Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes erroneous knowledge (viparyaya) which is verse 1.31 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 31 of the chapter Right Faith and Knowledge and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 1.31 - Erroneous knowledge (viparyaya)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 1.31:

मतिश्रुतावधयो विपर्ययश्च ॥ १.३१ ॥

matiśrutāvadhayo viparyayaśca || 1.31 ||

These three kinds of knowledge–sensory (mati), scriptural (śruta), and clairvoyance (avadhi)–are erroneous also. (31)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [मतिश्रुतावधयः] मति, श्रुत और अवधि यह तीन ज्ञान [विपर्ययश्च] विपर्यय भी होते हैं।

Anvayartha: [matishrutavadhayah] mati, shruta aura avadhi yaha tina jnana [viparyayashca] viparyaya bhi hote haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Do sensory knowledge, etc., always obtain as designated?

Viparyaya’ means ‘erroneous’. How is it so? It is so because this is the section on ‘right’ knowledge. ‘Ca’ means ‘also’, that is, right as well as erroneous. Sensory knowledge, scriptural knowledge and clairvoyance may be right as well as erroneous. Why are these erroneous? These are erroneous because these co-exist in the soul with wrong belief (mithyādarśana). It is similar to the milk kept in a bitter gourd; the taste of the milk becomes bitter on account of the defect of the receptacle. But even with wrong belief (mithyādarśana), there should be no error in the ascertainment of objects by sensory knowledge, etc. For instance, just as the person of right faith perceives form, colour, and so on, so does the person of wrong faith. Just as the person of right faith ascertains form, colour, etc., through scriptural knowledge and represents these accordingly, so does the person of wrong faith. And just as the person of right faith ascertains matter through clairvoyance, so does the person of wrong faith through his clairvoyance.

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