Hri, Hrī, Hṛ: 21 definitions


Hri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Hṛ can be transliterated into English as Hr or Hri, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Hrī (ह्री, “beauty”).—According to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, Hrī is born from Prajāpati (“the lord of progeny”). Śrī is also the mother of Kāma (“kust”). According to the Taittirīya-saṃhitā, Śrī is one of the two wives of Āditya (“the solar-principle”).

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Hrī (ह्री).—Birth. One of the 16 daughters born to Svāyambhuvamanu by his wife called Śatarūpā. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha). Other information. (1) Hrīdevī worships Brahmā in his assembly.

When Arjuna started for Indraloka Draupadī meditated upon Hrī so that no dangers might overtake him. (Vana Parva, Chapters 37, 38).

Hrī too was present at the installation ceremony of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, 13). (See full article at Story of Hrī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Hrī (ह्री).—A daughter of Dakṣa and a wife of Dharma; mother of Praśraya;1 a śakti.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 50 and 52.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 71.
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Hrī (ह्री) is the Sanskrit name of one of the seven Nāṭyamātṛ (‘mothers of nāṭya’) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.86-87. They should be offered worship during ceremonies such as ‘consecration of the mattavāraṇī’ and ‘pouring ghee into sacrificial fire’.

Accordingly (85-87), “After saying these words for the happiness of the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success of the dramatic production. [The Benediction]: Let mothers such as Sarasvati, Dhṛti, Medhā, Hrī, Śrī, Lakṣmī, and Smṛti protect you and give you success.”

Hrī is the name of a metre belonging to the Vṛtta (syllabic) class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“The metre with all syllables long in parts of gāthā feet, is called Hrī”.

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Hrī (ह्री) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘lajjā’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., hrī) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Hrī (ह्री) refers to “shame”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Ratnapāṇi said: ‘Son of good family, what are those sixteen dharmas included in?’ Gaganagañja said: ‘Son of good family, the sixteen dharmas are included in thirty-two dharmas. What are those thirty-two? To wit, (1) calmness is included in shame (hrī) and modesty; (2) gentleness is included in gentle words and being pleasant to stay with; (3) the absence of pride is included in the absence of contemptuousness and humility; (4) the absence of guile is included in the undefiled and no roughness; [...]’”.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Hrī (ह्री, “shame”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., hrī). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Hrī also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Hrī (ह्री).—The name of a Goddess residing over the padmahrada (big lotus-island) which lies in the center of a lake named Mahāpadma. This lake is situated on top of the mountain range (varṣadharaparvatas) named Mahāhimavat, one of the six mountain ranges in Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa lies at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Hrī (ह्री) refers to one of the eight Dikkumārīs living on the northern Rucaka mountains (in the Rucakadvīpa continent), according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“[...] Eight Dikkumārīs [viz., Hrī] from the northern Rucaka Mountains came quickly by means of the Ābhiyogika-gods who had become chariots like the wind (in speed). After bowing to the Jina and to his mother and announcing their purpose as before, they stood on the left holding chauris, singing.[...].”.

Note: In the continent Rucakadvīpa is a circular mountain-ranges Rucaka. On this in the four directions are 4 temples, and on both sides of each temple are 4 mountain peaks, making 8 peaks in each direction. Each peak is inhabited by a Dikkumārī [viz., Hrī].—(cf. ‘Die Kosmographie der Inder’ pp. 257f).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Hrī (ह्री, “modesty”) is the name of a deity residing in the lotus (puṣkara) in the middle of the Mahāpadma lake, which lies on top of the Mahāhimavat (Mahahimavān) mountain. This mountain is situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.

Jambūdvīpa (where Hrī resides) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—1 U. (harati-te, jahāra, jahe, ahārṣīt, ahṛta, hariṣyati-te, hartum, hṛta; pass. hriyate)

1) To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति (ajāṃ grāmaṃ harati) ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधवश्लेषितस्य (saṃdeśaṃ me hara dhanapatikrodhavaśleṣitasya) Meghadūta 7; Manusmṛti 4.74.

2) To carry off or away, take or draw to a distance; हरामि रामसौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ (harāmi rāmasaumitrī mṛgo bhūtvā mṛgadyuvau) Bhaṭṭikāvya 5.47.

