Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes differences among the five kinds of saints which is verse 9.47 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 47 of the chapter Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 9.47 - Differences among the five kinds of saints

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 9.47:

संयमश्रुतप्रतिसेवनातीर्थलिंगलेश्योपपादस्थानविकल्पतः साध्याः ॥ ९.४७ ॥

saṃyamaśrutapratisevanātīrthaliṃgaleśyopapādasthānavikalpataḥ sādhyāḥ || 9.47 ||

They are fit to be described (differentiated) on the basis of differences in self-restraint–saṃyama, scriptural knowledge–śruta, transgression–pratisevanā, the period of the Tīrthaṅkaratīrtha, the sign–liṅga, the colouration–leśyā, the birth–upapāda, and the state or condition–sthāna. (47)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: उपरोक्त मुनि [संयमश्रुतप्रतिसेवनातीर्थलिंगलेश्योपपादस्थानविकल्पतः] संयम, श्रुत, प्रतिसेवना, तीर्थ, लिंग, लेश्या, उपपाद और स्थान-इन आठ अनुयोगों द्वारा [साध्याः] भेदरूप से साध्य हैं, अर्थात् इन आठ प्रकार से इन पुलाकादि मुनियों में विशेष भेद होते हैं।

Anvayartha: uparokta muni [samyamashrutapratisevanatirthalimgaleshyopapadasthanavikalpatah] samyama, shruta, pratisevana, tirtha, limga, leshya, upapada aura sthana-ina atha anuyogom dvara [sadhyah] bhedarupa se sadhya haim, arthat ina atha prakara se ina pulakadi muniyom mem vishesha bheda hote haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Again, for further elaboration, the differences among these are mentioned in the next sūtra.

The five kinds of saints–pulāka, bakuśa, kuśīla, nirgrantha and snātaka–are to be described (differentiated) with reference to self-restraint (saṃyama), and so on. It is as follows.

Saṃyama: The pulāka, bakuśa, pratisevanākuśīla saints dwell in the first two types of conduct–sāmāyika and chedopasthapanā. The kaṣāyakuśīla saint dwells in parihāraviśuddhi and sukṣmasāmpa-rāya, besides the two mentioned above. The nirgrantha and snātaka saints dwell only in yathākhyāta conduct.

Śruta: The pulāka, bakuśa, pratisevanākuśīla saints master the Scripture to the maximum limit of the ten pūrva(s). The kaṣāyakuśīla and nirgrantha saints are masters of the fourteen pūrva(s). At the minimum, the scriptural knowledge of the pulāka saint is of the extent of ‘ācāra vastu’–the instruction of the preceptor. That of the bakuśa, kuśīla and nirgrantha saints is of the extent of three controls (gupti) and five regulations (samiti), called the eightfold mother of the Scripture. The snātaka is Omniscient, beyond scriptural knowledge.

Pratisevanā: The pulāka saint, under another’s compulsion, transgresses either the five primary vows or the vow of abstinence from taking food at night. The bakuśa saints are of two kinds, those who desire for several kinds of implements–upakaraṇabakuśa, and those who adorn their bodies–śarīrabakuśa. The pratisevanākuśīla saint is liable to transgression with regard to the secondary vows, without transgressing the primary vows. There is no transgression in case of the kaṣāyakuśīla, nirgrantha and snātaka saints.

Tīrtha: All these saints belong to the religious school of the

Tīrthaṅkara–the Arhat or the World Teacher.

Liṅga: The sign (liṅga) is of two kinds–physical sign–dravyaliṅga, and psychical sign–bhāvaliṅga. From the point of view of psychical sign, all these five kinds of monks are without-possessions (nirgrantha). On the basis of physical signs–bodily height, complexion, etc.–there are differences among them.

Leśyā: In the pulāka saint the first three–black (kṛṣṇa), blue (nīla) and grey (kāpota)–thought-colourations (leśyā) arise. In bakuśa and pratisevanākuśīla saints, all the six thought-colourations (leśyā) arise. In the kaṣāyakuśīla saint the last four–grey (kāpota), yellow (pīta), pink (padma) and white (śukla)–thought-colourations (leśyā) arise. In the sūkṣmasāmparāya kaṣāyakuśīla, nirgrantha and snātaka saints, only the white (śukla) thought-colourations (leśyā) arises. And the Omniscient-without-activity (ayogakevalī) has no thought-colouration (leśyā).

Upapāda: The highest birth of the pulāka saint is in the Sahasrāra kalpa, among the deva of maximum lifetime. The bakuśa and pratisevanākuśīla saints are born in the Āraṇa and Acyuta kalpa, with the lifetime of twenty-two sāgaropama. The kaṣāyakuśīla and nirgrantha saints are born in the Sarvārthasiddhi with the lifetime of thirty-three sāgaropama. The lowest birth of all these kinds of saints is in the Saudharma kalpa with the lifetime of two sāgaropama. The snātaka saint attains liberation.

Sthāna: There are innumerable states of self-restraint (saṃyama) caused by the passions. Among these the minimum states attained are in case of the pulāka and kaṣāyakuśīla saints. These attain innumerable states simultaneously. After this the pulāka saint is cutoff. Later, the kaṣāyakuśīla saint proceeds alone up to innumerable states. Still further, the kaṣāyakuśīla, pratisevanākuśīla, and bakuśa attain innumerable states simultaneously. After that the bakuśa saint is cutoff. Then the pratisevanākuśīla saint is cut off after attaining still innumerable states. Beyond that the passionless (akaṣāya) saint–nirgrantha–attains innumerable passionless states. That stage also is cut off after traversing innumerable states. And traversing one state beyond that, the snātaka saint attains liberation. The attainment of self-restraint–saṃyamalabdhi–in that stage is infinitefold.

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