Hri, Hṛ, Hrī: 14 definitions

Introduction

Hri means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Hṛ can be transliterated into English as Hr or Hri, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Hrī (ह्री, “beauty”).—According to the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, Hrī is born from Prajāpati (“the lord of progeny”). Śrī is also the mother of Kāma (“kust”). According to the Taittirīya-saṃhitā, Śrī is one of the two wives of Āditya (“the solar-principle”).

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Hrī (ह्री).—Birth. One of the 16 daughters born to Svāyambhuvamanu by his wife called Śatarūpā. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha). Other information. (1) Hrīdevī worships Brahmā in his assembly.

When Arjuna started for Indraloka Draupadī meditated upon Hrī so that no dangers might overtake him. (Vana Parva, Chapters 37, 38).

Hrī too was present at the installation ceremony of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, 13). (See full article at Story of Hrī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Hrī (ह्री).—A daughter of Dakṣa and a wife of Dharma; mother of Praśraya;1 a śakti.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 50 and 52.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 71.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Hrī (ह्री) is the Sanskrit name of one of the seven Nāṭyamātṛ (‘mothers of nāṭya’) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.86-87. They should be offered worship during ceremonies such as ‘consecration of the mattavāraṇī’ and ‘pouring ghee into sacrificial fire’.

Accordingly (85-87), “After saying these words for the happiness of the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success of the dramatic production. [The Benediction]: Let mothers such as Sarasvati, Dhṛti, Medhā, Hrī, Śrī, Lakṣmī, and Smṛti protect you and give you success.”

Hrī is the name of a metre belonging to the Vṛtta (syllabic) class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“The metre with all syllables long in parts of gāthā feet, is called Hrī”.

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context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Hrī (ह्री) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘lajjā’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., hrī) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Hrī (ह्री, “shame”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., hrī). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Hrī also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Hrī (ह्री).—The name of a Goddess residing over the padmahrada (big lotus-island) which lies in the center of a lake named Mahāpadma. This lake is situated on top of the mountain range (varṣadharaparvatas) named Mahāhimavat, one of the six mountain ranges in Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa lies at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Hrī (ह्री, “modesty”) is the name of a deity residing in the lotus (puṣkara) in the middle of the Mahāpadma lake, which lies on top of the Mahāhimavat (Mahahimavān) mountain. This mountain is situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.

Jambūdvīpa (where Hrī resides) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—1 U. (harati-te, jahāra, jahe, ahārṣīt, ahṛta, hariṣyati-te, hartum, hṛta; pass. hriyate)

1) To take, carry, convey, lead, (often used with two accusatives in this sense); अजां ग्रामं हरति (ajāṃ grāmaṃ harati) ŚK.; संदेशं मे हर धनपतिक्रोधवश्लेषितस्य (saṃdeśaṃ me hara dhanapatikrodhavaśleṣitasya) Me.7; Ms.4.74.

2) To carry off or away, take or draw to a distance; हरामि रामसौमित्री मृगो भूत्वा मृगद्युवौ (harāmi rāmasaumitrī mṛgo bhūtvā mṛgadyuvau) Bk.5.47.

3) To take away, rob, plunder, steal; दुर्वृत्ता जारजन्मानो हरिष्यन्तीति शङ्कया (durvṛttā jārajanmāno hariṣyantīti śaṅkayā) Bv.4.45; R.3.39; Ku.2.47; Bk.2.39; Ms. 7.43.

4) To strip off, deprive of, despoil, take away; वृन्ताद्श्लथं हरति पुष्पमनोकहानाम् (vṛntādślathaṃ harati puṣpamanokahānām) R.5.69; Bk.15.116; Ms.8. 334.

5) To take away, cure, destroy; उत्कण्ठां तां हरिष्यामि मेघलेखामिबानिलः (utkaṇṭhāṃ tāṃ hariṣyāmi meghalekhāmibānilaḥ) Rām.7.4.19; तथापि हरते तापं लोकानामुन्नतो घनः (tathāpi harate tāpaṃ lokānāmunnato ghanaḥ) Bv.1.39; R.15.24; Me.31.

6) To attract, captivate, win over, influence, subdue, enchant; चेतो न कस्य हरते गतिरङ्गनायाः (ceto na kasya harate gatiraṅganāyāḥ) Bv.2.157; ये भावा हृदयं हरन्ति (ye bhāvā hṛdayaṃ haranti) 1.13; तवास्मि गीतरागेण हारिणा प्रसभं हृतः (tavāsmi gītarāgeṇa hāriṇā prasabhaṃ hṛtaḥ) Ś.1.5; हरति मे हरिवाहनदिङ्मुखम् (harati me harivāhanadiṅmukham) V.3.6; मृगया जहार चतुरेव कामिनी (mṛgayā jahāra catureva kāminī) R.9.69;1.83; Ṛs. 6.21; इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः (indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṃ manaḥ) Bg.2.6;6.44; Ms.6.59.

