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The Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad (with the Commentary of Śaṅkarācārya)

Section I - Partial Definitions of Brahman

The relation of this and the next section to the preceding one is as follows: There a Being, to be known only from the Upaniṣads, has been described as ‘Not this, not this,’ who projects eight beings, viz. the one identified with the body and the rest, and withdraws them into the heart (mind), again projects them in five forms according to the quarters and withdraws them into the heart, then unifies both heart and body, which depend on each other, in the Sūtra, the being identified with the universe, also called Samāna, with its fivefold function such as the Prāṇa, and who transcends the being identified with the universe with his three states—the body, heart and Sūtra. The same Being has been described both directly and as the material cause of the universe in the words, ‘Knowledge, Bliss,’ etc. (III. ix. 28. 7). Some more instruction about Him has to be given by a reference to the deities, that of speech and the rest. Hence this and the next section are being introduced in order to furnish another means of doing this. The story is meant to show the custom to be observed on such occasions.

 

Verse 4.1.1:

ॐ । जनको ह वैदेह आसांचक्रे, अथ ह याज्ञवल्क्य आवव्राज । तं होवाच, याज्ञवल्क्य किमर्थमचारीः, पशूनिच्छन्, अण्वन्तानिति । उभयमेव सम्राडिति होवाच ॥ १ ॥

oṃ | janako ha vaideha āsāṃcakre, atha ha yājñavalkya āvavrāja | taṃ hovāca, yājñavalkya kimarthamacārīḥ, paśūnicchan, aṇvantāniti | ubhayameva samrāḍiti hovāca || 1 ||

1. Om. Janaka, Emperor of Videha, took his seat, when there came Yājñavalkya. Janaka said to him, ‘Yājñavalkya, what has brought you here? To have some animals, or to hear some subtle questions asked?’ ‘Both, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya.

Janaka, Emperor of Videha, took his seat, i.e-gave audience to those who wanted to see him, when there came Yājñavalkya, either to have or maintain something of his own, or, in view of the Emperor’s desire for knowledge, to do him a favour. Offering his guest adequate worship, Janaka said to him, ‘Yājñavalkya, what has brought you here? Is it to have some more animals, or to hear some subtle questions asked — to hear from me questions on subtle subjects till decisions are arrived at?’ ‘Both animals and questions O Emperor.’ The word ‘Emperor’ indicates that Janaka must have performed the Vājapeya sacrifice. ‘Emperor’ also means one who rules over territories through his vassals, who obey his commands; or the word may mean, fRuler of all India.’

 

Verse 4.1.2:

यत्ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्मे जित्वा शैलिनिः, वाग्वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान् ब्रूयान्, तथा तच्छैलिरब्रवीद्वाग्वै ब्रह्मेति, अवदतो हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठां? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति; स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य । वागेवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठा, प्रज्ञेत्येनदुपासीत; का प्रज्ञता याज्ञवल्क्य? वागेव सम्राडिति होवाच । वाचा वै सम्राड्बन्धुः प्रज्ञायते, ऋग्वेदो यजुर्वेदः सामवेदोऽथर्वाङ्गिरस इतिहासः पुराणं विद्या उपनिषदः श्लोकाः सूत्राण्यनुव्याख्यानानि व्याख्यानानीष्टं हुतमाशितं पायितम्, अयं च लोकः, परश्च लोकः, सर्वाणि च भूतानि वाचैव सम्राद् प्रज्ञायन्ते; वाग्वै सम्राद् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं वाग्जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते । हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः । स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः, पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ २ ॥

yatte kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnme jitvā śailiniḥ, vāgvai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavān brūyān, tathā tacchailirabravīdvāgvai brahmeti, avadato hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhāṃ? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti; sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya | vāgevāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhā, prajñetyenadupāsīta; kā prajñatā yājñavalkya? vāgeva samrāḍiti hovāca | vācā vai samrāḍbandhuḥ prajñāyate, ṛgvedo yajurvedaḥ sāmavedo'tharvāṅgirasa itihāsaḥ purāṇaṃ vidyā upaniṣadaḥ ślokāḥ sūtrāṇyanuvyākhyānāni vyākhyānānīṣṭaṃ hutamāśitaṃ pāyitam, ayaṃ ca lokaḥ, paraśca lokaḥ, sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni vācaiva samrāṭ prajñāyante; vāgvai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ vāgjahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste | hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ | sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ, pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 2 ||