3) To take away, rob, plunder, steal; दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया (durvṛttā jārajanmāno hariṣyantīti śaṅkayā) Bv.4.45; R.3.39; Kumārasambhava 2.47; Bhaṭṭikāvya 2.39; Ms. 7.43.

4) To strip off, deprive of, despoil, take away; वृन्ताद्श्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् (vṛntādślathaṃ harati puṣpamanokahānām) R.5.69; Bhaṭṭikāvya 15.116; Manusmṛti 8. 334.

5) To take away, cure, destroy; उत्कण्ठां तां हरिष्यामि मेघलेखामिबानिलः (utkaṇṭhāṃ tāṃ hariṣyāmi meghalekhāmibānilaḥ) Rām.7.4.19; तथापि हरते तापं लोकानामुन्नतो घनः (tathāpi harate tāpaṃ lokānāmunnato ghanaḥ) Bv.1.39; R.15.24; Meghadūta 31.

6) To attract, captivate, win over, influence, subdue, enchant; चेतो न कस्य हरते गतिरङ्गनायाः (ceto na kasya harate gatiraṅganāyāḥ) Bv.2.157; ये भावा हृदयं हरन्ति (ye bhāvā hṛdayaṃ haranti) 1.13; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः (tavāsmi gītarāgeṇa hāriṇā prasabhaṃ hṛtaḥ) Ś.1.5; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् (harati me harivāhanadiṅmukham) V.3.6; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी (mṛgayā jahāra catureva kāminī) R.9.69;1.83; Ṛs. 6.21; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः (indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṃ manaḥ) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.6;6.44; Manusmṛti 6.59.

7) To gain, acquire, obtain; ततो विंशं नृपो हरेत् (tato viṃśaṃ nṛpo haret) Manusmṛti 8.391,153; Y.2.123; स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् (sa haratu subhagapatākām) Dk.

8) To have, possess; अङ्गैः सुकुमारतरैः सा कुसुमानां श्रियं हरति (aṅgaiḥ sukumārataraiḥ sā kusumānāṃ śriyaṃ harati) Bv.2.163.

9) To surpass, eclipse; त्वां हरन्तीं श्रियं हरति (tvāṃ harantīṃ śriyaṃ harati) Bhaṭṭikāvya 5.71.

1) To marry; पित्रे न दद्याच्छुल्कं तु कन्यामृतुमतीं हरन् (pitre na dadyācchulkaṃ tu kanyāmṛtumatīṃ haran) Manusmṛti 9.93.

11) To divide.

12) To cast, throw (as an arrow).

13) To accept, receive, inherit.

14) To offer. -Caus. (hārayati-te)

1) To cause to take, carry or convey, send (something) by one, (with acc. or instr.); मृत्यं मृत्येन वा भारं हारयति (mṛtyaṃ mṛtyena vā bhāraṃ hārayati) Sk.; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयीं हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् (jīmūtena svakuśalamayīṃ hārayiṣyan pravṛttim) Meghadūta 4; Manusmṛti 8.114; Kumārasambhava 2. 39.

2) To cause to be taken away, to lose, be deprived of.

3) To give away. -Desid. (jihīrṣati-te) To wish to take &c. -II. 3 P. (jiharti) To take by force.

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Hrī (ह्री).—&c. An exclamation of sacred mantras; ओं ह्रां ह्रीं ह्रूं ओं नमो भगवते हृषीकेशाय (oṃ hrāṃ hrīṃ hrūṃ oṃ namo bhagavate hṛṣīkeśāya) Bhāgavata 5.18.18.

Derivable forms: hrīm (ह्रीम्).

See also (synonyms): hrā, hrū.

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Hrī (ह्री).—3 P. (jihreti, hrīṇa-hrīta)

1) To blush, be modest.

