Shruta, Śruta, Śrutā: 25 definitions


Shruta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śruta and Śrutā can be transliterated into English as Sruta or Shruta, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Śruta (श्रुत):—Son of Bhagīratha (son of Dilipa). He had a son named Nābha. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.9.16-17)

2) Śruta (श्रुत):—Son of Subhāṣaṇa (son of Yuyudha). He had a son named Jaya. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.13.25)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śruta (श्रुत).—Son of Bhīmasena. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 278).

2) Śruta (श्रुत).—A King of the Solar dynasty. Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha refers to him as the son of Subhāṣaṇa and father of Jaya.

3) Śruta (श्रुत).—A King belonging to Bharata’s dynasty. He was the son of Dharmanetra and father of Dṛḍhasena. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

4) Śruta (श्रुत).—A son born to Śrī Kṛṣṇa by Kālindī. (Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śruta (श्रुत).—A son of Bhagiratha (Suhotra, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and father of Nābha(ga).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 9. 16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 169; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 160; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 36.

1b) A son of Subhāṣaṇa, and father of Jaya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 13. 25.

1c) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Kālindī.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 14.

1d) A son of Medhā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 59; Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 35.

1e) A son of Svārociṣa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 19.

1f) A son of Suvarca.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 89. 21.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Śruta (श्रुत) is the son of Bhagiratha (Bhagīratha?) and grandson of Dilipa (Dilīpa?), according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Dilipa was the Son of Aṃśumān and Bhagiratha (Bhagīratha?) was born from Dilipa. Bhagiratha propitiated Śiva by his penance and received the best of boons. [...] Śruta was the son of Bhagiratha. Nabhāga was the son of Śruta.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Śruta (श्रुत).—lit. what is actually heard; the word is used in connection with such statements as are made by the authoritative grammarians, Panini and the Varttikakara by their actual utterance or wording, as contrasted with such dictums as can be deduced only from their writings. cf. श्रुतानुभितंयोः श्रौतः संबन्धो बलीयान् (śrutānubhitaṃyoḥ śrautaḥ saṃbandho balīyān). Par. Sek Pari. 104.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Śrutā (श्रुता), daughter of Dīrghadaṃṣṭra, is one of the five Vidyādhara maidens that vowed to take Naravāhanadatta for a husband together, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 110. Accordingly, as Mandaradevī said to her father Akampana and to emperor Naravāhanadatta: “... I have four companions here, of like age, noble maidens; [...] the third is the offspring of Dīrghadaṃṣṭra, named Śrutā [...] We five, when roaming about, saw previously in a grove of ascetics this my destined husband, and, setting our hearts on him, we [viz., Śrutā] made an agreement together that we would all, at one and the same time, take him for our husband, but that, if any single one married him alone, the others should enter the fire, and lay the guilt at her door”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śrutā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Śruta (श्रुत) refers to “learning”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “How then, son of good family, does the Bodhisattva collect all qualities of the Buddha by thorough practice (yoniśas-prayoga)? [...] Learning (śruta) is the cause of great insight; the Bodhisattva, not being entangled in the preconceived viewpoints, having transferred the learning without apprehending into omniscience, fulfils the perfection of insight. In the same way with all good qualities, whatever the cause of good qualities accumulated, its effect will appear without effort. Further, the cause and conditions are called thorough mental effort. [...]”.

Source: WikiPedia: Mahayana Buddhism

Śruta (श्रुत) or Śrutabala (Tibetan: thos-pa) refers to the “power of hearing” representing one of the six Bala (“powers”) connected with śamatha (“access concentration”), according to Kamalaśīla and the Śrāvakabhūmi section of the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śruta (श्रुत, “scriptures”) refers to “attributing faults the scriptures” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of faith-deluding (darśana-mohanīya) karmas.

Śruta is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śruta (श्रुत) or Śrutajñāna refers to one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:—“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Śruta-jñāna, several fold, must be known as characterized by the word syād, made many fold by the Pūrvas, Aṅgas, Upāṅgas and Prakīrṇakas”.

