Shikhara, Sikhara, Śikhara: 27 definitions
Shikhara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śikhara can be transliterated into English as Sikhara or Shikhara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Shikhar.
Images (photo gallery)
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śikhara (शिखर, “peak”) refers to a gesture (āṅgika) made with a ‘single hand’ (asaṃyuta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. The hands (hasta) form a part of the human body which represents one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Twenty-eight Single Hands (hasta):—Śikhara (spire): in the same hand, the thumb is raised. Usage: the God of Love (Madan), bow, pillar, silence, husband, tooth,entering, questioning, the body, saying “No!”, recollection, intimate suggestion (ahhinayāntara) , untying the girdle, embrace, lover, letting fly śakti and tomara weapons, sound of abell, pounding.
According to another book: same definition. It originates from Candraśekhara (Śiva), when he held Mt. Meru as his bow. It originates from that Meru-bow, its sage is Jihna, its race Gandharva, its colour dusky, the God of Love (Rati-vallabha) itspatron deity. Usage: gratifying the ancestors, steadiness, establishing a family, hero, spire, friend, cleaning the teeth with to and fro movement, plying a palmyra fan, difference, saying “What?”, drinking water from a spouted vessel (bhṛṅgāra), thenumber four, letting fly śakti or tomara weapons, enjoying consequences, demure attitude of an amorous girl, bashfulness,bow, the God of Love (Smara), saying " No ! ", charity, permanentmood (sthayi-bhāva), Vināyaka, Mahiṣa-mardinī, heroism, galloping of a horse, half-moon, brow-spot, etc., making the signof the hair-knot, sapphire, intensity.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Śikhara (शिखर, “peak”).—A type of gesture (āṅgika) made with a single hand (asaṃyuta-hasta);—(Instructions): In this very hand (muṣṭi) the thumb raised.
(Uses): It is used to represent reins, whip, goad, bow, throwing a javelin (tomara) or a spike *(śakti), painting the two lips and feet and raising up hairs.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Śikhara (शिखर).—Curved temple tower or spire. The roof of the sanctum sanctorum. It is crowned by a cakra in a Lord Viṣṇu temple and a trident in a Lord Śiva temple
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Śikhara (शिखर).—A varṣa round the Candra hill of Plakṣa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 14.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Śikhara (शिखर) refers to the “cupola” of a temple (prāsāda or vimāna). It is considered the fifth part in the ṣaḍvarga structure.Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation
Śikhara (शिखर).—A type of moulding;—Any roof form may be called a ‘śikhara’, a term used for the main dome of a vimāna. It is important not to confuse this Southern usage with the Northern, in which ‘śikhara’ is used for tre whole sperstructure of a temple, not just its crown.Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Śikhara (शिखर) is the most important member of the prāsāda assembly. It corresponds to the “head” of the body of the temple. On plan it may be caturaśra (square), āyata (rectangular), aṣṭāśra (octagonal), vṛtta (circular), vṛttāyata (oval), gajapṛṣṭa (apsidal) or even āyatavṛtta (rectangular with its two narrower ends made semicircular). Śikhara may be monolithic or masonry in nature. The bottom of the śikhara is always flat.Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Architecture (1): Early and Classical Architecture
Śikhara (शिखर, “tower”) refers to a common concept found in the ancient Indian “science of architecture” (vāstuvidyā).—Śikhara (for north Indian temples) or vimāna (for south Indian temple) is the tower over the garbhagṛha.Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Śikhara (शिखर) refers to “roof (5th level of the elevation) §§ 3.12, 27, 28, 31; 4.6, 18.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Śikhara (शिखर) is the name of a merchant (vaṇij) from Lampā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 67. Accordingly as Candrasāra said to Naravāhanadatta: “... one day I saw, at a spring festival in a garden, a handsome girl, the daughter of a merchant named Śikhara. I was quite carried off my feet by her, who was like a wave of the sea of love’s insolence, and when I found out who she was, I demanded her in marriage from her father.”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śikhara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
1) Śikhara (शिखर) refers to “peak” or “summit” of a mountain (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Śikhara], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
2) Śikhara (शिखर) refers to the “end part” of a tree or a creeper, as mentioned in a list of four synonyms, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) verse 2.32.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
1) Śikhara (शिखर) refers to the “spire/tower” of the Hindu temple.—The temple contains the sanctuary known as vimāna or towered sanctuary. Over the vimāna is the śikhara or the spire/tower. The topmost part of the śikhara, whose sloping walls lead towards a point, is the stūpi or the finial or the apex.
