Samatha, Shamatha, Śamatha, Śamaṭha: 13 definitions
Samatha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śamatha and Śamaṭha can be transliterated into English as Samatha or Shamatha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śamaṭha (शमठ).—A learned brahmin. He once gave Yudhiṣṭhira a description of the yajña performed by King Gaya, son of Amūrtarayas. (Vana Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 17).
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
M (Tranquillity, serenity). Concentration bringing about calm and mental clarity. The practice of samatha lies in focusing ones concentration on a single object so as to lessen the flow of discursive thoughts, which cause hindrances (nivaranas), in a first stage, and then to experience a jhana.
The practice of samatha alone does not lead to nibbana.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of
cittekaggatā (one-pointed ness of mind) and
avikkhepa (undistracted ness).
It is one of the mental factors in wholesome consciousness. Cf. foll. and bhāvanā.Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Shambala Publications: General
Shamatha (śamatha), Skt., lit., “dwelling in tranquillity.” In the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism it is stressed that the precondition of “concentration” (samādhi) is intentional development of “dwelling in tranquillity” and “special insight” (vipashyanā ). Dwelling in tranquillity calms the mind, while special insight, through analytical examination, leads to vision of genuine reality, which is emptiness (shūnyatā). Shamatha is first developed in preliminary practice and later further refined in connection with vipashyanā. Dwelling in tranquillity is compared to a still, clear lake in which the “fish of special insight” plays.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
samatha : (m.) calm; quietude of heart; settlement of legal questions.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Samatha, (fr. śam, cp. BSk. śamatha) 1. calm, quietude of heart M. I, 33; A. I, 61, 95; II, 140; III, 86 sq. (ceto°), 116 sq. , 449; IV, 360; V, 99; D. III, 54, 213, 273; DhA. II, 177; S. IV, 362; Dhs. 11, 15, 54; cessation of the Saṅkhāras S. I, 136; III, 133; A. I, 133; Sn. 732; Vin. I, 5. ‹-› 2. settlement of legal questions (adhikaraṇa) Vin. II, 93; IV, 207; cp. DhsA. 144; s. paṭivijjhati Pts. I, 180.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Tranquillity, calmness; especially mental calmness, absence of passion.
2) A counsellor, minister.
Derivable forms: śamathaḥ (शमथः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Śamatha (शमथ).—often written sa°, m. (= Sanskrit Lex. id., Pali samatha), (1) tranquillity, tranquillization; esp. often assoc. with vipaśyanā or (less often) its syn. vidarśanā, see these two; when cpd. they form a dvandva, never a tatp. as suggested erroneously in PTSD (in every passage there quoted samatha and vipassanā are parallel and coordinate, usually not even cpd.); also often with dama- (tha): dama-śamatham ākāṅkṣamāṇā(ḥ) SP 80.9; dama- samathe LV 169.5 (verse); paramadama-samatha- 427.22; [Page523-b+ 71] ātma-dama-(iii.52.18 °damatha-) -śamatha-pariṇirvāṇār- thaṃ Mv ii.157.5; iii.52.18; uttama-damatha (so Senart, but mss. dama) -śamatha-pāramitā- iii.64.6; śamatha- saṃbhāra LV 35.14; 427.21; śamatha-sukha-vyavasthitaḥ Laṅk 15.4; smara…śamathaṃ LV 11.14; samatha- dhanu gṛhītvā LV 156.5 (verse), taking the bow of…; samatha- nirvāṇa-puram anupravekṣyāmi Mv ii.148.6; tranquilliza- tion of the mind as a process, a course of practice, dvāda- śavarṣābhyastaḥ śamathaś (or sa°) cittasya Divy 47.3; 461.20; adhyātmaṃ (adv.) cetaḥśamathaṃ (riñcanti) MSV iii.11.18; sarva(iii.314.5 pūrva)-saṃskāra-samatho (so read in ii.285.20) or °tha-Mv ii.285.20; iii.314.5, the tranquillizing of (all) the (former) saṃskāra, compare Pali sabbasaṃkhārasa- matho Vin. i.5.2; (2) (= Pali adhikaraṇa-sa°) adhikaraṇa- śamathā(ḥ), settling, appeasement, of disputed questions: Mvy 8630 (see adhikaraṇa 1).
--- OR ---
Samatha (समथ).—often written for śamatha, q.v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-thaḥ) 1. Quiet, tranquillity: (see the last) 2. A counsellor, a minister. E. śam to be calm, Unadi aff. athac .
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Samatha Bhavana, Samatha Kamatthana, Samatha Kammatthana Bhavana, Samatha Sutta, Samatha Vipassana, Samatha Yanika, Samatha-kammatthana, Samathabhavana, Samathakkhandhaka, Samathala, Shamathaghosha, Shamathaka, Shamathaketu.
Full-text (+43): Nimitta, Samatha Vipassana, Vipashyana, Bhavana, Vidarshana, Serenity S, Avikkhepa, Anussati Kammatthana, Aruppa Kammatthana, Catudhatuvavatthana, Yuganaddha, Aharepatikulasanna, Asubha Kammatthana, Kasina Kammatthana, Samatha Bhavana, Pragraha, Uddhacca Sutta, Parinibbapana, Samatha Kamatthana, Nibbidanupassana-nana.
Search found 69 books and stories containing Samatha, Shamatha, Śamatha, Smatha, Śamaṭha; (plurals include: Samathas, Shamathas, Śamathas, Smathas, Śamaṭhas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Great Chariot (by Longchenpa)
Part 1b.1h - How the four formless skandhas of name depend on the continuum of mind < [B. The extensive explanation of the nature of karma]
Part 2b.1 - The main means of practice, shamatha and vipashyana < [B. The teaching of the three factors of immovable samadhis]
Part 2b.9 - Summarizing the meaning of the eight means of resting < [B. The gradation of powers of those who meditate into high, middle, and low]
Vinaya (1): The Patimokkha (by T. W. Rhys Davids)
Buddhist Meditation (by Samdhong Rinpoche)
Vipassana Meditation Course (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)
Part 1 - Samatha And Vipassana Meditation < [Chapter 1 - Preliminary Stage]
Part 3 - Four Protective Meditations < [Chapter 1 - Preliminary Stage]
Mental Development in Daily Life (by Nina van Gorkom)
Vipassana Meditation (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)