2. ‘Let me hear what any one of your teachers may have told you.’ ‘Jitvan, the son of Śilina, has told me that the organ of speech (fire)[1] is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the son of Śilina said this—that the organ of speech is Brahman, for what can a person have who cannot speak? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The organ of speech is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as intelligence.’ ‘What is intelligence. Yājñavalkya?’ ‘The organ of speech itself, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘through the organ of speech, O Emperor, a friend is known; the Ṛg-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sāma-Veda, Athar-vāṇgirasa, (Vedic) history,[2] mythology, arts, Upaniṣads, verses, aphorisms, elucidations and explanations, (the effects of) sacrifices, (of) offering oblations in the fire and (of) giving food and drink, this world and the next, and all beings are known through the organ of speech alone, O Emperor. The organ of speech, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The organ of speech never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him, and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,' said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

'But let me hear what any one of your teachers—for you serve several of them —may have told you.’ The other said, ‘My teacher Jitvan, the son of Śilina, has told me that the organ of speech, i.e. its presiding deity (fire), is Brahman.’ Yājñavalkya said, ‘As one who has a mother adequately to instruct him in his childhood, a father to instruct him after that, and a teacher to instruct him from his initiation with the holy thread up to the completion of his studies, should say to his disciple, so has Jitvan, the son of Śilina, said this—that the organ of speech is Brahman. One who has had the advantage of these three sources of purification is a teacher in the primary sense of the word, and never fails to be an authority himself. For what can a person have who cannot speak?—he achieves nothing either in this life or in the next.

‘But did he tell you about the abode and support of that Brahman?’ ‘Abode’ means the body; ‘support’ is permanent resort. Janaka said, ‘No, he did not.’ Yājñavalkya said, ‘If so, this Brahman is only one-footed, and lacking the remaining three feet, it will not produce any effect, even though meditated upon.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya, for you know (about them),’ Yājñavalkya said, ‘The organ of speech is its abode, or the body of the deity of the organ of speech (fire), which is a form of Brahman, and the ether known as the Undifferentiated its support at its origin, during its continuance and at its dissolution. Itshould be meditated upon as intelligence. The secret name of intelligence is the fourth quarter of Brahman; one should meditate upon this Brahman as intelligence.’

‘What is intelligence, Yājñavalkya? Is intelligence itself meant, or its effect (speech)? Is it different from the organ of speech, like the body and support?’ ‘No.’ ‘What is it then?’ ‘The organ of speech itself, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘is intelligence: Intelligence is not different from the organ of speech.’ How is it? The reply is being given: Through the organ of speech, O Emperor, a friend is known, when somebody says, ‘He is our friend.’ Likewise the Ṛg-Veda etc. Sacrifices mean the spiritual effects produced by them; the same with offering oblations, as well as giving food and drink. This world, the present life, the next world, the life to come, and all beings are known through the.organ of speech alone, O Emperor. Therefore the organ of speech, O Emperor. is the Supreme Brahman. The organ of speech never leaves him, the knower of the Brahman described above, who knowing thus meditates upon it, all beings eagerly come to him with offerings etc., and being a god in this very life, he attains the gods, is merged in them after death. ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,’ said Emperor Janaka, as a return for the instruction received. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was bf opinion that one should not accept wealth from a disciple without fully instructing or satisfying him. I too hold that view.’

 

Verse 4.1.3:

यदेव ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्म ऊदङ्कः शौल्बायनः, प्राणो वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान्ब्रूयात्, तथा तच्छौल्वायनोऽब्रवीत्प्राणो वै ब्रह्मेति, अप्राणतो हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठाम्? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति; स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य; प्राण एवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठाः, प्रियमित्येनदुपासीत; का प्रियता याज्ञवल्क्य? प्राण एव सम्राडिति होवाच, प्राणस्य वै सम्राट् कामायायाज्यं याजयति, अप्रतिगृह्यस्य प्रतिगृह्णाति, अपि तत्र वधाशङ्कं भवति यां दिशमेति प्राणस्यैव सम्राट् कामाय; प्राणो वै सम्राट् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं प्राणो जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते; हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः; स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्य, पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ ३ ॥

yadeva te kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnma ūdaṅkaḥ śaulbāyanaḥ, prāṇo vai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavānbrūyāt, tathā tacchaulvāyano'bravītprāṇo vai brahmeti, aprāṇato hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhām? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti; sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya; prāṇa evāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhāḥ, priyamityenadupāsīta; kā priyatā yājñavalkya? prāṇa eva samrāḍiti hovāca, prāṇasya vai samrāṭ kāmāyāyājyaṃ yājayati, apratigṛhyasya pratigṛhṇāti, api tatra vadhāśaṅkaṃ bhavati yāṃ diśameti prāṇasyaiva samrāṭ kāmāya; prāṇo vai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ prāṇo jahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste; hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ; sa hovāca yājñavalkya, pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 3 ||

3. ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you.’ ‘Udaṅka, the son of Sulba, has told me that the vital force (Vāyu) is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the son of Śulba said this— that the vital force is Brahman, for what can a person have who does not live? But did he tell you about its abode (body) and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The Vital force is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as dear.’ ‘What is dearness, Yājñavalkya?’ ‘The vital force itself, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, one performs sacrifices for one for whom they should not be performed, and accepts gifts from one from whom they. should not be accepted, and it is for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor, that one runs the risk of one’s life in any quarter one may go to. The vital force, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The vital force never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it, all beiṇgs eagerly come to him, and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,’ said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

‘Let me hear whatever,’ etc. ‘Udaṅka, the son of Śulba, has told me that the vital force is Brahman.’ ‘The vital force’ means the deity Vāyu, as ‘the organ of speech' in the preceding paragraph meant the deity fire. ‘The vital force is its abode, and the ether (the Undiffereṇtiated) its support.’ Its secret name: ‘It should be meditated upon as dear.’ ‘For the sake of the vital force,0Emperor, one performs sacrifices for one for whom they should jiot be performed, such as even an outcast, and even accepts gifts from one from whom they shoutrt not be accepted, for instance, an Ugra[3]; and one runs the risk of one’s life in any quarter infested by robbers etc. that one may go to. All this is possible because the vital force is dear: It is for the sake of the vital force, O Emperor. Therefore the vital force,0Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The vital force never leaves him,’ etc. The rest has been explained.

 

Verse 4.1.4:

यदेव ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्मे बर्कुर्वार्ष्णः, चक्शुर्वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान् ब्रूयात्, तथा तद्वार्ष्णोऽब्रवीच्चक्शुर्वै ब्रह्मेति, अपश्यतो हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठां? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति; स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य; चक्शुरेवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठा, सत्यमित्येतदुपासीत; का सत्यता याज्ञवल्क्य? चक्शुरेव सम्राडिति होवाच, चक्शुषा वै सम्राट् पश्यन्तमाहुरद्राक्शीरिति, स आहाद्राक्शमिति, तत्सत्यं भवति; चक्शुर्वै सम्राट् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं चक्शुर्जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते; हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः; स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः, पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ ४ ॥

yadeva te kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnme barkurvārṣṇaḥ, cakśurvai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavān brūyāt, tathā tadvārṣṇo'bravīccakśurvai brahmeti, apaśyato hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhāṃ? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti; sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya; cakśurevāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhā, satyamityetadupāsīta; kā satyatā yājñavalkya? cakśureva samrāḍiti hovāca, cakśuṣā vai samrāṭ paśyantamāhuradrākśīriti, sa āhādrākśamiti, tatsatyaṃ bhavati; cakśurvai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ cakśurjahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste; hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ; sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ, pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 4 ||

4. ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you.’ ‘Barku, the son of Vṛṣṇa, has told me that the eye (sun) is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the son of Vṛṣṇa said this—that the eye is Brahman. For what can a person have who cannot see? But did he tell you about its abode and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The eye is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as truth.’ ’What is truth, Yājñavalkya?’ ‘The eye itself, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ’ if a person, O Emperor, says to one who has seen with the eyes, “Have you seen?” and one answers, “Yes, I have,” then it is true. The eye, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The eye never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods,’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,' said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

‘Let me hear,’ etc. Barku, the son of Vrsna, etc. The eye is Brahman: The sun is the presiding deity of the eye. The secret name is truth, ‘Because what one hears with the ears may be false, but not what one sees with the eyes, therefore if a person, O Emperor, says to one who has seen with the eyes, “Have you seen the elephant?” and he answers, “Yes, I have,” then it is considered true; while if another says, “I have heard of it,” it may not correspond with fact. But what is seen with the eyes is always true, as it corresponds with fact.’

