Shrimad Bhagavad-gita

by Narayana Gosvami | 2013 | 327,105 words

The Bhagavad-gita Verse 14.27, English translation, including the Vaishnava commentaries Sarartha-varsini-tika, Prakashika-vritti and Rasika-ranjana (excerpts). This is verse Verse 14.27 from the chapter 14 called “Guna-traya-vibhaga-yoga (Yoga through transcending the three modes of Material Nature)”

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration, Word-for-word and English translation of verse 14.27:

ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहम् अमृतस्याव्ययस्य च ।
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च ॥ २७ ॥

brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca |
śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca
|| 27 ||

brahmaṇaḥ–of that nirviśeṣa-brahma; hi–because; pratiṣṭhā–the shelter; aham–I am; amṛtasya–of liberation; avyayasya–of the everlasting; ca–and; śāśvatasya–of the eternal;ca–and; dharmasya–of sanātana-dharma (the eternal spiritual nature); sukhasya–of the happiness of prema; eka-antikasya–of one-pointed (exclusive) devotion to Me; ca–and.

I alone am the basis of that undifferentiated, impersonal brahma and the sole refuge of everlasting immortality, eternal dharma and the transcendental bliss of prema arising from one-pointed, pure devotion.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Ṭīkā

(By Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura; the innermost intention of the commentary named ‘the shower of essential meanings’)

One may raise the question: “How can Your devotees attain the state of nirguṇa-brahma, that aspect of the Absolute Truth that is devoid of qualities, which is only possible by experiencing oneness with brahma?” In response, Śrī Bhagavān speaks this verse beginning with brahmaṇo. “I am indeed the basis (pratiṣṭhā) of that brahma and am famous as the supreme basis of everything. Since brahma depends upon Me, I am its shelter, or fountainhead. The word pratiṣṭhā has this meaning in all Śruti statements, such as ‘annamaya’. Furthermore, ‘amṛtasya–I am also the shelter of immortality (amṛta).’ Is this amṛta heavenly nectar? No! It refers to imperishable liberation, or mokṣa. I am also the shelter of śāśvatasya dharmasya, the eternal dharma (religion), and I am also the shelter of bhakti, the supreme and everlasting religion, which eternally exists in the stages of practice (sādhana) and perfection (siddha). Furthermore, I am prema, which is attained by exclusive devotion. Thus, since everything depends on Me, one can attain the platform of brahma (characterized by merging with brahma) by worshipping Me with a desire to achieve such liberation (kaivalya).”

While commenting on this verse, Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī quotes Kṛṣṇa as saying, “I am the shelter (pratiṣṭhā) of brahma, which means that I am concentrated brahma. Although the sun is concentrated light, it is known as the shelter of light. In the same way, although I am the form of Kṛṣṇa, I am the basis (brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham) of that aspect of the Absolute that is devoid of features, nirviśeṣa-brahma.” The Viṣṇu Purāṇa also proves this point. “Viṣṇu is the shelter of all auspiciousness. He is the shelter of all consciousness and the shelter of the all-pervading Soul.” Śrīla Śrīdhara Svāmī also writes that Viṣṇu is the shelter of Parabrahma, the omniscient Supersoul. “As Śrī Bhagavān says in the Gītā, ‘I am the shelter (pratiṣṭhā) of brahma.’”

In Viṣṇu-dharma it is said, “Among material nature (prakṛti), the Enjoyer (puruṣa) and brahma (the effulgence of Bhagavān), only puruṣa, Vāsudeva, is the Lord. This is the conclusion.” The same scripture also states, “Just as Bhagavān Acyuta is Parabrahma, Lord of the impersonal brahma effulgence, He is also the Lord of the ātma, Paramātmā.”

When Śrī Kṛṣṇa performed the pastime of rescuing the sons of the brāhmaṇa, He told Arjuna that Parabrahma extends Himself through-out the universe as various opulent manifestations. “O Arjuna, that concentrated radiance should be considered to be My svarūpa composed of effulgence” (Hari-vaṃśa Purāṇa, Viṣṇu-parva 114.11.12).

In Brahma-saṃhitā (5.40) it is also said, “I worship the original personality, Śrī Govinda. The non-differentiated, impersonal brahma, which has been described by the Upaniṣads has originated from the radiance of His limbs.”