Source: Jain eLibrary: 7th International Summer School for Jain Studies

Śruta (Scripture or Canon) is the soul of the religious traditions. It is an anthology of the sermons of Tīrthaṅkaras, may be called God in non-Jain traditions, or their direct or indirect disciples who have attained the certain spiritual purification. It is therefore established as an authority and priority as the form of religion. The scriptural texts are engraved in the hearts of believers who draw inspiration and revival from them in every age.

The Śruta is of two types:

  1. Aṅgabāhya
  2. and Aṅgapraviṣṭa (further divided in 12 types).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Śruta (श्रुत).—What is meant by the scriptures (śruta)? The sermons propounded by an omniscient; heard, memorized and composed as texts by ascetics with special attainments (called gaṇadharas) are called scriptures.

What is meant by finding faults in the scriptures (śruta-avarṇavāda)? To say ‘that to eat meat, to take alcohol, to eat at night, to indulge in sensual pleasures’ are all prescribed in the scriptures is finding faults in the scriptures.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Śruta (श्रुत, “scriptural”) refers to one of the five types of knowledge (jñāna), according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.9.—What is meant by verbal/scriptural knowledge (śruta)? Knowledge acquired due to subsidence-cum-destruction of scriptural based knowledge obscuring (śrutajnānavarṇa) karmas is called scriptural based knowledge. Alternatively it can also be defined as the special knowledge acquired further based on mind-based knowledge.

How is verbal / scriptural knowledge (śruta-jñāna) acquired? The verbal /scriptural knowledge is acquired after mind-based knowledge (mati). It is therefore called as knowledge by testimony and not by acquaintance. How many kinds of scriptural knowledge are there? There are two or many as well as 12 types of scriptural knowledge indicated in the scriptures. What are the two types of scriptural knowledge? Inner-corpus (aṅga-praviṣṭa) and external-corpus (aṅga-bāhya) are the two type of scriptural knowledge.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Śruta (श्रुत) in Sanskrit (Suya in Prakrit) refers to “scriptural knowledge” (or, more broadly, knowledge from what is heard) and represents one of the five types of knowledge, as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—The heart of the Nandī-sūtra deals with the concept of cognition or knowledge in its various divisions and subdivisions. This is also an appropriate topic for a text that transcends all categories in the Śvetāmbara canon, for it can be regarded as a prerequisite to the scriptures. First comes the list of the five types of knowledge [viz., śruta, “scriptural knowledge”], known from other sources as well, such as the Tattvārtha-sūtra I. 9-33

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śruta (श्रुत).—p (S) Heard. 2 That has heard. 3 Learned in the Vedas and Shastras. 4 Prescribed by or conformable to the Vedas. śruta karaṇēṃ (To make heard.) To tell in the ears of; to inform or advise of. śrutaṃ harati pāpāni Declaration or confession removes sin.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śruta (श्रुत).—p Heard; that has heard. śruta karaṇēṃ Inform of.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śruta (श्रुत).—p. p. [śru-kta]

1) Heard, listened to.

2) Reported, heard of.

3) Learnt, ascertained, understood.

4) Wellknown, famous, celebrated, renowned; श्रुतानुभावं शरणं व्रज भावेन भाविनि (śrutānubhāvaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja bhāvena bhāvini) Bhāgavata 3.32.11; श्रुतस्य किं तत् सदृशं कुलस्य (śrutasya kiṃ tat sadṛśaṃ kulasya) R.14.61;3.4.

5) Named, called.

6) Promised; तदवश्यं त्वया कार्यं यदनेन श्रुतं मम (tadavaśyaṃ tvayā kāryaṃ yadanena śrutaṃ mama) Rām.2.18.21.

7) Vedic, like Vedas (vedarūpa); गिरः श्रुतायाः पुष्पिण्या मधुगन्धेन भूरिणा (giraḥ śrutāyāḥ puṣpiṇyā madhugandhena bhūriṇā) Bhāgavata 4.2.25.

-tam 1 The object of hearing.

2) That which was heard by revelation i. e. the Veda, holy learning, sacred knowledge; श्रुतप्रकाशम् (śrutaprakāśam) R.5.2.

