Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the nature of unpleasant-feeling karmas which is verse 6.11 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 11 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.11 - The nature of Unpleasant-feeling Karmas

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.11:

दुःखशोकतापाक्रन्दनवधपरिदेवनान्यात्मपरोभय स्थानान्यसद्वेद्यस्य ॥ ६.११ ॥

duḥkhaśokatāpākrandanavadhaparidevanānyātmaparobhaya sthānānyasadvedyasya || 6.11 ||

Suffering (duḥkha), sorrow (śoka), agony (tāpa), moaning (ākrandana), injury (vadha) and lamentation (parivedana), in oneself, in others, or in both, lead to the influx (āsrava) of karmas that cause unpleasant-feeling (asātā vedanīya). (11)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [आत्मपरोभयस्थानानि] अपने में, पर में और दोनों के विषय में स्थित [दुःखशोकतापाक्रन्दनवधपरिदेवनानि] दुःख, शोक, ताप, आक्रन्दन, वध और परिदेवन ये [असद्वेद्यस्य] असातावेदनीय कर्म के आस्रव के कारण हैं।

Anvayartha: [atmaparobhayasthanani] apane mem, para mem aura donom ke vishaya mem sthita [duhkhashokatapakrandanavadhaparidevanani] duhkha, shoka, tapa, akrandana, vadha aura paridevana ye [asadvedyasya] asatavedaniya karma ke asrava ke karana haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The causes of the influx of knowledge-and perception-obscuring karmas have been described. The causes of the influx of the feeling-producing (vedanīya) karmas are described next.

Suffering (duḥkha) is the feeling of pain. The feeling of sadness at the loss or separation of desirable or useful things is sorrow (śoka). The feeling of distress owing to disgrace is agony (tāpa). Moaning (ākrandana) is weeping loudly out of anguish. Injury (vadha) is depriving one of life, the senses, strength or vigour, and respiration. Lamentation (parivedana) is the loud outcry (wailing) of an afflicted person by recalling the achievements of the departed and giving expression to these in order to evoke sympathy in others and secure help to oneself and others. Now, since sorrow (śoka), etc., are only subdivisions of suffering (duḥkha), there is no need to include all these. It is of course true. Still it is desirable or useful to mention a few subdivisions or species belonging to the genus or class to facilitate understanding. When the word ‘cow’ is not understood, then the particulars such as broken horns, black, white, etc., are mentioned in order to make it understood. Influx caused by suffering is possible in innumerable times the spatial units of the universe. Mention of only ‘suffering’ (duḥkha) would not have highlighted its numerous subdivisions. Therefore, a few of its subdivisions are mentioned in order to bring home the countless varieties of suffering. Owing to the presence of anger, etc., these may arise in oneself, in others and in both. All these lead to the influx (āsrava) of karmas which cause unpleasant-feeling (asātā vedanīya).

If it is so, why should the followers of the Arhat practise and preach to others such things as pulling out the hair, fasting, standing in the sun, and so on? These cause suffering to them and to others. It is true but there is nothing wrong in it. The suffering caused by internal passions, such as anger, alone leads to the influx of karmas which cause unpleasant-feeling (asātā vedanīya). A compassionate surgeon who operates a painful boil on the body of an ascetic free from stings does not attract demerit (pāpa) though, in the process, he causes suffering. The presence of mere external cause (without the presence of passions) does not produce influx (āsrava). In the same way, the ascetic who is restive on seeing great misery of the worldly existence and is determined to destroy its cause, practises what is laid down in the Scripture with perfect equanimity in order to attain liberation. Since there is no evil feeling or wrath or anger even in the presence of suffering, there is no bondage of demerit. It has been proclaimed: “The implements used in curing the disease are not seen as the causes of pain or pleasure; the person undergoing treatment experiences pain or pleasure. Similarly, the ways and means adopted in traversing the path to liberation are not seen as the causes of pain or pleasure; the person treading the path experiences pain or pleasure.”

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