7) To gain, acquire, obtain; ततो विंशं नृपो हरेत् (tato viṃśaṃ nṛpo haret) Ms.8.391,153; Y.2.123; स हरतु सुभगपताकाम् (sa haratu subhagapatākām) Dk.

8) To have, possess; अङ्गैः सुकुमारतरैः सा कुसुमानां श्रियं हरति (aṅgaiḥ sukumārataraiḥ sā kusumānāṃ śriyaṃ harati) Bv.2.163.

9) To surpass, eclipse; त्वां हरन्तीं श्रियं हरति (tvāṃ harantīṃ śriyaṃ harati) Bk.5.71.

1) To marry; पित्रे न दद्याच्छुल्कं तु कन्यामृतुमतीं हरन् (pitre na dadyācchulkaṃ tu kanyāmṛtumatīṃ haran) Ms.9.93.

11) To divide.

12) To cast, throw (as an arrow).

13) To accept, receive, inherit.

14) To offer. -Caus. (hārayati-te)

1) To cause to take, carry or convey, send (something) by one, (with acc. or instr.); मृत्यं मृत्येन वा भारं हारयति (mṛtyaṃ mṛtyena vā bhāraṃ hārayati) Sk.; जीमूतेन स्वकुशलमयीं हारयिष्यन् प्रवृत्तिम् (jīmūtena svakuśalamayīṃ hārayiṣyan pravṛttim) Me.4; Ms.8.114; Ku.2. 39.

2) To cause to be taken away, to lose, be deprived of.

3) To give away. -Desid. (jihīrṣati-te) To wish to take &c. -II. 3 P. (jiharti) To take by force.

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Hrī (ह्री).—&c. An exclamation of sacred mantras; ओं ह्रां ह्रीं ह्रूं ओं नमो भगवते हृषीकेशाय (oṃ hrāṃ hrīṃ hrūṃ oṃ namo bhagavate hṛṣīkeśāya) Bhāg.5.18.18.

Derivable forms: hrīm (ह्रीम्).

See also (synonyms): hrā, hrū.

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Hrī (ह्री).—3 P. (jihreti, hrīṇa-hrīta)

1) To blush, be modest.

2) To be ashamed (used by itself or with abl. or gen.); जिह्रेम्यार्यपुत्रेण सह गुरुसमीपं गन्तुम् (jihremyāryaputreṇa saha gurusamīpaṃ gantum) Ś.7.6; अन्योन्यस्यापि जिह्रीमः किं पुनः सहवासिनाम् (anyonyasyāpi jihrīmaḥ kiṃ punaḥ sahavāsinām) Ki.11.58; R.15.44;17.73; Bk.3.53; 5.12;6.132. -Caus. (hrepayati-te) To put to shame (fig. also); cause to blush, make ashamed; सकौस्तुभं ह्रेपयतीव कृष्णम् (sakaustubhaṃ hrepayatīva kṛṣṇam) R.6.49; ह्रेपिता हि बहवो नरेश्वराः (hrepitā hi bahavo nareśvarāḥ) 11.4; किं वा जात्या स्वामिनो ह्रेपयन्ति (kiṃ vā jātyā svāmino hrepayanti) Śi.18.23; Ki.11.64;13.41; Ve.1.17.

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Hrī (ह्री).—f.

1) Shame; रतेरपि ह्रीपदमादधाना (raterapi hrīpadamādadhānā) Ku.3.57; दारिद्र्याद् ह्रियमेति ह्रीपरिगतः प्रभ्रश्यते तेजसः (dāridryād hriyameti hrīparigataḥ prabhraśyate tejasaḥ) Mk.1.14; R.4.8.