Also in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (8.24.38), Bhagavān Matsya told King Satyavān, “I will enlighten your heart with answers to your questions, and then, by My mercy, My glory, popularly known as Parabrahma, will manifest in your heart and you will be able to realize Me completely.” Śrī Madhusūdana Sarasvatī writes in his commentary: “The following doubt may be raised: ‘How can Your devotees, having attained Your transcendental nature, become qualified to achieve that state of brahma if You are different from brahma?’ Anticipating this doubt, Śrī Bhagavān says, brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham. (Pratiṣṭhā implies ‘I alone am sufficient and complete’.) ‘Since I am the basis of brahma, if someone realizes Me, then his realization is sufficient and complete. Realization of brahma is included in that.’”

According to the Amara-koṣa dictionary, the word paryāpti means ‘the most complete’. Apart from this, there is another verse establishing this.

This has been composed by Śrīla Madhusūdana Sarasvatī himself:

parā-kṛta-mana-dvandvaṃ paraṃ brahman narākṛtim
saundarya-sāra-sarvasvaṃ vande nandātmajam aham

I worship the effulgent form of the essence of all beauty, the son of Nanda Mahārāja, Parabrahma, who has a human form and who has put aside the duality of my mind.

The three modes of nature are unwanted obstacles on the path of per-fection. One’s life is perfected by freedom from the modes of nature, and that is bhakti. This is the topic that has been explained in this chapter.

Thus ends the bhāvānuvāda of Śrīla Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura’s
Sārārtha-varṣiṇī-ṭīkā (the commentary that gives pleasure
to the devotees and is accepted by all saintly persons)
on the Fourteenth Chapter of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

Commentary: Sārārtha-Varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti

(By Śrīla Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja; the explanation that illuminates the commentary named Sārārtha-varṣiṇī)

Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura quotes Arjuna as saying, “You may ask that since the attainment of brahma is the ultimate goal of all types of sādhana, how is it possible for persons who have realized brahma to enjoy prema for You, which is beyond the modes?” In response, Śrī Bhagavān says, “In My eternal state, transcendental to the modes of nature, I exist in My original form as Bhagavān. I place the conscious seed, the jīva, who is of the taṭasthā-śakti, in the womb of My inert material energy, which is illuminated by My brahma-svarūpa (the effulgence of My form). When a conditioned soul advances to higher and higher stages by his cultivation of jñāna-yoga, he ultimately attains brahma, the Absolute Truth, in My personal form. This is the first step of the nirguṇa stage, the realm that is transcendental to the modes. Before this, he is engrossed in nirviśeṣa-bhāva, feelings of impersonalism, due to relinquishing all attraction to mundane variety. This nirviśeṣa-bhāva is removed by becoming situated in that nirguṇa stage and taking shelter of pure bhakti-yoga. He then realizes the stage of transcendental spiritual variety (cid-viśeṣa).

“Great saints such as Sanaka and Vāmadeva first deliberated on the featureless nirviśeṣa-brahma by following the path of jñāna. Later they achieved nectar in the form of nirguṇa bhakti-rasa by this process of devotional service. Unfortunately, those who hanker to achieve liberation, forced by the adversity of lowly desire, cannot properly situate themselves in brahma-tattva, and therefore, they do not attain that bhakti which is beyond the modes as their highest attainment. In the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (nirguṇa-saviśeṣa-tattva), I am indeed the shelter of the impersonal brahma, which is the supreme destination of the jñānīs. My form as Kṛṣṇa is the shelter of all immortality, imperishability, eternality, love of God in the form of the eternal occupation, and the ever-blissful nectarean mellows of Vraja. These are all attainable by taking shelter of My kṛṣṇa-svarūpa. I am that para-tattva, beyond the material modes and full of variety.”

Mukti-pradātā sarveṣāṃ viṣṇur eva na saṃśayaḥ–Viṣṇu alone is the bestower of mukti.” The Śrutis also say, “tam eva viditvāti mṛtyum eti–merely by knowing Him, one becomes free from the clutches of death” (Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 3.8). The Padma Purāṇa states, “viṣṇor anucaratvaṃ hi mokṣam āhur manīṣinaḥ–thoughtful sages who have realized the Absolute say that liberation means service to the lotus feet of Bhagavān.” And the Skanda Purāṇa states, “kaivalaya-daḥ paraṃ brahma viṣṇur eva sanātanaḥ–only Viṣṇu, who is the supreme brahma, is beyond impersonal oneness and eternal.”

Thus ends the Sārārtha-varṣiṇī Prakāśikā-vṛtti
by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyaṇa Gosvāmī Mahārāja,
on the Fourteenth Chapter of Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā.

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