2) To be ashamed (used by itself or with abl. or gen.); जिह्रेम्यार्यपुत्रेण सह गुरुसमीपं गन्तुम् (jihremyāryaputreṇa saha gurusamīpaṃ gantum) Ś.7.6; अन्योन्यस्यापि जिह्रीमः किं पुनः सहवासिनाम् (anyonyasyāpi jihrīmaḥ kiṃ punaḥ sahavāsinām) Kirātārjunīya 11.58; R.15.44;17.73; Bhaṭṭikāvya 3.53; 5.12;6.132. -Caus. (hrepayati-te) To put to shame (fig. also); cause to blush, make ashamed; सकौस्तुभं ह्रेपयतीव कृष्णम् (sakaustubhaṃ hrepayatīva kṛṣṇam) R.6.49; ह्रेपिता हि बहवो नरेश्वराः (hrepitā hi bahavo nareśvarāḥ) 11.4; किं वा जात्या स्वामिनो ह्रेपयन्ति (kiṃ vā jātyā svāmino hrepayanti) Śiśupālavadha 18.23; Kirātārjunīya 11.64;13.41; Ve.1.17.

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Hrī (ह्री).—f.

1) Shame; रतेरपि ह्रीपदमादधाना (raterapi hrīpadamādadhānā) Kumārasambhava 3.57; दारिद्र्याद् ह्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसः (dāridryād hriyameti hrīparigataḥ prabhraśyate tejasaḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.14; R.4.8.

2) Bashfulness, modesty; ह्रीसन्नकण्ठी कथमप्युवाच (hrīsannakaṇṭhī kathamapyuvāca) Kumārasambhava 7.85.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Hrī (ह्री).—(written) Hirī (so as common noun, examples § 3.108; Pali hirī, Sanskrit hrī), Modesty personified: as one of the four daughters of Indra (see Āśā), Mahāvastu ii.59.22 (verse); [Page623-a+ 8] as a devakumārikā in the northern quarter, Mahāvastu iii.309.9 = Lalitavistara 391.4 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—r. 1st cl. (ja) hṛj r. 1st cl. (harati te) 1. To convey. 2. To take or accept. 3. To steal. 4. To destroy or annual. 5. To deprive of 6. To captivate, to charm, to influence. 7. To remove. With adhi and ā, To supply an ellipsis. With an prefixed, 1. To imitate, (Par.) 2. To take after the parents, (Atm.) With apa, 1. To remove, to take away or apart. 2. To plunder, to steal. 3. To attract, to influence. 4. To leave behind. With abhi and ava, To eat. With ā, 1. To fetch, to carry. 2. To perform, (as a sacrifice.) 3. To get. 4. To procreate. 5. To recover, to bring back. 6. To assume. 7. To attract. 8. To withdraw. 9. To eat. With uda, 1. To take out or up. 2. To make an extract from. 3. To raise, to extricate. 4. To eradicate, to destroy. 5. To deduct. With upa and ā, To bring. With nis, 1. To carry out a dead body. 2. To extract, to draw out from. With pra, 1. To throw, to hurl, to fling, (with a dative or accusative.) 2. To attack, to strike. 3. To wound, to injure, (with a locative.) 4. To seize upon. With vi, 1. To remove, to destroy. 2. To pass, (as time.) 3. To sport. 4. To say. With sam, 1. To collect. 2. To withdraw. 3. To suppress, to restrain. 4. To kill, to annihilate, (opposed to sṛj). 5. To contract, to abridge With sama and ā, 1. To bring. 2. To make reparation for. 3. To draw. 4. To destroy. 5. To collect. With abhi, To assault. With abhi and āṅ, To reason. With abhi and ut, To deliver. With abhi, vi, and āṅ, To utter, to pronounce. With ava, 1. To regain. 2. To punish or fine. With ut, 1. To raise, to lift or take up. 2. To expel. With ud and āṅ. 1. To say or tell. 2. To illustrate, to exemplify. With upa, 1. To bring near to. 2. To give. With upa and sam, To withhold. With ni changed to nī, To freeze. With nir, To show disrespect. With nir and āṅ, To fast. With pari, 1. To reproach, to abuse or censure. 2. To leave, to shun, to abandon. 3. To resist. 4. To remove, to destroy. 5. To extract. With prati changed to pratī, To keep watch. With prati and āṅ, To think abstractedly by restraining the organs of sense. With prati and sam, To disregard, to abandon. With vi, 1. To sport, to ramble for pleasure. 2. To pass, (as time.) 3. To remove. 4. To destroy. With vi and āṅ, To say, to utter, to speak. With vi and ava, 1. To deal in transactions, (with a genitive.) 2. To litigate. With sam and āṅ, To collect, to assemble. With sam, abhi, vi and āṅ, To speak in concert. With sam, ut and āṅ, To relate. With sam and upa, 1. To give. 2. To assemble, to collect. With sam and pra, To fight. With vi and ati prefixed and implying reciprocity (vyatiharate) To steal or plunder mutually. In the first sense “to convey” this verb geverns two accusatives, as bhāraṃ harati grāgaṃ he takes the load (to) the village. Caus. (hārayati-te) 1. To cause to carry. 2. To make to lose. With ap, To cause to take away. With abhi and ava, To feed. With ā, To cause to bring. With ud, To cause to take out. r. 3rd cl. (jahartti) To take by violence.

