### Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (study)

by K. Vidyuta | 2019 | 33,520 words

This page relates ‘Components in the Storeys of the Gopuras’ of the study on the Kashyapa Shilpa-shastra (in English) with special reference to the characteristics of Prakara (temple-components), Mandapa (pavilions) and Gopura (gate-house). The Silpa-Sastras refers to the ancient Indian science of arts and crafts, such as sculpture, architecture and iconography. This study demonstrates the correlatation between ancient Indian monuments (such as temples and sculptures) and the variety of Sanskrit scriptures dealing with their construction.

# 6. Components in the Storeys of the Gopuras

## (i). Measuring base of the *gopura*

Kāśyapa records that the height of the base and *adhiṣṭhāna* of the *gopura* are similar to that of the main *prāsāda*. If this height is divided into any number of parts ranging from 4 to11 then amongst them the *upapīṭha* is made up of 1 part. The remaining portion is once again divided into 3 parts.

Of this 1 part makes the height of the *dharātala* and the remaining 2 parts are the measure of the height of the pillar (44. 81cd-4):

pādādhiṣṭhānayostuṅgaṃ mūlaprāsādamūlakam ||

catuḥpaṃcaṣaḍaṃśaṃ vā saptāṣṭa nava eva vā |

...............

daśaikādaśabhāgaṃ vā kṛtvaikāṃśopapīṭhakam |

śeṣaṃ cānalabhāgaṃ tu kṛtvaikāṃśaṃ dharātalam ||

dvibhāgaṃ caraṇottuṅgaṃ kalpayetkalpavittamaḥ |

upapīṭha vidhānoktatuṅgaṃ caivopapīṭha kam ||

## (ii). Measure of the *dvāra*

*Kāśyapa Śilpaśāstra* also records that the measure of the doors too can be determined using *hasta māna* or of any desired measure. If its height is divided into 4 to 11 parts then 1 part among them is the height of the *upapīṭha*.

If the remaining height is divided into 3 parts as before, 1 part of them is the *adhiṣṭhāna* and the pillar is of 2 parts measure (44. 85-7ab):

athavā hastamānena dvāramānaṃ yathocitam |

taduccaṃ tu catuṣpañcaṣaṭsaptāṣṭau tu vā bhavet ||

navarudrāṃśabhāgaṃ vā kṛtvaikāṃśopapīṭhakam |

upapīṭhonnataṃ khyātaṃ śeṣaṃ tu guṇabhājite ||

adhiṣṭhānaṃ tadekāṃśaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇāyatam |

Further, *Kāśyapa Śilpaśāstra* lays down the general rule that the distance from the *homa* till the *uttara* is taken as the measure of the door.

Also, all the types of *gopura* from *dvāraśobhā* must be endowed with *pāda-bandha* and the *adhiṣṭhāna* (44. 87cd-8ab):

homāduttarasīmāntaṃ dvāramānaṃ vidhīyate ||

pādabandhamadhiṣṭhānaṃ dvāraśobhādinā kuru |

It has been clearly stated in V. 3. (iii). Measuring the height of the *Gopura*, that the total height of the *gopura* is the measure from *homa* until the *sthūpi*. In this section above, it has been shown that the height of the *dvāra* is from the *homa* upto the *uttara*. Now the part above the door (*uttara*) upto the *sthupi* is taken up for elucidating the construction of the storeys of the *gopuras*:

## (iii). Single storeyed *Gopura*

The distance from the *uttara* upto the *sthūpi* is taken and divided into 6 parts. Of these divisions, the *prastara* is of 1¼ parts, the *gala* is of 1 part, the *śiras* is 2¾ parts and the remaining is the lower part of *śikhā* (*śikhara* or *sthūpi*).

