Griva, Grīva, Grīvā: 29 definitions


Griva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) refers to the “Neck”. It is one of the parts of the human body with which gestures (āṅgika) are performaned, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

These are the nine ‘gestures of the neck’ (grīvā):

  1. samā (natural),
  2. natā (bent),
  3. unnatā (elevated),
  4. tryasrā (triangular),
  5. recitā (purged),
  6. kuñcitā (contracted),
  7. añcita (arched),
  8. valitā (turned) or vāhitā,
  9. nivṛttā (retreated).
Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Knowers of mood (bhāva) have declared that there are four Necks (grīva): Sundari, Tirascīna, Parivartita, Prakampita.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Grīva (ग्रीव, “neck”) refers to one of the seven “major limbs” (aṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Aṅgas or major limbs include the head, hands, chest, sides, waist, and feet; at times the neck (Grīva) is also used as a separate limb.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

According to the Matsya Purāṇa, Grīva (neck) is 4 aṅgulas

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) or “neck” refers to one of the various body parts whose Measurements should follow the principles of ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, a specific measurement of every limb of a man as well as of a woman is elaborately and systematically discussed. In this book, the writer has presented the measurement of almost all the body parts that should be maintained in a picture. For example, Grīvā (“neck”) should be 12 aṅgulas (breadth) and 21 aṅgulas (circumference).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Grīva (ग्रीव) refers to the “neck” of a temple (prāsāda or vimāna). It is considered the fourth part in the ṣaḍvarga structure.

Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation

Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—A type of moulding;—‘Grīvā’ means neck. It is the recess below the śikhara, which is the ‘head’, and in its earlier, more representational forms depicts an upper room, the habitable part of the superstructure, below the roof. Read horizontally, it is a verandah or gallery running a hāra.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD

Grīva (ग्रीव) and the śikhara are built above the vedi. Grīva and śikhara may be monolithic or masonry. The grīva of the prāsāda is a very important recessed part. The height of the grīva will be proportionate to the size of the śikhara. The shape of the grīva also corresponds to that of the śikhara. The sides of the grīva accommodate grīvakoṣṭas. It is also provided with bhadranīdas, which are occasionally relieved like a pillaret.

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Grīva (ग्रीव) refers to “- 1. hollow molding (Aj) § 3.31. - 2. attic §§ 3.12, 25-26, 28; 4.6, 38; 5.19.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Grīva (ग्रीव) refers to the “neck”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] touches a part of his body, [the officiant] should prognosticate an extraneous thing [at a depth] up to the part. If [someone] touches his neck (grīva), they know that there is [an extraneous thing] which is an iron chain. It should be understood that that iron chain [exists at a depth of] three cubits [underground]. There is no doubt about it. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—A daughter in bird form born to Kaśyapaprajāpati by his wife Tāmrā. Grīvā had the following sisters, Kākī, Śyenī, Bhāsī, Gṛddhrikā and Śuci, all birds. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 1).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Grīvā (ग्रीवा):—Cervix or neck. A part of an organ resembeling a neck.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: (Yoga)

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) refers to the “neck” representing one of the sixteen vital centres of the body (i.e., ādhāra), according to the Jyotsnā 3.73 (Cf. Gorakṣaśataka 14 and Svātmārāma’s Haṭhapradīpikā 3.72).—In Haṭhayoga, ādhāra refers to a vital point of the body, a seat of vital function. Jyotsnā verse 3.73 cites a passage attributed to Gorakṣa listing the ādhāras as [e.g., grīvā (neck), ...]. The Haṭhapradīpikā refers to sixteen ādhāras but does not name them or explain what they are. The Gorakṣaśataka also refers to sixteen ādhāras as something the Yogī should be familiar with, but does not name them.

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) refers to the “neck”, according to the Mataṅgapārameśvaratantra (Mataṅgapārameśvara’s Yogapāda) verse 2.23-27.—Accordingly, while discussing ancillary and seated poses in Yoga: “[...] Having raised and broadened the chest and having made the arms loose, the wise [Yogin] should extend his back and raise the region of the shoulders. He should diligently hold the neck (grīvā) still, very steady and straight [but] not too rigid nor bent [to one side]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Grīva (ग्रीव) refers to the “neck”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, while describing the signs of one who is a Siddha: “There is (an auspicious) line on his foot and (the lines) on his hand (are shaped) like an auspicious lotus. His shoulders are equal as are (his) teeth; his neck and breasts are upraised [i.e., grīva-unnata-payodhara]. Or else he may be bent over. Such a one is part of the Siddha lineage. (His) thigh is (strong as if) issuing from a wheel and he has a faint auspicious line of hair (on his belly). His gait is playful and his body well proportioned. Such is the mark of a Siddha”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Grīvā (ग्रीवा, “neck”) refers to that part of the human body from which the Buddha emitted numerous rays when he smiled with his whole body after contemplating the entire universe, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Accordingly, having himself arranged the lion-seat, the Bhagavat sat down cross-legged; holding his body upright and fixing his attention, he entered into the samādhirājasamādhi. Then, having tranquilly come out of this samādhi and having contemplated the entire universe with his divine eye (divyacakṣus), the Bhagavat smiled with his whole body. Wheels with a thousand spokes imprinted on the soles of his feet (pādatala) shoot out six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays. In the same way, beams of six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays are emitted from his neck (grīvā).

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Grīvā).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f (S) The back part of the neck, the region of the nape, and commonly the neck.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f The neck, the region of the nape.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—[giratyanayā, gṝ-vanip ni° Uṇādi-sūtra 1.152] The neck, the back part of the neck; ग्रीवाभङ्गाभिरामं मुहुरनुपतति स्यन्दने दत्तदृष्टिः (grīvābhaṅgābhirāmaṃ muhuranupatati syandane dattadṛṣṭiḥ) Ś.1.7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f.

(-vā) 1. The neck. 2. The back part of the neck, the nape, the tendon of the Trepazium muscle. E. gṝ to swallow, vanip Unadi affix girati anayā gṝ vanip nipātane .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīvā (ग्रीवा).—f. The neck, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 283.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Grīva (ग्रीव):—m. the neck, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

2) a corridor (?), [Bālarāmāyaṇa x, 100/101]

3) Grīvā (ग्रीवा):—[from grīva] a f. the back part of the neck, nape, neck (in the earlier literature generally [plural]; cf. also, [Pāṇini 4-3, 57]), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda] etc. (ifc. cf. [Pāṇini 6-2, 114] f(ā). , [Mahābhārata i, 6662])

4) [v.s. ...] the tendon of the trapezium muscle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] the neck part of the hide of an animal, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iii]

6) [v.s. ...] the neck of a bottle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iii, 37]

7) Grīva (ग्रीव):—cf. asita-, ṛkṣa-, kambu-, kalmāṣa-, kṛṣṇa-, tuvi-, niṣka-, etc.; cf. also [Lithuanian] galwā; [Russian] glava & golova.

8) Grīvā (ग्रीवा):—[from grīva] b f. of va q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Grīvā (ग्रीवा):—(vā) 1. f. The neck, the nape.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Grīvā (ग्रीवा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gīvā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Griva in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Grīvā (ग्रीवा):—(nf) the neck.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Grīva (ಗ್ರೀವ):—[noun] = ಗ್ರೀವೆ [grive].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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