Pratishtha, aka: Pratiṣṭha, Pratiṣṭhā; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Pratishtha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Pratiṣṭha and Pratiṣṭhā can be transliterated into English as Pratistha or Pratishtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा):—Second of the eight Mātṛs born from the body of Mahimā, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. These eight sub-manifestations (mātṛ) are associated with the (element) earth. The first five from (including Pratiṣṭhā) represent the five kalās. All these eight mātṛs are characterized as carrying a diamond in their hand. They are presided over by the Bhairava Jhaṇṭa and his consort named Aindryā. Mahimā is the seventh of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the earth.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) refers to “infusing life into the temple” as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pratiṣṭhā is the process which transforms a mere physical structure into temple.—Kāmikāgama defines pratiṣṭhā as the action of uniting the liṅga (identified with Sadāśiva) with the piṇḍikā (identified with Umādevī). Dīptāgama echoes the same, calling the piṇḍikā, Umādevī and the liṅga, Parameśvara. In the ritual of liṅga-pratiṣṭhā, the energy of Śiva is invoked in the kumbha and transferred to the liṅga in the garbhagṛha. The Lord is then requested to stay and reside in the liṅga “till the sun and the moon and the earth exist”. Since the piṇḍikā is identified with Devī, during Pīṭhapratiṣṭhā, the prayer is for the Devī to reside in the pīṭha till the sun and the moon and the earth exist.

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

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1) Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—A female follower of Subrahmaṇya (Śloka 29, Chapter 46, Śalya Parva). (See full article at Story of Pratiṣṭhā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—The installation of deities in temples. According to Agni Purāṇa it is the installation of Śivaliṅga that is called Pratiṣṭhā.

2) Pīṭha is Śakti (Power) and Liṅga is Śiva. It is the union of Śakti in the form of Pīṭha and Śiva in the form of liṅga that is called Pratiṣṭhā. This Pratiṣṭhā is attained by means of Śivamantras. There are five different kinds of Pratiṣṭhās:— Viśeṣapratiṣṭhā. Any pratiṣṭhā in which Brahmaśilā is used in combination is called Viśeṣapratiṣṭhā. Sthāpana. Fixing the liṅga on the pīṭha (platform) is called Sthāpana. Sthitasthāpana. The fixing of the liṅga (idol) on the pīṭha (platform) when the liṅga gets shaky on it is called Sthitasthāpana. Utthāpana. Taking the idol out from the platform and refixing it, is called Utthāpana. Āsthāpana. A pratiṣṭhā in which after the fixation learned priests eonduct purification ceremonies, is called Āsthāpana.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1) Pratiṣthā (प्रतिष्था).—A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 98.

2) Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—A description of the consecration of the liṅga in temples;1 Māgha, Phālguṇa, Caītra, Vaiśākha, and Jyeṣṭha are auspicious months. The auspicious asterisms, planets and lagnas are also mentioned;2 the maṇṭapa should lie on the east or north of the temple, of different measurements. An altar to be located in its centre. It is a temporary structure for performing the consecration ceremony, mantras and music form part of the ritual. The image to be then installed. The qualifications of the sthāpaka the details of the ceremony of worshiping the idol, offerings to the bhūtas in all the three parts of the day: worship in the night time;3 should have dancing and singing as part of the ritual.4 The image of Śiva to face North only;5 then Lokapālas to be consecrated, and appeased with śānti.6 The constituents of arghya and how it is to be offered;7 offering of 40 lights.8

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa ch. 263.
  • 2) Ib. 264. 3-12.
  • 3) Ib. 264. 13-35.
  • 4) Ib. ch. 263.
  • 5) Ib. 266. 4.
  • 6) Ib. 266. 19-65.
  • 7) Ib. 267. 2-22.
  • 8) Ib. 267. 24-28.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.45.28). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pratiṣṭhā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) refers to a class of rhythm-type (chandas) containing four syllables in a pāda (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. There are twenty-six classes of chandas and out of them arise the various syllabic meters (vṛtta), composed of four pādas, defining the pattern of alternating light and heavy syllables.

