Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (study)
by K. Vidyuta | 2019 | 33,520 words
This page relates ‘Components in the Storeys of the Gopuras’ of the study on the Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (in English) with special reference to the characteristics of Prakara (temple-components), Mandapa (pavilions) and Gopura (gate-house). The Silpa-Sastras refers to the ancient Indian science of arts and crafts, such as sculpture, architecture and iconography. This study demonstrates the correlatation between ancient Indian monuments (such as temples and sculptures) and the variety of Sanskrit scriptures dealing with their construction.
6. Components in the Storeys of the Gopuras
(i). Measuring base of the gopura
Kāśyapa records that the height of the base and adhiṣṭhāna of the gopura are similar to that of the main prāsāda. If this height is divided into any number of parts ranging from 4 to11 then amongst them the upapīṭha is made up of 1 part. The remaining portion is once again divided into 3 parts.
Of this 1 part makes the height of the dharātala and the remaining 2 parts are the measure of the height of the pillar (44. 81cd-4):
pādādhiṣṭhānayostuṅgaṃ mūlaprāsādamūlakam ||
catuḥpaṃcaṣaḍaṃśaṃ vā saptāṣṭa nava eva vā |
daśaikādaśabhāgaṃ vā kṛtvaikāṃśopapīṭhakam |
śeṣaṃ cānalabhāgaṃ tu kṛtvaikāṃśaṃ dharātalam ||
dvibhāgaṃ caraṇottuṅgaṃ kalpayetkalpavittamaḥ |
upapīṭha vidhānoktatuṅgaṃ caivopapīṭha kam ||
(ii). Measure of the dvāra
Kāśyapa Śilpaśāstra also records that the measure of the doors too can be determined using hasta māna or of any desired measure. If its height is divided into 4 to 11 parts then 1 part among them is the height of the upapīṭha.
If the remaining height is divided into 3 parts as before, 1 part of them is the adhiṣṭhāna and the pillar is of 2 parts measure (44. 85-7ab):
athavā hastamānena dvāramānaṃ yathocitam |
taduccaṃ tu catuṣpañcaṣaṭsaptāṣṭau tu vā bhavet ||
navarudrāṃśabhāgaṃ vā kṛtvaikāṃśopapīṭhakam |
upapīṭhonnataṃ khyātaṃ śeṣaṃ tu guṇabhājite ||
adhiṣṭhānaṃ tadekāṃśaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇāyatam |
Further, Kāśyapa Śilpaśāstra lays down the general rule that the distance from the homa till the uttara is taken as the measure of the door.
Also, all the types of gopura from dvāraśobhā must be endowed with pāda-bandha and the adhiṣṭhāna (44. 87cd-8ab):
homāduttarasīmāntaṃ dvāramānaṃ vidhīyate ||
pādabandhamadhiṣṭhānaṃ dvāraśobhādinā kuru |
It has been clearly stated in V. 3. (iii). Measuring the height of the Gopura, that the total height of the gopura is the measure from homa until the sthūpi. In this section above, it has been shown that the height of the dvāra is from the homa upto the uttara. Now the part above the door (uttara) upto the sthupi is taken up for elucidating the construction of the storeys of the gopuras:
(iii). Single storeyed Gopura
The distance from the uttara upto the sthūpi is taken and divided into 6 parts. Of these divisions, the prastara is of 1¼ parts, the gala is of 1 part, the śiras is 2¾ parts and the remaining is the lower part of śikhā (śikhara or sthūpi).
These are the components of the single storeyed gopura (44. 88cd-90ab):
sthūpyantamuttarādyaṃ ca rasabhāgaṃ vibhājite ||
prastarastu sapādāṃśaṃ śaśyaṃśaṃ galamānakam |
pādonaguṇabhāgaṃ tu śiraḥ śeṣaṃ śikhodayam ||
evamekatalaṃ proktaṃ ... ... ... |
(iv). Two storeyed Gopura
If the distance between the uttara and the śikhā is made into 12 parts, the height of the prastara is 1¼ parts; the pillar is of 2 parts; mañcabandha and the kandhara are of 1 part each; śikhara is of 5½ parts and the śikhodaya (lower part of the śikhara) is 1¼ parts.
Thus the two-storeyed gopura is explained (44. 90cd-2):
uttarādi śikhāntaṃ ca ravibhāga vibhājite ||
prastaroccaṃ sapādāṃśaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam |
mañcamānaṃ śivāṃśaṃ syāttatsamaṃ kaṃ dharodayam ||
śikharaṃ sārdhapañcāṃśaṃ sapādāṃśaṃ śikhodayam |
dvitalaṃ hyevamākhyātaṃ ... ... ... ||
(v). Three storeyed Gopura
Here, the distance between the uttara and the tip of the śikhā is divided into 12 parts. Of those parts, the height of the prastara is 1¼ parts; the pillars are of the measure of 2½ parts. Again, the prastara is of 1 part, then the pillar is of 2 parts. The mañcabandha is of 1 part and the neck like portion is of 1 part too. The śikhara is of 2¼ parts and the sthūpi is of 1 part.
