Griva, aka: Grīva, Grīvā; 11 Definition(s)
Griva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Grīvā (ग्रीवा) refers to the “Neck”. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures (āṅgika) are performaned, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).
These are the nine ‘gestures of the neck’ (grīvā):
- samā (natural),
- natā (bent),
- unnatā (elevated),
- tryasrā (triangular),
- recitā (purged),
- kuñcitā (contracted),
- añcita (arched),
- valitā (turned) or vāhitā,
- nivṛttā (retreated).
Knowers of mood (bhāva) have declared that there are four Necks (grīva): Sundari, Tirascīna, Parivartita, Prakampita.(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
According to the Matsya Purāṇa, Grīva (neck) is 4 aṅgulas(Source): Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Grīva (ग्रीव) refers to the “neck” of a temple (prāsāda or vimāna). It is considered the fourth part in the ṣaḍvarga structure.(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—A type of moulding;—‘Grīvā’ means neck. It is the recess below the śikhara, which is the ‘head’, and in its earlier, more representational forms depicts an upper room, the habitable part of the superstructure, below the roof. Read horizontally, it is a verandah or gallery running a hāra.(Source): Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation
Grīva (ग्रीव) and the śikhara are built above the vedi. Grīva and śikhara may be monolithic or masonry. The grīva of the prāsāda is a very important recessed part. The height of the grīva will be proportionate to the size of the śikhara. The shape of the grīva also corresponds to that of the śikhara. The sides of the grīva accommodate grīvakoṣṭas. It is also provided with bhadranīdas, which are occasionally relieved like a pillaret.(Source): Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Grīvā (ग्रीवा, “neck”) refers to that part of the human body from which the Buddha emitted numerous rays when he smiled with his whole body after contemplating the entire universe, according to the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Accordingly, having himself arranged the lion-seat, the Bhagavat sat down cross-legged; holding his body upright and fixing his attention, he entered into the samādhirājasamādhi. Then, having tranquilly come out of this samādhi and having contemplated the entire universe with his divine eye (divyacakṣus), the Bhagavat smiled with his whole body. Wheels with a thousand spokes imprinted on the soles of his feet (pādatala) shoot out six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays. In the same way, beams of six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays are emitted from his neck (grīvā).(Source): Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Languages of India and abroad
grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f (S) The back part of the neck, the region of the nape, and commonly the neck.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f The neck, the region of the nape.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
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Search found 13 books and stories containing Griva, Grīva or Grīvā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Seven-storeyed Gopuram: Chidambaram < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Kanchipuram < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Vimana and Vimana-devatas < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Later Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Kaniyamur < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Temples in Appakkam < [Chapter X - Temples of Rajadhjraja II’s Time]
Temples in Solapuram < [Chapter II - Temples of Kulottunga I’s Time]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Marakkanam < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Temples in Pasuvandanai < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Temples In Tiruvalanjuli < [Chapter II - Temples of Rajaraja I’s Time]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Act 1.4: The Buddha emits light rays from various body parts < [Chapter XIV - Emission of rays]
6. Birth and the thirty-two marks (lakṣaṇa) < [Part 4 - The Bodhisattva in the Abhidharma system]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 3: Sharirasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)