2) Śikhara (शिखर) or Śikharahasta refers to “bow-hold, crest” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., śikhara-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Śikhara (शिखर) as a ‘peak’ of a mountain is found in the Kauṣītaki-brāhmaṇa (xxvi. 1), and often in the Epic.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śikhara.—(SITI; CITD), top portion of the turret built over the main shrine and the gateway of a temple; the top of the gopura or vimāna of a temple. Note: śikhara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
sikhara : (nt.) the top; summit; peak of a mountain.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Sikhara, (cp. Sk. śikhara) the top, summit of a mountain J. VI, 519; Miln. 2; a peak DhA. III, 364 (°thūpiyo or °thūpikāyo peaked domes); the point or edge of a sword M. I, 243; S. IV, 56; crest, tuft J. II, 99; (this is a very difficult reading; it is explained by the C. by sundara (elegant); Trenckner suggests singāra, cp. II. 98); a bud Th. 2, 382. (Page 708)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śikhara (शिखर).—n (S) The peak or summit of a mountain; the top or extremity of a tree, pointed building &c.; apex, vertex, top, or crest generally. 2 A spire or pinnacle; a minaret. 3 fig. The pinnacle, acme, culmen (as of greatness, of any virtue or vice): the conclusion or terminating point (of a business). śikharīṃ kāṭhyā lāgaṇēṃ (Because at jējurī or at maḍhī the followers of Khanḍoba proceed in formal procession with music &c. to Khanḍoba's temple, and apply long kāṭhyā or poles with flags or cloths to its crest or summit.) To accomplish one's undertaking; to attain the pinnacle, goal, crown, consummation. śikharīṃ pōṭa lāgaṇēṃ (The belly to swell so as to reach the head.) To become very distended;--as the belly through gorging or disease, as the womb through pregnancy.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śikhara (शिखर).—n The peak of a mountain, a top generally. A spire. Fig. The pinnacle. The conclusion.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śikhara (शिखर).—[śikhā astyasya-arac ālopaḥ]
1) The top, summit, or peak of a mountain; जगाम गौरी शिखरं शिखण्डिमत् (jagāma gaurī śikharaṃ śikhaṇḍimat) Ku.5.7,4; Me.18.
2) The top of a tree.
3) Crest, tuft.
4) The point or edge of a sword.
5) Top, peak, point in general.
6) The arm-pit.
7) Bristling of the hair.
8) The bud of the Arabian jasmine.
9) A kind of ruby-like gem.
-rā Name of a plant. (mūrvā).
Derivable forms: śikharaḥ (शिखरः), śikharam (शिखरम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ-raṃ) 1. The peak or summit of a mountain. 2. The top of a tree. 3. Point, end, top in general. 4. Horripilation. 5. The armpit. 6. A piece of a ruby or a gem, described as of the colour of the ripe pomegranate seed or a bright red. 7. The bud of the Arabian jasmine. 8. The edge or point of a sword. f.
(-rā) A plant, from the fibres of which bow-strings were made, (Sanseviera zeylanica.) E. śikhā a crest, and rac poss. aff., and the vowel made short.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śikhara (शिखर).— (cf. śikhā), m. and n. 1. Summit, [Pañcatantra] 9, 7; end. 2. The summit of a mountain, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 91; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 10, 6. 3. The top of a tree. 4. The edge or a point of a sword. 5. Horripilation. 6. The armpit. 7. A gem of a bright red colour; the bud of the Arabian jasmine, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 80 (Sch.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śikhara (शिखर).—[adjective] peaked; [masculine] [neuter] peak, top, summit.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śikhara (शिखर):—a etc. See [column]3.
2) [from śikhā] b mfn. pointed, spiked, crested, [Meghadūta; Kathāsaritsāgara]
3) [v.s. ...] m. n. a point, peak (of a mountain), top or summit (of a tree), edge or point (of a sword), end, pinnacle, turret, spire, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] m. erection of the hair of the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] the arm-pit, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] a ruby-like gem (of a bright red colour said to resemble ripe pomegranate seed), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] (?) the bud of the Arabian jasmine (cf. -daśanā)
8) [v.s. ...] Name of a mythical weapon (astra), [Rāmāyaṇa]
9) [v.s. ...] a [particular] position of the fingers of the hand, [Catalogue(s)]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
11) Śikharā (शिखरा):—[from śikhara > śikhā] f. Sanseviera Roxburghiana (a plant from the fibres of which bow-strings are made), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] mythical club (gadā), [Rāmāyaṇa]
13) Śikhara (शिखर):—[from śikhā] n. cloves, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śikhara (शिखर):—[(raḥ-raṃ)] 1. m. n. The peak or summit of a mountain; the top; end; horripilation; edge of a sword; arm-pit; ruby. 1. f. A plant from which bow-strings are made.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Śikhara (शिखर):—(von śikhā) gaṇa aśmādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 4, 2, 80.]