Pratiṣṭhā is described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of four syllables the second long, is pratiṣṭhā”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) refers to one of the five Kalās mentioned in Śāradātilaka I.26. Kalā represents one of the six adhvans being purified during the Kriyāvatī-dīkṣā: an important Śākta ritual. Dīkṣā is one of the most important rituals of the Śāktas and so called because it imparts divine knowledge and destroys evil.

Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) is one of the twenty-six varieties of Sanskrit metres (chandas) mentioned in the Chandaśśāstra 1.15-19. There are 26 Vedic metres starting with 1 to 26 letters in each pāda. It is a common belief that the classical metres are developed from these 26 metres. Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables (akṣara). But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) refers to “rituals of installation”

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा) is found in one passage of the Atharvaveda, where Zimmer thinks the word is used as a technical term of law; possibly a ‘sanctuary’ may be meant, but it is more than doubtful whether the sense of ‘home’ or ‘abode’, as given by Roth, is not quite adequate. Cf. Jñātṛ.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

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Pratiṣṭha (प्रतिष्ठ) is the father of Supārśva according to Śvetāmbara (according to Digambara he is named Supratiṣṭha), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Supārśva is the seventh of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The wife of Pratiṣṭha is Pṛthvī. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

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pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—f (S) Honor, reputation, credit, fame, celebrity. 2 Instalment or inauguration (of a person in a post or an office): consecration of a monument erected in honor of a deity: summoning of the numen or divinity into a new image and establishment of it as an idol in the temple. Hence used to express a residence or dwelling at any place. 3 Airs, swellings, the assumption and display of conceit. v kara, mirava, bāḷaga. 4 Endowing of a temple; portioning and marrying of a daughter; establishing in life &c. 5 S Accomplishment, establishment, fixation gen. pandharā prakāracyā pra0 Puffing one's self up vaingloriously; endless airs and swelling pretensions.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—f Honour, reputation. Installa- tion. Airs. Establishment.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—1 P.

1) To stand firm, be established.

2) To be supported.

3) To rest or depend upon.

4) To stay, abide, be situated.

5) To set (as the sun); उदेति च यतः सूर्यो यत्र च प्रतितिष्ठति (udeti ca yataḥ sūryo yatra ca pratitiṣṭhati) Mb.7.62.11. -Caus.

1) To place firmly on, station.

2) To set up, erect, establish; धुरि प्रतिष्ठापयितव्य एव (dhuri pratiṣṭhāpayitavya eva); M.1.16.

3) To install, inaugurate (on a throne).

4) To entrust with, consign to.

5) To offer, present; पर्यङ्कमग्र्यास्तरणं नानारत्नविभूषितम् । तमपीच्छति वैदेही प्रतिष्ठापयितुं त्वयि (paryaṅkamagryāstaraṇaṃ nānāratnavibhūṣitam | tamapīcchati vaidehī pratiṣṭhāpayituṃ tvayi) Rām.2.22.9.

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Pratiṣṭha (प्रतिष्ठ).—a.

1) Famous.

2) Standing firmly (Ved.)

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Pratiṣṭhā (प्रतिष्ठा).—1 Resting, remaining, situation, position; धर्मो विश्वस्य जगतः प्रतिष्ठा (dharmo viśvasya jagataḥ pratiṣṭhā) Mahānār. Up.; अलसचलिताङ्गुष्ठ- शिरसि प्रतिष्ठा त्वय्यासीत् (alasacalitāṅguṣṭha- śirasi pratiṣṭhā tvayyāsīt) Śivamhimna.12. अपौरुषेयप्रतिष्ठम् (apauruṣeyapratiṣṭham) Māl.9; Ś.7.6.

2) A house, residence, home, habitation; अगाधसत्त्वो मगधप्रतिष्ठः (agādhasattvo magadhapratiṣṭhaḥ) R.6.21;14.5.