 

Verse 4.1.5:

यदेव ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्मे गर्दभीविपीतो भारद्वाजः, श्रोत्रं वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान्ब्रूयात्, तथा तद्भारद्वाजोऽब्रवीच्छ्रोत्रं वै ब्रह्मेति, अशृण्वतो हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठां? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति; स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य; श्रोत्रमेवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठा, नन्तमित्येनदुपासीत; कानन्तता याज्ञवल्क्य? दिश एव सम्राडिति होवाच, तस्माद्वै सम्राडपि यां कां च दिशं गच्छति नैवास्या अन्तं गच्छति, अनन्ता हि दिशोः; दिशो वै सम्राट् श्रोत्रम्, श्रोत्रं वै सम्राट् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं श्रोत्रं जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते; हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः; स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ ५ ॥

yadeva te kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnme gardabhīvipīto bhāradvājaḥ, śrotraṃ vai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavānbrūyāt, tathā tadbhāradvājo'bravīcchrotraṃ vai brahmeti, aśṛṇvato hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhāṃ? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti; sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya; śrotramevāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhā, nantamityenadupāsīta; kānantatā yājñavalkya? diśa eva samrāḍiti hovāca, tasmādvai samrāḍapi yāṃ kāṃ ca diśaṃ gacchati naivāsyā antaṃ gacchati, anantā hi diśoḥ; diśo vai samrāṭ śrotram, śrotraṃ vai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ śrotraṃ jahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste; hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ; sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 5 ||

5. ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you.' ‘Gardabhīvipīta, of the Hne of Bharadvāja, has told me that the ear (the quarters) is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the descendant of Bharadvāja said this—that the ear is Brahman, for what can a person have who cannot hear? But did he tell you about its abode and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This .Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The ear is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as infinite.’ ‘What is infinity, Yājñavalkya, ‘the quarters them-selves, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘therefore, O Emperor, to whatever direction one may go, one never reaches its end. (Hence) the quarters are infinite. The quarters, O Emperor, are the ear, and the ear, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The ear never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,’ said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

‘Let me hear,’ etc. Gardabhīvipīta, of the line of Bharadvāja, etc. The ear is Brahman: The quarters are the presiding deities of the ear. 'It should be meditated upon as infinite.’ ‘What is the infinity of the ear?’ Because the quarters themselves are the infinity, therefore, O Emperor, to whatever direction, east or north, one may go, one never reaches its end. Hence the quarters are infinite. The quarters, O Emperor, are the ear. Therefore the infinity of the quarters is also that of the ear.’

 

Verse 4.1.6:

यदेव ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्मे सत्यकामो जाबालोः मनो वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान्ब्रूयात्, तथा तज्जाबालोऽब्रवीन्मनो वै ब्रह्मेति, अमनसो हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठाम्? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति; स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य; मन एवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठा, आनन्द इत्येनदुपासीत; कानन्दता याज्ञवल्क्य? मन एव सम्राडिति होवाच, मनसा वै सम्राट् स्त्रियमभिहार्यते, तस्यां प्रतिरूपः पुत्रो जायते, स आनन्दो; मनो वै सम्राट् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं मनो जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते; हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः; स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः, पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ ६ ॥

yadeva te kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnme satyakāmo jābāloḥ mano vai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavānbrūyāt, tathā tajjābālo'bravīnmano vai brahmeti, amanaso hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhām? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti; sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya; mana evāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhā, ānanda ityenadupāsīta; kānandatā yājñavalkya? mana eva samrāḍiti hovāca, manasā vai samrāṭ striyamabhihāryate, tasyāṃ pratirūpaḥ putro jāyate, sa ānando; mano vai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ mano jahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste; hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ; sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ, pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 6 ||

6. ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you.’ ‘Satyakāma, the son of Jabālā, has told me that the Manas (here, the moon) is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the son of Jabālā said this—that the Manas is Brahman, for what can a person without the Manas have? But did he tell you about its abode and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The Manas is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as bliss.’ ‘What is bliss, Yājñavalkya?’ ‘The Manas itself. O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘with the Manas, O Emperor, a man (fancies and) woos a woman. A sod resembling him is born of her, and he is the cause of bliss. Thé Manas, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The Manas never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,’ said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth) from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

Satyakāma, the son of Jabālā,’ etc. The moon is the presiding deity of the Manas. The secret name is bliss. ‘Because the Manas itself is bliss, therefore with the Manas a man fancies and woos a woman. From that a son resembling him is born of that woman, and that son is the cause of bliss; therefore the Manas which brings this son into being, is bliss.’

