭāpa (टाप) [or टांप, ṭāmpa].—f A stroke from the fore foot of a horse: also a kick from a hind foot. v māra. 2 Knocking on one's head with the knuckles. v māra. 3 Angry or reproving reflection upon; a taunt or twit. v māra. 4 A brisk chop or cut. v māra. 5 The longing and fretting (esp. of a child after its absent mother). v kara, ghē. 6 n A small plant (esp. of an esculent vegetable): also the head or tender sproutings. ṭāpēkhālīṃ asaṇēṃ-cālaṇēṃ-rāhaṇēṃ-vāgaṇēṃ To live and move under the paw of.

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tapa (तप).—n (S) Religious austerity; pious mortification of the body. 2 Virtue or moral merit. 3 A term of twelve years. 4 Duty, special duty, peculiar or prescribed duty (as of the Brahman, Kshatriya &c.) 5 In ornate composition. Heater or heating; as nētrantapa, bhālantapa śirastapa, aṅgantapa, manastapa, cittantapa, antastapa, bahistapa, pādāntapa, indriyantapa Heating to the eyes, forehead, head &c. tapīṃ basaṇēṃ To be undergoing some austere infliction or exercise (for the acquisition of puṇya or merit with God). Hence fig. To sit at home out of employ. karūna karūna tapīṃ basaṇēṃ To perpetrate wicked deeds ever and anon, assuming after each great devoutness and sanctity. tapēṃ tapaṇēṃ To be engaged in religious austerities. Ex. jē tīrtha karitāṃ bhāgalē || ananta janmīṃ tapēṃ tapalē ||.

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tāpa (ताप).—m (tapa S) Fever. 2 Heat (of the sun or of fire: also heatedness (as of bodies by the sun or fire). 3 fig. Heat of rage or lust; turmoil of worldly business; tumultuous agitation; anxious inquietude &c. 4 Oppression or harassing (as of creditors, robbers, rats, vermin &c.) 5 Hot sunshine in the rainy season or just after.

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tāpā (तापा).—m A float, a raft &c. Better tāphā q. v. Sig. II.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ṭāpa (टाप) [or ṭāmpa, or टांप].—f A stroke from the fore root of a horse: also a kick from a hind foot. A brisk chop or cut. v māra. The longing and fretting (esp. of a child after its absent mother). v kara, ghē. ṭāpēkhālīṃ asaṇēṃ-cālaṇēṃ-rāhaṇēṃ-vāgaṇēṃ To live and move under the paw of.

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tapa (तप).—n Religious austerity. Virtue. A term of 12 years. Duty.

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tāpa (ताप).—m Fever. Heat. Heat of rage. Trou- ble, bother. Oppression.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tapa (तप).—a. [tap-ac]

1) Burning, warming, consuming by heat.

2) Causing pain or trouble, distressing.

-paḥ 1 Heat, fire, warmth.

2) The sun; तपतपनसहस्रद्योतवद्- दुर्निरीक्ष्यम् (tapatapanasahasradyotavad- durnirīkṣyam) (tejaḥ) Rām. Ch.2.85.

3) The hot season; Śi.1.66.

4) Penance, religious austerities.

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Tāpa (ताप).—[tap-ghañ]

1) Heat, glow; अर्कमयूखतापः (arkamayūkhatāpaḥ) Ś.4.11; M.2.13; Ms.12.76; Ku.7.84.

2) Torment, pain, affliction, misery, agony; इतरतापशतानि तवेच्छया वितर तानि सहे चतुरानन (itaratāpaśatāni tavecchayā vitara tāni sahe caturānana) Udb.; समस्तापः कामं मनसिजनिदाघप्रसरयोः (samastāpaḥ kāmaṃ manasijanidāghaprasarayoḥ) Ś3.8; Bh.1.16.

3) Sorrow, distress.

4) A circle or heap of rays; प्रतिरूपं यथैवाप्सु तापः सूर्यस्य लक्ष्यते (pratirūpaṃ yathaivāpsu tāpaḥ sūryasya lakṣyate) Mb.12.253.3.

-pī The Tāptī river (also Yamunā); Bhāg.5.19.18; 1.79.2.

Derivable forms: tāpaḥ (तापः).

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Tāpa (ताप).—&c. See under तप् (tap).

See also (synonyms): tāpana.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tapa (तप).—m.

(-paḥ) 1. The hot season, summer. 2. Heat, warmth. 3. The sun. E. tap to heat, affix ac.

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Tāpa (ताप).—m.

(-paḥ) 1. Heat, burning, (moral or physical.) 2. Pain, sorrow, distress. E. tap to burn or inflame, affix ghañ. f. (-pī) A name of the Tapti or Surat river. 2. A name of the Yamuna or Jamna river. E. tapa the sun, affix of descent ac, ṅīṣ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 148 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Kuṭapa (कुटप).—m. (-paḥ) 1. A saint, a divine sage or Muni. 2. A garden or grove near a house. ...
Tāpa-traya.—(SII 1), the three kinds of pain. Note: tāpa-traya is defined in the “Indian epigra...
Manastāpa (मनस्ताप).—m. (-paḥ) Mental distress. E. manas and trāpa sorrow.
Pārantapa: worrying or molesting another person (opp. attantapa) D. III, 232; M. I, 341, 411; I...
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Paścāttāpa (पश्चात्ताप).—1) repentance, contrition; °पं कृ (paṃ kṛ) to repent. 2) (In dram.) re...
Tapānta (तपान्त).—the end of the hot season and the beginning of the rainy season; रविपीतजला तप...
Attantapa: self-mortifying, self-vexing D. III, 232 = A. II, 205 (opp. paran°); M. I, 341, 411;...
Tapapakkama refers to: =°kamma D. I, 165 sq. (should it be tapopakkama=tapa+upakkama, or tapo-k...
Koradem Tapa
kōraḍēṃ tapa (कोरडें तप).—n Dry, barren, spiritless tapa or austere devotion. Ex. jaḷō jaḷō tyā...
Bhadavi Tapa
bhādavī tāpa (भादवी ताप).—f m or bhādavyācī tāpa f The sultriness and burning heat of the month...
kōraḍēṃ-tapa (कोरडें-तप).—n Dry, spiritless tapa or austere devotion.
Antartāpa (अन्तर्ताप).—a. burning inwardly -paḥ internal fever or heat Ś.3.13. Antartāpa is a S...
Tāparī (तापरी).—A sort of soup of pulse and grain.Tāparī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of t...
Tanūtāpa (तनूताप).—fatigues or troubles of the body; अगणित- तनूतापं तप्त्वा तपांसि भगीरथः (agaṇ...

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