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Hrī (ह्री).—r. 3rd cl. (-jihreti) To be modest, to blush. 2. To be ashamed of, (with an ablative or genitive.)

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Hrī (ह्री).—f.

(-hrīḥ) Shame, bashfulness. E. hrī to be ashamed, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).— (for original bhṛ, which still appears in the signification of hṛ in the Vedas; cf. bhṛ. The original signification, ‘to bring,’ becomes, on the one side, ‘to carry to,’ on the other, ‘to carry away’). i. 1, [Parasmaipada.] [Ātmanepada.] † ii. 3, jihṛ, [Parasmaipada.] 1. To convey, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 7. 2. To offer, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 121. 3. To direct or discharge (an arrow), Chr. 37, 29. 4. To take, to fetch, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 103. 5. To retain, [Hitopadeśa] 90, 9. 6. To seize, to carry away, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 38; [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 67 (his understanding is carried away, as a ship by the wind). 7. To cut off (the head), Mahābhārata 3, 10184. 8. To steal, to rob, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 51; to charm, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 85. 9. To acquire, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 3, 97; to gain, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 133. 10. To put off, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 74. 11. To accept, to inherit, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 131. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. kṛta, Captivated, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 5. Ptcple. of the fut. pass. hārya ([Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 98, 12, read hvārya). Comp. A-hārya, 1. not to be seized or confiscated, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 189. 2. not to be brought back, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 181, 8 (sā ced ahāryaniścayā, ‘if she cannot be induced to change her mind’). 3. not to be gained (by bribes), incapable of perfidy, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 217. Desider. jihīrṣa, To wish to rob, Mahābhārata 1, 7480. [Causal.] hāraya, 1. To cause to take, i. e. to give, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 47; to give away, i. [distich] 296; to cause to drink, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 368. 2. To send, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 4. hārita, 1. Lost, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 21, 19. 2. Fascinated, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 367.

— With anu anu, To imitate. [Gītagovinda. ed. Lassen.] 8, 4.

— With apa apa, 1. To take away, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 352; to rob, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 7; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 11, 5. 2. To captivate, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 69, 10. 3. To take off, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 55. 4. To remove, Mahābhārata 3, 719. apakṛta, Seized (by sleep), [Nala] 10, 7. [Causal.] apahārita, Caused or ordered to be robbed, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 42, 2.

— With vyapa vi-apa, 1. To remove, Mahābhārata 3, 870. 2. To cut off, Mahābhārata 2, 1584.

— With abhi abhi, To remove, to cut off, Mahābhārata 3, 14610. [Causal.] To attack, [Draupadīpramātha] 8, 5.

— With ava ava, To put off, Mahābhārata 4, 1304. avahṛta, 1. Taken off, back, or away, seized, stolen. 2. Fined. avahārya, 1. Recoverable, to be restored, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 145. 2. To be fined, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 198.

— With abhyava abhi-ava, To eat, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 9, 12. abhyavahārya, see s. v. [Causal.] 1. To cause to eat, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 200, 8. 2. To cause to resist, Mahābhārata 3, 16369.

— With pratyava prati-ava, [Causal.] To suspend or to interrupt again, Chr. 37, 30.

— With vyava vi-ava, 1. To waste away, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 153, 21. 2. To distinguish, to name, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 204, 13. 3. To act, [Hitopadeśa] 62, 9; Mahābhārata 3, 12861; to behave, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 7, 7. 4. To litigate, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 190, 2. 5. To fight, Mahābhārata 4, 1870. 6. To obtain, Mahābhārata 3, 1462 (satisfaction). vyavahārya, 1. To be observed as a duty. 2. Subject to legal process.