Thus the three-storeyed gopura is elucidated (44. 93-5):
uttarādi śikhāntaṃ ca dvādaśāṃśaṃ vibhājite |
sapādaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghriṇodayam ||
prastaraṃ śaśibhāgena dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam |
mañcamānaṃ śivāṃśaṃ syādaṃśaṃ grīvodayaṃ bhavet ||
sapādapakṣāṃśena śikharaṃ ekāṃśaṃ sthūpimānakam |
tritalaṃ hyevamākhyātaṃ ... ... ... ||
(vi). Four storeyed Gopura
If the space from the uttara to the śikha's tip is made into 18 parts, 1¾ parts is the mañca; 3 parts is the pillar's measure; if 1½ is the height of the prastara, then the pillars are of 2½ parts. Again the prastara is of 1¼ parts, the pillars are of 2 parts. Also, if the mañca is of 1 part then the gala is also of the same measure.
The śikhara is of 3 parts, the śikhā is of 1 part and thus the four storeyed gopura's components are given (44. 96-9ab):
uttarādiśikhāntaṃ tu dvinavāṃśaṃ vibhājite |
pādonadvyaṃśa mañcoccaṃ guṇāṃśaṃ caraṇodayam ||
tadardhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghriṇodayam |
tadardhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam ||
tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu tatsamaṃ galamucyate |
guṇāṃśaṃ śikharotsedhaṃ śikhāmānaṃ śivāṃśakam ||
caturbhūmiṃ samākhyātaṃ ... ... ... |
(vii). Five storeyed Gopura
In the case of the extent between the śikhara and the uttara being divided into 23 parts, then 2 parts of it is the height of the prastara; that of the pillars is 3½ parts; the mañca is of 1¾ parts and the measure of the pillar is 3 parts. Again, the height of the prastara is 1½ parts; the height of the pillar is 2½ parts; that of the mañca is 1¼ parts and the pillar's height is 2 parts. Moreover, if the prastara is of 1 part in height, then so is the kandhara; the height of the śira is 2½ parts and the measure of the sthūpi is 1 part.
Thus the construction of the five storeyed gopura is delineated (44. 99cd-103ab):
śikhāntamuttarādyaṃ ca trayoviṃśati bhājite ||
dvibhāgaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghrituṅgakam |
tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ syātpādāyāmaṃ guṇāṃśakam ||
tasyārdhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghrituṅgakam |
tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam ||
prastaroccaṃ śivāṃśena kandharoccaṃ tathaiva ca |
sārdhadvyaṃśaṃ śirottuṅgaṃ ekāṃśaṃ stūpimānakam ||
pañcabhūmiṃ samākhyātaṃ ... ... ... |
(viii). Six storeyed Gopura
If the space between the uttara and the śikhara is made into 29 parts, then the prastara is of 2 parts of it; the height of the pillar is 4 parts; the height of the prastara is 2¾ parts; 3½ part is the height of the pillar; that of the prastara is 2¾ parts. Again, if the pillar is of 2½ parts, then that of the prastara is 1¼ parts.
The height of the pillar is 2 parts; mañca māna is 1 part; the measure of the gala is 1 part; the height of the śira is 2½ parts and the śikhā measures 1¼ parts–these are the various heights of the components in a six storeyed gopura (44. 103cd-07ab):
uttarādiśikhāntaṃ ca ekonatriṃśadaṃśake ||
dvibhāgaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ pādoccaṃ caturaṃśakam |
satripādaśivāṃśaṃ tu prastarodayamīritam ||
sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghrituṅgaṃ tu tadardhaṃ prastarodayam |
sārdhādvyaṃśāṃghrituṅgaṃ tu tasyārdhaṃ prastarodayam ||
dvibhāgaṃ caraṇotsedhaṃ tasyārdhaṃ maṃcamānakam |
śivāṃśaṃ galamānaṃ tu sārdhadvyaṃśaṃ śirodayam ||
sapādāṃśaṃ śikhāmānaṃ ... ... ... |
(ix). Seven storeyed Gopura
The extent from the uttara to the śikhā is divided into 36 parts the height of the mañca is 2¼ parts; the height of the pillar is 4½ parts; the prastara's height is of 2 parts and that of the pillar is 4 parts. The mañca measures 1¾ parts; the pillars are of 3½ parts in height.
Also, if the mañca is 1¾ parts high then the pillars measure 3 parts (44. 107cd-09):
uttarādiśikhāntaṃ ca mānaṃ ṣaṭtriṃśadaṃśake ||
pādadvibhāgaṃ maṃcoccaṃ sārdhavedāṃśamaṃghrikam |
dvibhāgaṃ prastaroccaṃ tu vedāṃśaṃ caraṇodayam ||
pādonadvibhāgamañcaṃ syāt sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghri tuṅgakam |
pādonadvyaṃśamaṃgoccaṃ guṇāṃśaṃ pādamānakam ||
The height of the prastara is 1½ parts; that of the pillar is 2½ parts; 1¼ is the measure of the mañca, while the talipa (pillar) measures 2 parts. Again, if prastara is of 1 part then the gala is also of 1 part measure. The śiras is of 2¾ parts and the remaining 1¼ parts is the measure of the śikhara.
Thus the measures of the components that embellish the seven storeyed gopura are explained (44. 110-12ab):
sārdhāṃśaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhākṣāṃśāṃghri tuṅgakam |
tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu dvibhāgaṃ talipāyatam ||
prastaraṃ śaśibhāgena śivāṃśaṃ galamānakam |
pādahīnāgnibhāgaṃ tu śiraśśeṣaṃ śikhodayam ||
evaṃ saptatalaṃ khyātaṃ ... ... ... |
Footnotes and references:
The measurement of the components does not concur with the number of divisions of the breadth that is stated in the above verses.