2) Bashfulness, modesty; ह्रीसन्नकण्ठी कथमप्युवाच (hrīsannakaṇṭhī kathamapyuvāca) Ku.7.85.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Hrī (ह्री).—(written) Hirī (so as common noun, examples § 3.108; Pali hirī, Sanskrit hrī), Modesty personified: as one of the four daughters of Indra (see Āśā), Mahāvastu ii.59.22 (verse); [Page623-a+ 8] as a devakumārikā in the northern quarter, Mahāvastu iii.309.9 = Lalitavistara 391.4 (verse).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—r. 1st cl. (ja) hṛj r. 1st cl. (harati te) 1. To convey. 2. To take or accept. 3. To steal. 4. To destroy or annual. 5. To deprive of 6. To captivate, to charm, to influence. 7. To remove. With adhi and ā, To supply an ellipsis. With an prefixed, 1. To imitate, (Par.) 2. To take after the parents, (Atm.) With apa, 1. To remove, to take away or apart. 2. To plunder, to steal. 3. To attract, to influence. 4. To leave behind. With abhi and ava, To eat. With ā, 1. To fetch, to carry. 2. To perform, (as a sacrifice.) 3. To get. 4. To procreate. 5. To recover, to bring back. 6. To assume. 7. To attract. 8. To withdraw. 9. To eat. With uda, 1. To take out or up. 2. To make an extract from. 3. To raise, to extricate. 4. To eradicate, to destroy. 5. To deduct. With upa and ā, To bring. With nis, 1. To carry out a dead body. 2. To extract, to draw out from. With pra, 1. To throw, to hurl, to fling, (with a dative or accusative.) 2. To attack, to strike. 3. To wound, to injure, (with a locative.) 4. To seize upon. With vi, 1. To remove, to destroy. 2. To pass, (as time.) 3. To sport. 4. To say. With sam, 1. To collect. 2. To withdraw. 3. To suppress, to restrain. 4. To kill, to annihilate, (opposed to sṛj). 5. To contract, to abridge With sama and ā, 1. To bring. 2. To make reparation for. 3. To draw. 4. To destroy. 5. To collect. With abhi, To assault. With abhi and āṅ, To reason. With abhi and ut, To deliver. With abhi, vi, and āṅ, To utter, to pronounce. With ava, 1. To regain. 2. To punish or fine. With ut, 1. To raise, to lift or take up. 2. To expel. With ud and āṅ. 1. To say or tell. 2. To illustrate, to exemplify. With upa, 1. To bring near to. 2. To give. With upa and sam, To withhold. With ni changed to nī, To freeze. With nir, To show disrespect. With nir and āṅ, To fast. With pari, 1. To reproach, to abuse or censure. 2. To leave, to shun, to abandon. 3. To resist. 4. To remove, to destroy. 5. To extract. With prati changed to pratī, To keep watch. With prati and āṅ, To think abstractedly by restraining the organs of sense. With prati and sam, To disregard, to abandon. With vi, 1. To sport, to ramble for pleasure. 2. To pass, (as time.) 3. To remove. 4. To destroy. With vi and āṅ, To say, to utter, to speak. With vi and ava, 1. To deal in transactions, (with a genitive.) 2. To litigate. With sam and āṅ, To collect, to assemble. With sam, abhi, vi and āṅ, To speak in concert. With sam, ut and āṅ, To relate. With sam and upa, 1. To give. 2. To assemble, to collect. With sam and pra, To fight. With vi and ati prefixed and implying reciprocity (vyatiharate) To steal or plunder mutually. In the first sense “to convey” this verb geverns two accusatives, as bhāraṃ harati grāgaṃ he takes the load (to) the village. Caus. (hārayati-te) 1. To cause to carry. 2. To make to lose. With ap, To cause to take away. With abhi and ava, To feed. With ā, To cause to bring. With ud, To cause to take out. r. 3rd cl. (jahartti) To take by violence.

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Hrī (ह्री).—r. 3rd cl. (-jihreti) To be modest, to blush. 2. To be ashamed of, (with an ablative or genitive.)

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Hrī (ह्री).—f.

(-hrīḥ) Shame, bashfulness. E. hrī to be ashamed, aff. kvip .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hṛ (हृ).—harati harate (harti, jiharti), [participle] hṛta (q.v.) A. hold, carry, bring; offer, present ([especially] balim); hand over to ([genetive]); seize, steal, carry away, remove, turn off (face); [Middle] (A.) take, receive (taxes), come into possession of (as heir); take to wife, marry; get hold or become master of; overpower, outdo, surpass; win over, captivate, charm; seize upon, take away, withdraw, retain, destroy, frustrate. [Causative] hārayati cause to hold or carry (2 [accusative]), cause to be held, taken etc. by ([instrumental]); get hold of, seize upon; permit to be carried of, lose ([especially] in game). [Desiderative] jihīrṣati wish to take away, desire, covet.

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Hrī (ह्री).—1. jihreti [participle] hrīta (& hrīṇa) be ashamed or abashed. [Causative] hrepayati put to shame, confound. [Intensive] jehrīyate be greatly ashamed.