— With ā ā, 1. To carry, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 182. 2. To offer (a sacrifice), [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 113, 10; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 10. 3. To give, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 245. 4. To fetch, [Nala] 20, 5. 5. To rob, [Nala] 26, 7. 6. To get, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 190 (to bring forth a son). 7. To enjoy, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 70, 14. 8. To eat, Mahābhārata 3, 54; 57. 9. To destroy, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 153, 12. āhṛta, 1. Brought, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 6. 2. Collected, [Pañcatantra] 263, 22. 3. Made captive, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 415 (dhvaja-, under a standard, or in battle, a kind of slave). āhārya, 1. Producible (an-, Not producible, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 202). 2. Removable. Desider. To wish to recover, Mahābhārata 1, 6247. [Causal.] 1. To cause to hold, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 114. 2. To cause to be paid, Mahābhārata 2, 987; to collect (duties), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 80. 3. To apply, [Hiḍimbavadha] 4, 48. 4. To show (as anger), [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 60, 19; (joy), Chr. 58, 11. 5. To eat, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 29, 14.

— With anvā anu-ā, anvāhārya, see s. v.

— With abhyā abhi-ā, To offer, Mahābhārata 1, 3733.

— With udā ud-ā, 1. To utter, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 96; to pronounce, 2, 199; to call, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 88. 2. To tell, Mahābhārata 3, 2190. 3. To require, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 2, 15. udāhṛta, 1. Called, named, [Kirātārjunīya] 11, 72. 2. Said, Chr. 42, 12. 3. Illustrated. 4. Predicated, Bhāṣāp. 14.

— With pratyudā prati-ud-ā, To answer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 52, 10.

— With samudā sam-ud -ā, samudāhṛta, 1. Uttered, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 14, 23. 2. Declared. 3. Illustrated, recorded, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 50.

— With upā upa-ā, 1. To offer, Mahābhārata 1, 758 (cf. [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 245). 2. To employ, Mahābhārata 3, 1353. upāhṛta, 1. Taken, got, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 444. 2. Prepared, cultivated (?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 110.

— With pratyā prati-ā, 1. To recover, Mahābhārata 3, 8655. 2. To utter, Mahābhārata 3, 2177 (a speech). 3. To cry, [Draupadīpramātha] 6, 7. 4. To report, Chr. 45, 14. pratyāhṛta, 1. Resumed. 2. Restrained. 3. Withheld.

— With vyā vi-ā, 1. To explain, declare, Mahābhārata 3, 12466; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 55, 21. 2. To report, [Pañcatantra] 30, 8. 3. To tell, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 53, 5. 4. To speak, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 48, 1; to address (acc.), [Pañcatantra] 109, 18. 5. To utter, to pronounce, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 8, 13. 6. To answer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 93, 8.

— With abhivyā abhi-vi-ā, [Causal.] To pronounce, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 172.

— With pravyā pra-vi-ā, 1. To foretell, Mahābhārata 1, 7240. 2. To roar, Mahābhārata 3, 15673.

— With samā sam-ā, 1. To restore (to its former condition), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 319. 2. To collect, to assemble, Mahābhārata 1, 6951. 3. To offer, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 58, 4. 4. To destroy, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 11, 32. samāhṛta, 1. Accepted. 2. Compiled. 3. Much, [Pañcatantra] 171, 11.

— With ud ud, 1. To take out, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 30 (an arrow out of the quiver); to draw out of (abl.), [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 30; from, [Hitopadeśa] 39, 2, M. M. 2. To lift up, Mahābhārata 1, 3299. 3. To pluck up, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 110. 4. To pull out, Mahābhārata 3, 11186; to exterminate, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 483; to destroy, Mahābhārata 3, 221. 5. To hold out, to extend, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 58. 6. To raise, to extol, Mahābhārata 1, 4923. 7. To corroborate, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 6, 5 (cf. [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 189, 9). 8. To deliver from (abl.), [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 94; to save, Mahābhārata 2, 2293; [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 403. uddhṛta, 1. Thrown up. 2. Vomited. 3. Separated. 4. Divided. 5. Recovered. 6. Uncovered. 7. Dispersed. 8. Extracted, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 62. In the Pañcatantra occurs uddharita instead of uddhṛta, Saved, [Pañcatantra] 114, 7; 141, 10; cf. my translation, n. 753. Desider. To wish to relieve, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 251. [Causal.] 1. To order to pull out, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 78. 2. To lift up, Mahābhārata 3, 10946.