 

Verse 4.1.7:

यदेव ते कश्चिदब्रवीत्तच्छृणवामेति; अब्रवीन्मे विदग्धः शाकल्योः, हृदयं वै ब्रह्मेति; यथा मातृमान्पितृमानाचार्यवान्ब्रूयात्, तथा तच्छाकल्योऽब्रवीद्धृदयं वै ब्रह्मेति, अहृदयस्य हि किं स्यादिति; अब्रवीत्तु ते तस्यायतनं प्रतिष्ठां? न मेऽब्रवीदिति; एकपाद्वा एतत्सम्राडिति, स वै नो ब्रूहि याज्ञवल्क्य; हृदयमेवायतनम्, आकाशः प्रतिष्ठा, स्थितिरित्येनदुपासीत; का स्थितिता याज्ञवल्क्य? हृदयमेव सम्राडिति होवाच, हृदयं वै सम्राट् सर्वेषां भूतानामायतनम्, हृदयं वै सम्राट् सर्वेषां भूतानां प्रतिष्ठा, हृदये ह्येव सम्राट् सर्वाणि भूतानि प्रतिष्ठितानि भवन्ति; हृदयं वै सम्राट् परमं ब्रह्म; नैनं हृदयं जहाति, सर्वाण्येनं भूतान्यभिक्शरन्ति, देवो भूत्वा देवानप्येति, य एवं विद्वानेतदुपास्ते; हस्त्यृषभं सहस्रं ददामीति होवाच जनको वैदेहः; स होवाच याज्ञवल्क्यः, पिता मेऽमन्यत नाननुशिष्य हरेतेति ॥ ७ ॥
इति प्रथमं ब्राह्मणम् ॥

yadeva te kaścidabravīttacchṛṇavāmeti; abravīnme vidagdhaḥ śākalyoḥ, hṛdayaṃ vai brahmeti; yathā mātṛmānpitṛmānācāryavānbrūyāt, tathā tacchākalyo'bravīddhṛdayaṃ vai brahmeti, ahṛdayasya hi kiṃ syāditi; abravīttu te tasyāyatanaṃ pratiṣṭhāṃ? na me'bravīditi; ekapādvā etatsamrāḍiti, sa vai no brūhi yājñavalkya; hṛdayamevāyatanam, ākāśaḥ pratiṣṭhā, sthitirityenadupāsīta; kā sthititā yājñavalkya? hṛdayameva samrāḍiti hovāca, hṛdayaṃ vai samrāṭ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāmāyatanam, hṛdayaṃ vai samrāṭ sarveṣāṃ bhūtānāṃ pratiṣṭhā, hṛdaye hyeva samrāṭ sarvāṇi bhūtāni pratiṣṭhitāni bhavanti; hṛdayaṃ vai samrāṭ paramaṃ brahma; nainaṃ hṛdayaṃ jahāti, sarvāṇyenaṃ bhūtānyabhikśaranti, devo bhūtvā devānapyeti, ya evaṃ vidvānetadupāste; hastyṛṣabhaṃ sahasraṃ dadāmīti hovāca janako vaidehaḥ; sa hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ, pitā me'manyata nānanuśiṣya hareteti || 7 ||
iti prathamaṃ brāhmaṇam ||

7. ‘Let me hear whatever any one may have told you.’ ‘Vidagdha, the son of Śakala, has told me that the heart (mind, here, Prajāpati) is Brahman.’ ‘As one who has a mother, father and teacher should say, so has the son of śakala said this—that the heart is Brahman. For what can a person without the heart have? But did he tell you about its abode and support?’ ‘No, he did not.’ ‘This Brahman is only one-footed, O Emperor.’ ‘Then you tell us, Yājñavalkya.’ ‘The heart is its abode, and the ether (the Undifferentiated) its support. It should be meditated upon as stability.’ ‘What is stability, Yājñavalkya?’ ‘The heart itself, O Emperor,’ said Yājñavalkya, ‘the heart, O Emperor, is the abode of all beings, and the heart, O Emperor, is the support of all beings; on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest; the heart, O Emperor, is the Supreme Brahman. The heart never leaves him who knowing thus meditates upon it; all beings eagerly come to him; and being a god, he attains the gods.’ ‘I give you a thousand cows with a bull like an elephant,’ said Emperor Janaka. Yājñavalkya replied, ‘My father was of opinion that one should not accept (wealth), from a disciple without fully instructing him.’

Vidagdha, the son of Śakala, etc. The heart is Brahman. The heart, O Emperor, is the abodeof all beings. We have already said in the section relating to Śākalya that all beings consisting of name, form and action depend on the heart (mind) and rest on it.[4] ‘Therefore on the heart, O Emperor, all beings rest. Hence it should be meditated upon as stability.’ Prajāpati (Hiraṇyagarbha) is the presiding deity of the heart.

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Footnotes and references:

1.

Throughout this and the next six paragraphs, the organ means its presiding deity, except when it is the abode.

2.

For an explanation of these terms see commentary on II. iv. 10.

3.

One born of a Kṣatriya father and a śūdra mother, and generally characterised by cruelty.

4.

See commentary on III. ix. 24.

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