3) Fixity, stability, strength, permanence, firm basis; अप्रतिष्ठे रघुज्येष्ठे का प्रतिष्ठा कुलस्य नः (apratiṣṭhe raghujyeṣṭhe kā pratiṣṭhā kulasya naḥ) U.5.25; अत्र खलु मे वंशप्रतिष्ठा (atra khalu me vaṃśapratiṣṭhā) Ś.7; वंशः प्रतिष्ठां नीतः (vaṃśaḥ pratiṣṭhāṃ nītaḥ) K.28; Śi.2.34; असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् (asatyamapratiṣṭhaṃ te jagadāhuranīśvaram) Bg.16.8; अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायां तत्संनिधौ वैरत्यागः (ahiṃsāpratiṣṭhāyāṃ tatsaṃnidhau vairatyāgaḥ) Pātañjala S.

4) Basis, foundation, site; as in गृह- प्रतिष्ठा (gṛha- pratiṣṭhā); लोकस्य नाभिर्जगतः प्रतिष्ठा (lokasya nābhirjagataḥ pratiṣṭhā) Mb.12.245.27.

5) A prop, stay, support; (hence) an object of glory, a distinguished ornament; त्यक्ता मया नाम कुलप्रतिष्ठा (tyaktā mayā nāma kulapratiṣṭhā) Ś.6.24; द्वे प्रतिष्ठे कुलस्य नः (dve pratiṣṭhe kulasya naḥ) 3.19; Ku.7.27; Mv.7.21.

6) High position, pre-eminence, high authority; किंप्रमाणमिदं काव्यं का प्रतिष्ठा महात्मनः (kiṃpramāṇamidaṃ kāvyaṃ kā pratiṣṭhā mahātmanaḥ) Rām.7.94.23; मया नात्मप्रतिष्ठार्थिना (mayā nātmapratiṣṭhārthinā) Mu.2.5.

7) Fame, glory, renown, celebrity; मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठां त्वमगमः शाश्वतीः समाः (mā niṣāda pratiṣṭhāṃ tvamagamaḥ śāśvatīḥ samāḥ) Rām.1.2.15. (= U.2.5.).

8) Installation, inauguration; तं गच्छन्त्यनु ये विपत्तिषु पुनस्ते तत्प्रतिष्ठाशया (taṃ gacchantyanu ye vipattiṣu punaste tatpratiṣṭhāśayā) Mu.1.14.

9) Attainment of a desired object, accomplishment, fulfilment (of one's desire); औत्सुक्यमात्रमवसादयति प्रतिष्ठा (autsukyamātramavasādayati pratiṣṭhā) Ś.5.6.

1) Tranquillity, rest, repose.

11) A receptacle.

12) The earth.

13) The consecration of an idol or image; चलाचलेति द्विविधा प्रतिष्ठा जीवमन्दिरम् (calācaleti dvividhā pratiṣṭhā jīvamandiram) Bhāg.11.27.13; cf. प्राणप्रतिष्ठा (prāṇapratiṣṭhā).

14) A limit, boundary.

15) The foot; अहोरात्राणि प्रतिष्ठा (ahorātrāṇi pratiṣṭhā) Bṛ. Up.1.1.1.

16) Completion of a vow.

17) A ceremony for obtaining supernaturel or magical powers.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratiṣṭha (प्रतिष्ठ).—mfn.

(-ṣṭhaḥ-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhaṃ) Famous. f.

(-ṣṭhā) 1. Fame, celebrity. 2. The earth. 3. The accomplishment of a religious ceremony or any set of rites, especially those instituted for the attainment of supernatural and magical powers. 4. A form of metre, consisting of a stanza of four lines, of four syllables each: it is also applied to a form of the Gayatri, being a triplet of 8, 7, and 6 syllable lines, making altogether 21 syllables. 5. Place, scite. 6. Staying, standing, fixation. 7. Limit, boundary. 8. Accomplishment, completion, (in general.) 9. Consecration of a monument erected in honour of a deity, or of the image of a deity. 10. Endowment of a temple, portioning or marrying a daughter, &c. 11. Fixity, Strength, firm foundation 12. Prop, support, Stay. 13. Rest, tranquility. 14. A receptacle. 15. High authority, par-eminence. m.

(-ṣṭhaḥ) The father of Suparswa, the seventh Jaina pontiff. E. prati before, sthā to stay or stand, affs. aṅ and ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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