1) adj. spitzig, zackig: keśairarālairdaśanaiḥ śikharaiḥ [Kathāsaritsāgara 45, 235.] daśanā [Meghadūta 80] (nach einem [Scholiast] Zähne wie Jasminknospen habend). śikharamutpalam = karkaṭaśṛṅgī [AUSH. 95.] Vgl. śikharin . —
2) m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 4, 31.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 5, 10.] a) Spitze eines Berges [Amarakoṣa 2, 3, 4.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 374.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1032.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 610. fg.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 227. fg.] [Halāyudha 2, 11.] giri [Śāṅkhāyana’s Brāhmaṇa 26, 1.] uttama [Weber’s Indische Studien 2, 194.] [Mahābhārata 1, 1185. 3, 2441.] [Harivaṃśa 6937.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 33, 26. 56, 10. 69, 8. 94, 4. 3, 61, 8. 68, 13. 4, 1, 9. 8, 5. 5, 87, 8] (masc.). [6, 83, 42] (masc.). [Kumārasaṃbhava 5, 7.] [Meghadūta 18. 75.] [Śākuntala 167.] [Vikramorvaśī 10, 6.] [Spr. (II) 1193. 4564.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 12, 1. 16, 35. 24, 2.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 395. 22, 224. 31, 25.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 4, 166.] [Oxforder Handschriften 52], b, [?11. fg. Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 16, 17. ŚUK. in Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 32, 17. Pañcatantra 120, 9.] valmīka [9, 7.] eines Baumes [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 1, 12.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 3, 2. 3, 3, 374.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1121.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 26.] [Harivaṃśa 6956.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 79, 2. 22.] [Spr. (II) 1312. 4929.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 28, 8.] Giebel, Zinne oder Thurm (eines Palastes, eines Tempels u.s.w.) [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 33, 3.] [Rāmāyaṇa Gorresio 1, 5, 13. 2, 57, 18. 6, 104, 10.] [Spr. (II) 2161.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 56, 21. 27.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 114, 19.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 79, 12.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 10, 16. 3, 23, 18. 4, 9, 56.] pṛṣṭha ein berghoher Rücken (eines Elephanten) [Spr. (II) 1324.] puccha äusserste Spitze des Schwanzes (beim Fisch) [Oxforder Handschriften 129], a, [No. 232.] daśana Zahnspitze [Gītagovinda 1, 7.] dhvajasya [Rājataraṅgiṇī 3, 77.] abhra [Mahābhārata 1, 1112. 13, 836.] vīci [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 27, 1.] jvalana 2. ein spitzer Gegenstand z. B. ein Nagel [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 14, 22, 9.] — b) das Sträuben der Härchen am Körper (s. pulaka) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 374.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — c) ein Rubinstückchen von der Farbe eines reifen Granatkerns (pakvadāḍimabījābhamāṇikyaśakala) diess. — d) Achselgrube [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Medinīkoṣa] wohl eher Achsel; vgl. bāhu, bhuja . —
3) m. eine best. Stellung der Hand [Oxforder Handschriften 86,a,27. 202,a,6.] —
4) n. Gewürznelke [AUSH. 77.] —
5) n. Bez. eines best. mythischen Geschosses (astra) [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 29, 11.] —
6) m. Nomen proprium eines Mannes [Kathāsaritsāgara 67, 48.] —
7) f. ā a) Sanseviera Roxburghiana Schult. [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) N. einer best. mythischen Keule (gadā) [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 29, 8.] — Vgl. tri, bāhu ( [Harivaṃśa 4205]), bhuja, vahni, vaiḍūrya, śekhara .
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Śikhara (शिखर) [Also spelled shikhar]:—(nm) a peak, top, summit, pinnacle; vortex, apex; -[sammelana] a summit conference.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Shikharabha, Shikharadashana, Shikharadati, Shikharadatta, Shikharadhara, Shikharadri, Shikharahasta, Shikharamani, Shikharana, Shikharanicaya, Shikharapurisa Janem, Shikharasena, Shikharasvamin, Shikharasvamini, Shikharavasin, Shikharavasini.
Ends with (+19): Arbudashikhara, Astashikhara, Atavishikhara, Bahushikhara, Bhujashikhara, Candrakumarashikhara, Dashanashikhara, Dohshikhara, Dosshikhara, Gaurishikhara, Gayashikhara, Girisikhara, Gokshiravarashikhara, Himadrishikhara, Himavacchikhara, Jvalantashikhara, Malyashikhara, Merushikhara, Pancashikhara, Panchashikhara.
Full-text (+132): Shikharavasini, Sahasrashikhara, Shailashikhara, Vahnishikhara, Atavishikhara, Dohshikhara, Girisikhara, Bahushikhara, Astashikhara, Trishikhara, Vimana, Griva, Bhujashikhara, Stupi, Raghurama, Jvalantashikhara, Varuna, Pabbatasikhara, Shikharasena, Shikharasvamini.
Search found 17 books and stories containing Shikhara, Sikhara, Śikhara, Śikharā; (plurals include: Shikharas, Sikharas, Śikharas, Śikharās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Sikhara < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Nangavaram (about the 10th year) < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Temples in Melpadi < [Chapter IX - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Abhinaya-darpana (English) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Later Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Melakkadambur < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Temples in Appakkam < [Chapter X - Temples of Rajadhjraja II’s Time]
Temples in Madarvelur < [Chapter IV - Temples of Vikrama Chola’s Time]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Madagadipattu < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Temples in Mannarkoyil < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
Temples in Tiruppasur < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
Manasara (English translation) (by Prasanna Kumar Acharya)
The Markandeya Purana (by Frederick Eden Pargiter)