— With abhyud abhi-ud, To further, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 246. abhyuddhṛta, 1. Taken out. 2. Destined, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 61, 3. [Causal.] To snatch away, Mahābhārata 3, 13326.

— With prod pra -ud, 1. To lift up, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 110, 4. 2. To fetch (water), [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 23. 3. To save, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 88. 21.

— With samud sam-ud, 1. To take out, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 17. 2. To pick up, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 2262. 3. To lift up, Mahābhārata 3, 10946. 4. To extol, Mahābhārata 1, 4271. 5. To favour, [Pañcatantra] 188, 1. 6. To destroy, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 20; Mahābhārata 1, 3821 samuddhṛta, 1. Thrown up (as food). 2. Extricated, lifted out. 3. Divided, set apart, deducted, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 116. 4. Seized.

— With upa upa, 1. To bring, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chrg. 196, 18. 2. To offer, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 113, 4; with pūjām, To honour, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 51, 5. 3. To sacrifice, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 75, 6. 4. To destroy, Mahābhārata 2, 861. Desider. To wish to offer, Mahābhārata 2, 862. [Causal.] To cause to be offered, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 20, 9.

— With samupa sam-upa, To offer, to perform (a sacrifice), [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 40, 2.

— With nis nis, 1. To draw from, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 4. 2. To export (wares), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 399. 3. To carry out (a corpse), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 91; 10, 55. 4. To pull out, Mahābhārata 3, 6033. 5. To mix (the clothes of one person with those of another), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 396. nirhṛta, Extracted.

— With pari pari, 1. To pass by (a place for paying custom), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 400. 2. To shun, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 75. 3. To avoid, [Pañcatantra] 261, 5; [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 14. 4. To conceal, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 14, 3. 5. To leave, to spare, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 48, 10 (Gorr. v. r. 2, 45, 26). parihṛta, Quitted, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 190. parihārya, To be separated, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 39, 32. Comp. A-, adj. unavoidable, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 27.

— With pra pra, 1. To direct, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 11. 2. To strike, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 300. 3. To assail (with dat.), Chr. 28, 24; (with gen.), 25 (read pra hare); to attack, [Pañcatantra] 149, 1. Ptcple. of the pres. praharant, m. A warrior, Chr. 35, 2. prahṛta, Seized. n. Striking, killing.

— With saṃpra sam-pra, To fight, Mahābhārata 3, 15167.

— With vi vi, 1. To remove, to wipe off (a tear), [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 49, 19. 2. To change, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 5, 31. 3. To alternate (between standing and sitting), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 22. 4. To ramble for pleasure, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 61; to ramble, [Pañcatantra] 197, 22. 5. To divert one’s self, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 221. 6. To pass (as time), [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 33. 7. To live, Mahābhārata 4, 27. vthṛta, 1. Expanded. 2. Sported. n. Reluctance (in a female) to avow her feelings to her lover.

— With sam sam, 1. To contract, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 58 (as the tortoise contracts its limbs). 2. To clench (the fist), Mahābhārata 3, 11517. 3. To abridge, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 10, 33. 4. To seize, Mahābhārata 3, 18. 5. To draw away (the curtain of a theatre), [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] [distich] 22. 6. To take back, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 131; to put aside, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 148, 12. 7. To withhold, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 60, M. M. 8. To destroy, Mahābhārata 1, 241. 9. To restrain (as wrath), [Nala] 6, 14; (fear), [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 125, 1. 10. To take, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 113; 8, 188; 189. 11. To conciliate, Mahābhārata 1, 5996. saṃhṛta, Scattered. Comp. A-, adj. unrestrained, perpetual, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 2, 9.

— With upasam upa-sam, 1. To take back, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 94, 20. 2. To withhold, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 58, M. M. 3. To collect, Mahābhārata 1, 7206.

— With samupasam sam-upa-sam, To stop, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 144, 4.