These are the components of the single storeyed *gopura* (44. 88cd-90ab):

sthūpyantamuttarādyaṃ ca rasabhāgaṃ vibhājite ||

prastarastu sapādāṃśaṃ śaśyaṃśaṃ galamānakam |

pādonaguṇabhāgaṃ tu śiraḥ śeṣaṃ śikhodayam ||

evamekatalaṃ proktaṃ ... ... ... |

## (iv). Two storeyed *Gopura*

If the distance between the *uttara* and the *śikhā* is made into 12 parts, the height of the *prastara* is 1¼ parts; the pillar is of 2 parts; *mañcabandha* and the *kandhara* are of 1 part each; *śikhara* is of 5½ parts and the *śikhodaya* (lower part of the *śikhara*) is 1¼ parts.

Thus the two-storeyed *gopura* is explained (44. 90cd-2):

uttarādi śikhāntaṃ ca ravibhāga vibhājite ||

prastaroccaṃ sapādāṃśaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam |

mañcamānaṃ śivāṃśaṃ syāttatsamaṃ kaṃ dharodayam ||

śikharaṃ sārdhapañcāṃśaṃ sapādāṃśaṃ śikhodayam |

dvitalaṃ hyevamākhyātaṃ ... ... ... ||

## (v). Three storeyed *Gopura*

Here, the distance between the *uttara* and the tip of the *śikhā* is divided into 12 parts. Of those parts, the height of the *prastara* is 1¼ parts; the pillars are of the measure of 2½ parts. Again, the *prastara* is of 1 part, then the pillar is of 2 parts. The *mañcabandha* is of 1 part and the neck like portion is of 1 part too. The *śikhara* is of 2¼ parts and the *sthūpi* is of 1 part.

Thus the three-storeyed *gopura* is elucidated (44. 93-5):

uttarādi śikhāntaṃ ca dvādaśāṃśaṃ vibhājite |

sapādaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghriṇodayam ||

prastaraṃ śaśibhāgena dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam |

mañcamānaṃ śivāṃśaṃ syādaṃśaṃ grīvodayaṃ bhavet ||

sapādapakṣāṃśena śikharaṃ ekāṃśaṃ sthūpimānakam |

tritalaṃ hyevamākhyātaṃ ... ... ... ||

## (vi). Four storeyed *Gopura*

If the space from the *uttara* to the *śikha's* tip is made into 18 parts, 1¾ parts is the *mañca*; 3 parts is the pillar's measure; if 1½ is the height of the *prastara*, then the pillars are of 2½ parts. Again the *prastara* is of 1¼ parts, the pillars are of 2 parts. Also, if the *mañca* is of 1 part then the *gala* is also of the same measure.

The *śikhara* is of 3 parts, the *śikhā* is of 1 part and thus the four storeyed *gopura's* components are given (44. 96-9ab):

uttarādiśikhāntaṃ tu dvinavāṃśaṃ vibhājite |

pādonadvyaṃśa mañcoccaṃ guṇāṃśaṃ caraṇodayam ||

tadardhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghriṇodayam |

tadardhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam ||

tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu tatsamaṃ galamucyate |

guṇāṃśaṃ śikharotsedhaṃ śikhāmānaṃ śivāṃśakam ||

caturbhūmiṃ samākhyātaṃ ... ... ... |

## (vii). Five storeyed *Gopura*

In the case of the extent between the *śikhara* and the *uttara* being divided into 23 parts, then 2 parts of it is the height of the *prastara*; that of the pillars is 3½ parts; the *mañca* is of 1¾ parts and the measure of the pillar is 3 parts. Again, the height of the *prastara* is 1½ parts; the height of the pillar is 2½ parts; that of the *mañca* is 1¼ parts and the pillar's height is 2 parts. Moreover, if the *prastara* is of 1 part in height, then so is the *kandhara*; the height of the *śira* is 2½ parts and the measure of the *sthūpi* is 1 part.

