by Deepak bagadia | 2016 | 109,819 words
This page relates ‘Internal Austerities (Tapas)’ of the study dealing with the Spiritual Practices of Jainism and Patanjali Yoga in the context of ancient Indian Philosophy (in Sanskrit: Darshana), including extracts from the Yogasutra and the Tattvartha-Sutra. The system of Yoga offers techniques which are scientifically designed for the spiritual development of an individual. Jainism offers ethicical principles and meditation practices to assist with spiritual development.
Internal Tapa includes six types of austerities. They are as under:—a) Prayascitta (repentance, atonement) b) Vinaya (modesty) c) Veyavaccha (service to all monks) d) svadhyaya (self-study) e) dhyana (meditation) and f) kausagga (Japa meditation) are internal Tapa as explained under:
Repentance (Prayaschitta) is attonement for our indulgence in wrong activities or evil tendencies. The sense of remorse should enable one to avoid the recurrence of such indulgences. Nine categories of repentances are mentioned in Tattvarthasautra namely Alochan (confession), Pratikaman (recalling the lapses with a view to attoning), Tadubhay (Confession and attonement), Vivek (discriminating wisdom), Vyutsarga (giving up physical and mental involvement), Tapa (austerities), Chhed (reduction in proportion and delay in initiation of faults), parihara (remaining in a quarantine for a specific period), Upasthapan (re-adoption of vows).
Reverence (Vinay) means modesty, humility and respect for others. With this egoless attitude, one may feel inclined to develop the wholesome attributes by noticing the virtues of others which leads one to increasingly higher spiritual level.
c) Rendering selfless service
Rendering selfless service (Veyavachcham): Respectful service to the head (acarya), the preceptor, the ascetic, the disciple, the ailing ascetic, the congregation of aged saints, the congregation of disciples of a common teacher, the congregation of the four orders (ascetic, nuns, laymen and laywomen), the long-standing ascetic and the ascetic of high reputation are the ten kinds of service. A spiritual aspirant
knows that all living beings have the same type of soul. So, he needs to develop regards for others, thus a will to serve others without expecting in return.
Self-study (Svadhyay): Svadhyaya or “self study” is of great importance in Jainism. The study of self is conducted to learn and to know the true nature of the soul. Study of those scriptures and meditation which has potential of uplifting self towards liberation is Svadhyay.
shobhanam amaryadaya adhyayan srutesyadhikamanusaranam swadhayah
Svasyah atmannah adhyayanam svadhyayah
When the closest disciple Gautam asks Lord Mahavira,
“Sahajjanam bhante jive ki janayi?”
“What one gains out of Svadhyaya?”
“Sajjanam nanavarnijja kammam khaveh”
“All accumulated Jnanavarniya karma can be destroyed instantly with Svadhyaya.”
Dasavaikalika sutra explains that monks with pure mind can wash out all past bondages as gold and silver get purified by heating them in fire if they do Svadhyaya and meditation with full concentration.
e) Renunciation of body
Dhyana is meditation. Tattvarthasutra refers to concentration on one subject by a person of a very strong physique which can extend upto one prahar or 48 minutes.
The Acaramga Sutra based on teachings of Lord Mahavira dating back to 500B.C., describes Jain meditation and spiritual practices elaborately and in minute detail of philosophy. The Sutraktiamga, Bhagavati and Sthanamg also give directions on contemplation, Yogasana, meditation and other practices. Aupapattika has organised presentation of Tapoyoga which is a kind of right conduct.
Footnotes and references:
prāyaścivinaya vaiyā vṛttyasvādhyāya vyutsargadhyānānyuttaram | T.S. 9.20
ālocanapratikramaṇatadubhaya vivekavyutasargatapaśchedaparihāropasthapanāḥ | T.S. 9.22
bāhyābhyantaropadhyoḥ | Tattvartha-sutra 9.26
uttamasaṃhananasyaikāgracintānirodho dhyānamāntarmuhūrtāt | Tattvartha-sutra 9.27