— With pratisam prati-sam, 1. To take back, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 57; to draw back, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 11. 2. To retract, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 22, 10. pratisaṃhṛta, 1. Compressed. 2. Checked, [Śiśupālavadha] 2, 15. 3. Comprehended, included. [Causal.] To retract, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 22, 26.

— Cf. probably [Latin] co-hors; heres; (cf. jiharmi); [Gothic.] geiro, gairôn, gairnjan; A. S. georn, avidus, geornian, to yearn; Engl. yare; cf. hary.

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Hrī (ह्री).— (cf. hṛṇīya), ii. 3, jihrī, [Parasmaipada.] To be ashamed, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 15, 44. Ptcple. of the pf. pass. hrīṇa, and hrīta, Ashamed, bashful, modest, [Nala] 13, 30 (hrīta). [Causal.] hrepaya, To put to blush, to confound, [Kirātārjunīya] 11, 64.

— With sam sam, saṃhrīṇa, Ashamed.

— Cf. probably O. H. G. hriuwan; A. S. hreówan.

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Hrī (ह्री).—f. Shame, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 133, M. M.; bashfulness, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 185; personified, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 26.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—harati harate (harti, jiharti), [participle] hṛta (q.v.) A. hold, carry, bring; offer, present ([especially] balim); hand over to ([genetive]); seize, steal, carry away, remove, turn off (face); [Middle] (A.) take, receive (taxes), come into possession of (as heir); take to wife, marry; get hold or become master of; overpower, outdo, surpass; win over, captivate, charm; seize upon, take away, withdraw, retain, destroy, frustrate. [Causative] hārayati cause to hold or carry (2 [accusative]), cause to be held, taken etc. by ([instrumental]); get hold of, seize upon; permit to be carried of, lose ([especially] in game). [Desiderative] jihīrṣati wish to take away, desire, covet.

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Hrī (ह्री).—1. jihreti [participle] hrīta (& hrīṇa) be ashamed or abashed. [Causative] hrepayati put to shame, confound. [Intensive] jehrīyate be greatly ashamed.

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Hrī (ह्री).—2. [feminine] shame, bashfulness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hṛ (हृ):—1. hṛ [class] 1. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxii, 2]) harati, te (once in [Ṛg-veda] harmi, and once in [Scholiast or Commentator] on [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra] -jiharti; [perfect tense] [Parasmaipada] jahāra, jahartha, jahruḥ [-jaharuḥ ?] [Atharva-veda] etc.; [Ātmanepada] jahre, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; [Aorist] ahār, ahṛthās, [Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa]; ahārṣīt, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; 3. [plural] [Ātmanepada] ahṛṣata, [Ṛg-veda]; Prec. hriyāt, hṛṣīṣṭa [grammar]; [future] hartā, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; hariṣyati, te, [ib.]; [Conditional] ahariṣyat, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] hartum, tos, tave, tavai, [ib.];haritum, [Rāmāyaṇa]; [indeclinable participle] hṛtvā, -hāram, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; -hṛtya, [Atharva-veda] etc.),

—to take, bear, carry in or on (with [instrumental case]), carry, convey, fetch, bring, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to offer, present ([especially] with balim), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.;

—to take away, carry off, seize, deprive of, steal, rob, [ib.];

—to shoot or cut or hew off, sever (the head or a limb), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to remove, destroy, dispel, frustrate, annihilate, [ib.];

—to turn away, avert (the face), [Ratnāvalī; Śiśupāla-vadha];

— [Ātmanepada] (older and more correct than [Parasmaipada]), to take to one’s self, appropriate (in a legitimate way), come into possession of ([accusative]), receive (as an heir), raise (tribute), marry (a girl), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra] etc.;

—to master, overpower, subdue, conquer, win, win over (also by bribing), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to outdo, eclipse, surpass, [Bālarāmāyaṇa];

—to enrapture, charm, fascinate, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.;

—to withhold, withdraw, keep back, retain, [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to protract, delay (with kālam, ‘to gain time’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kathāsaritsāgara];

— (in [arithmetic]) to divide, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Golādhyāya] :—[Passive voice] hriyate ([Epic] also ti; [Aorist] ahāri),