Thus the construction of the five storeyed *gopura* is delineated (44. 99cd-103ab):

śikhāntamuttarādyaṃ ca trayoviṃśati bhājite ||

dvibhāgaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghrituṅgakam |

tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ syātpādāyāmaṃ guṇāṃśakam ||

tasyārdhaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhadvyaṃśāṃghrituṅgakam |

tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu dvibhāgaṃ caraṇodayam ||

prastaroccaṃ śivāṃśena kandharoccaṃ tathaiva ca |

sārdhadvyaṃśaṃ śirottuṅgaṃ ekāṃśaṃ^{[1]}stūpimānakam ||

pañcabhūmiṃ samākhyātaṃ ... ... ... |

## (viii). Six storeyed *Gopura*^{[2]}

If the space between the *uttara* and the *śikhara* is made into 29 parts, then the *prastara* is of 2 parts of it; the height of the pillar is 4 parts; the height of the *prastara* is 2¾ parts; 3½ part is the height of the pillar; that of the *prastara* is 2¾ parts. Again, if the pillar is of 2½ parts, then that of the *prastara* is 1¼ parts.

The height of the pillar is 2 parts; *mañca māna* is 1 part; the measure of the *gala* is 1 part; the height of the *śira* is 2½ parts and the *śikhā* measures 1¼ parts–these are the various heights of the components in a six storeyed *gopura* (44. 103cd-07ab):

uttarādiśikhāntaṃ ca ekonatriṃśadaṃśake ||

dvibhāgaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ pādoccaṃ caturaṃśakam |

satripādaśivāṃśaṃ tu prastarodayamīritam ||

sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghrituṅgaṃ tu tadardhaṃ prastarodayam |

sārdhādvyaṃśāṃghrituṅgaṃ tu tasyārdhaṃ prastarodayam ||

dvibhāgaṃ caraṇotsedhaṃ tasyārdhaṃ maṃcamānakam |

śivāṃśaṃ galamānaṃ tu sārdhadvyaṃśaṃ śirodayam ||

sapādāṃśaṃ śikhāmānaṃ ... ... ... |

## (ix). Seven storeyed *Gopura*

The extent from the *uttara* to the *śikhā* is divided into 36 parts the height of the *mañca* is 2¼ parts; the height of the pillar is 4½ parts; the *prastara's* height is of 2 parts and that of the pillar is 4 parts. The *mañca* measures 1¾ parts; the pillars are of 3½ parts in height.

Also, if the *mañca* is 1¾ parts high then the pillars measure 3 parts (44. 107cd-09):

uttarādiśikhāntaṃ ca mānaṃ ṣaṭtriṃśadaṃśake ||

pādadvibhāgaṃ maṃcoccaṃ sārdhavedāṃśamaṃghrikam |

dvibhāgaṃ prastaroccaṃ tu vedāṃśaṃ caraṇodayam ||

pādonadvibhāgamañcaṃ syāt sārdhāgnyaṃśāṃghri tuṅgakam |

pādonadvyaṃśamaṃgoccaṃ guṇāṃśaṃ pādamānakam ||

The height of the *prastara* is 1½ parts; that of the pillar is 2½ parts; 1¼ is the measure of the *mañca*, while the *talipa* (pillar) measures 2 parts. Again, if *prastara* is of 1 part then the *gala* is also of 1 part measure. The *śiras* is of 2¾ parts and the remaining 1¼ parts is the measure of the *śikhara*.

Thus the measures of the components that embellish the seven storeyed *gopura* are explained (44. 110-12ab):

sārdhāṃśaṃ prastarotsedhaṃ sārdhākṣāṃśāṃghri tuṅgakam |

tadardhaṃ mañcamānaṃ tu dvibhāgaṃ talipāyatam ||

prastaraṃ śaśibhāgena śivāṃśaṃ galamānakam |

pādahīnāgnibhāgaṃ tu śiraśśeṣaṃ śikhodayam ||

evaṃ saptatalaṃ khyātaṃ ... ... ... |

## Footnotes and references:

[2]:

The measurement of the components does not concur with the number of divisions of the breadth that is stated in the above verses.