3) Learning in general (vidyā); श्रोत्रं श्रुतेनैव न कुण्डलेन (śrotraṃ śrutenaiva na kuṇḍalena) (vibhāti) Bhartṛhari 2.71; R.3.21;5.22; अग्निहोत्रफला वेदाः शीलवत्तफलं श्रुतम् (agnihotraphalā vedāḥ śīlavattaphalaṃ śrutam) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.15;4.68.

4) The act of hearing; योगे बुद्धिं, श्रुते सत्त्वं, मनो ब्रह्मणि धारयन् (yoge buddhiṃ, śrute sattvaṃ, mano brahmaṇi dhārayan) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.177.31.

--- OR ---

Sruta (स्रुत).—p. p.

1) Flowed, trickled, dripping &c.

2) Gone.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruta (श्रुत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) 1. Heard. 2. Understood. 3. Well-known. n.

(-taṃ) 1. Sacred science, holy writ, &c. 2. The object of hearing, that which is heard. 3. Learning in general. E. śru to hear, aff. kta .

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Sruta (स्रुत).—mfn.

(-taḥ-tā-taṃ) Flowing, dropping, falling, (as a fluid.) f.

(-tā) A drug, commonly Hingupatri. E. snu to flow, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruta (श्रुत).—[adjective] heard, learnt, mentioned, stated, named, known as, famous, celebrated; [neuter] hearing, learning, lore, tradition, (sacred) knowledge.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śruta (श्रुत):—[from śru] mfn. heard, listened to, heard about or of, taught, mentioned, orally transmitted or communicated from age to age, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] known, famous, celebrated, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] known as, called ([nominative case] with iti), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a son of Bhagīratha, [Harivaṃśa]

5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of a son of Su-bhāṣaṇa, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] of a son of Upagu, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

8) Śrutā (श्रुता):—[from śruta > śru] f. Name of a daughter of Dīrgha-daṃṣṭra, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

9) Śruta (श्रुत):—[from śru] n. anything heard, that which has been heard ([especially] from the beginning), knowledge as heard by holy men and transmitted from generation to generation, oral tradition or revelation, sacred knowledge (in the [Purāṇa] personified as a child of Dharma and Medhā), the Veda, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

10) [v.s. ...] the act of hearing, [Muṇḍaka-upaniṣad; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]

11) [v.s. ...] learning or teaching, instruction (śrutaṃ-√kṛ, ‘to learn’), [Āpastamba]

12) [v.s. ...] memory, remembrance, [Atharva-veda i, 1, 2.]

13) Srūta (स्रूत):—[from srīv] mfn. gone

14) [v.s. ...] dried, withered, [Pāṇini 6-4, 20.]

15) Sruta (स्रुत):—[from sru] mfn. streaming, flowing, having flowed from ([compound]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

16) [v.s. ...] flowed out, become empty (as a jar), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

17) [v.s. ...] flowed asunder, dissolved, [ib.; Suśruta]

18) Srutā (स्रुता):—[from sruta > sru] f. a kind of medicinal plant (= hingu-pattrī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) Sruta (स्रुत):—[from sru] n. flowing, a flow, [Atharva-veda]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śruta (श्रुत):—[(taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Heard, understood. n. Sacred science; what is heard.

2) Sruta (स्रुत):—[(taḥ-tā-taṃ) a.] Flowing, dropping. 1. f. A drug, Hingupatri.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śruta (श्रुत) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Suya, Sua, Suṇia, Haṇia.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shruta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Śruta (श्रुत) [Also spelled srut]:—(a) heard, received through the ear.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śruta (ಶ್ರುತ):—

1) [adjective] heard; listened; heard about or of.

2) [adjective] well-known; famous; renowned.

--- OR ---

Śruta (ಶ್ರುತ):—

1) [noun] that which can be or is heard.

2) [noun] the act of hearing.

3) [noun] that which is favourably known over a wide area; a famous thing.

4) [noun] a renowned man; a celebrity.

5) [noun] the vedas.

6) [noun] knowledge transmitted from one generation to another generation orally.

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Sruta (ಸ್ರುತ):—

1) [adjective] flowed (in stream).

2) [adjective] trickled; dripped.

3) [adjective] gone or gone away.

--- OR ---

Sruta (ಸ್ರುತ):—[noun] any liquid (that flows).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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