—to be taken or seized etc., [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.:—[Causal] hārayati, te ([Aorist] ajīharat; [Passive voice] hāryate),

—to cause to be taken or carried or conveyed or brought by ([instrumental case] or [accusative]; cf. [Pāṇini 1-4, 53 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) or to ([dative case]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to cause to be taken away, appropriate, seize, rob, [Kathāsaritsāgara];—to have taken from one’s self, be deprived of, lose ([especially] at play), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]; (harayate) See pra-√hṛ;

— (hārāpayati), to lose (at play), [Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha] :—[Desiderative] jihīrṣati, te (cf. jihīrṣā, ṣu), to wish to take to one’s self or appropriate, covet, desire, long for, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.;

— (with kālam), to wish to gain time, [Mahābhārata] :—[Intensive] jehrīyate;jarharīti, jarIharIti, jarharti, jarIharti (cf. saṃ-√hṛ) [grammar] (cf. [Greek] χείρ.)

2) 2. hṛ or hṝ [class] 9. [Ātmanepada] hṛṇīte (only p. hṛṇāna, [Ṛg-veda i, 25, 2 etc.]; [Potential] [abhi] -hṛṇīthāḥ, [ib. viii, 2, 19], and [?] ahṛṇāt, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa xxiii, 4]), to be angry or wroth.

3) Hṝ (हॄ):—2. hṝ or hṛ [class] 9. [Ātmanepada] hṛṇīte (only p. hṛṇāna, [Ṛg-veda i, 25, 2 etc.]; [Potential] [abhi] -hṛṇīthāḥ, [ib. viii, 2, 19], and [?] ahṛṇāt, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa xxiii, 4]), to be angry or wroth.

4) Hrī (ह्री):—1. hrī [class] 3. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxv, 3]) jihreti (jihriyat, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]; [perfect tense] jihrāya, [Raghuvaṃśa]; jihrayāṃ-cakāra, yām-āsa, [grammar]; [Aorist] ahraiṣīt, [ib.]; Prec. hrīyāt, [ib.]; p. hrayāṇa, See a-hr; [future] hretā, hreṣyati [grammar]),

—to feel shame, blush, be bashful or modest, be ashamed of any one ([genitive case]) or anything ([ablative]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] :—[Causal] hrepayati ([Aorist] ajihripat), to make ashamed, cause to blush, confound, put to shame (also [figuratively] = ‘surpass, excel’), [ib.] :—[Desiderative] jihrīṣati [grammar]:—[Intensive] jehrīyate (p. yamāṇa, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]), jehrayīti, jehreti, to be greatly ashamed, [ib.]

5) 2. hrī f. shame, modesty, shyness, timidity (also personified as daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]; etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hṛ (हृ):—(bha) harati 1. a. To take; to convey; to steal; to annul. hajartti 3. a. To take by force. With anu, to imitate; with apa, to remove; leave; with abhi, to assault; with ava, to steal off, regain, punish; with ā, to convey to one’s self, eat, hide; with ut, to lift up or out, expel; with upa, to bring, offer, give; with nī, to freeze; with nira, to show disrespect; with pari, to abandon, resist, abuse; extract; with pra, to strike; with pratī, to keep watch; with vi, to sport, roam about; with sama, to kill. Some of these compounds again take prepositions; thus ā with abhi or vi prefixed, to say, utter, converse; with nira, to fast; with sama or ut, to relate. So also sama, with upa prefixed, to withhold; with prati, to disregard, withdraw. ava with vi prefixed, to litigate, transact business, treat, &c.

2) Hrī (ह्री):—jihreti 3. a. To be bashful.

3) (hrīḥ) 3. f. Shame, bashfulness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hrī (ह्री) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Hiri, Hirī, Hīṃ.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hri in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Hri in Hindi refers in English to:——the seventh vowel and the seventh letter of the Devnagri: alphabet. In Hindi, however, [ri] is used in writing only [tatsama] words, and is not accepted as a vowel within the Hindi phonetic set-up..—hri (ऋ) is alternatively transliterated as Ṛ.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Hrī (ಹ್ರೀ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being shy, bashful; shyness; bashfulness.

2) [noun] name of one of the sixteen phases of the moon.

3) [noun] (jain.) name of a goddess.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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