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Hrī (ह्री).—2. [feminine] shame, bashfulness.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hṛ (हृ):—1. hṛ [class] 1. [Ātmanepada] [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxii, 2]) harati, te (once in [Ṛg-veda] harmi, and once in [Scholiast or Commentator] on [Āpastamba-śrauta-sūtra] -jiharti; [perfect tense] [Parasmaipada] jahāra, jahartha, jahruḥ [-jaharuḥ ?] [Atharva-veda] etc.; [Ātmanepada] jahre, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; [Aorist] ahār, ahṛthās, [Atharva-veda; Brāhmaṇa]; ahārṣīt, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.; 3. [plural] [Ātmanepada] ahṛṣata, [Ṛg-veda]; Prec. hriyāt, hṛṣīṣṭa [grammar]; [future] hartā, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; hariṣyati, te, [ib.]; [Conditional] ahariṣyat, [ib.]; [infinitive mood] hartum, tos, tave, tavai, [ib.];haritum, [Rāmāyaṇa]; [indeclinable participle] hṛtvā, -hāram, [Brāhmaṇa] etc.; -hṛtya, [Atharva-veda] etc.),

—to take, bear, carry in or on (with [instrumental case]), carry, convey, fetch, bring, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.;

—to offer, present ([especially] with balim), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.;

—to take away, carry off, seize, deprive of, steal, rob, [ib.];

—to shoot or cut or hew off, sever (the head or a limb), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to remove, destroy, dispel, frustrate, annihilate, [ib.];

—to turn away, avert (the face), [Ratnāvalī; Śiśupāla-vadha];

— [Ātmanepada] (older and more correct than [Parasmaipada]), to take to one’s self, appropriate (in a legitimate way), come into possession of ([accusative]), receive (as an heir), raise (tribute), marry (a girl), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra] etc.;

—to master, overpower, subdue, conquer, win, win over (also by bribing), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to outdo, eclipse, surpass, [Bālarāmāyaṇa];

—to enrapture, charm, fascinate, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.;

—to withhold, withdraw, keep back, retain, [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to protract, delay (with kālam, ‘to gain time’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kathāsaritsāgara];

— (in [arithmetic]) to divide, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Golādhyāya] :—[Passive voice] hriyate ([Epic] also ti; [Aorist] ahāri),

—to be taken or seized etc., [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.:—[Causal] hārayati, te ([Aorist] ajīharat; [Passive voice] hāryate),

—to cause to be taken or carried or conveyed or brought by ([instrumental case] or [accusative]; cf. [Pāṇini 1-4, 53 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) or to ([dative case]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.;

—to cause to be taken away, appropriate, seize, rob, [Kathāsaritsāgara];—to have taken from one’s self, be deprived of, lose ([especially] at play), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara]; (harayate) See pra-√hṛ;

— (hārāpayati), to lose (at play), [Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha] :—[Desiderative] jihīrṣati, te (cf. jihīrṣā, ṣu), to wish to take to one’s self or appropriate, covet, desire, long for, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.;

— (with kālam), to wish to gain time, [Mahābhārata] :—[Intensive] jehrīyate;jarharīti, jarIharIti, jarharti, jarIharti (cf. saṃ-√hṛ) [grammar] (cf. [Greek] χείρ.)

2) 2. hṛ or hṝ [class] 9. [Ātmanepada] hṛṇīte (only p. hṛṇāna, [Ṛg-veda i, 25, 2 etc.]; [Potential] [abhi] -hṛṇīthāḥ, [ib. viii, 2, 19], and [?] ahṛṇāt, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa xxiii, 4]), to be angry or wroth.

3) Hṝ (हॄ):—2. hṝ or hṛ [class] 9. [Ātmanepada] hṛṇīte (only p. hṛṇāna, [Ṛg-veda i, 25, 2 etc.]; [Potential] [abhi] -hṛṇīthāḥ, [ib. viii, 2, 19], and [?] ahṛṇāt, [Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa xxiii, 4]), to be angry or wroth.

4) Hrī (ह्री):—1. hrī [class] 3. [Parasmaipada] ([Dhātupāṭha xxv, 3]) jihreti (jihriyat, [Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]; [perfect tense] jihrāya, [Raghuvaṃśa]; jihrayāṃ-cakāra, yām-āsa, [grammar]; [Aorist] ahraiṣīt, [ib.]; Prec. hrīyāt, [ib.]; p. hrayāṇa, See a-hr; [future] hretā, hreṣyati [grammar]),

—to feel shame, blush, be bashful or modest, be ashamed of any one ([genitive case]) or anything ([ablative]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] :—[Causal] hrepayati ([Aorist] ajihripat), to make ashamed, cause to blush, confound, put to shame (also [figuratively] = ‘surpass, excel’), [ib.] :—[Desiderative] jihrīṣati [grammar]:—[Intensive] jehrīyate (p. yamāṇa, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]), jehrayīti, jehreti, to be greatly ashamed, [ib.]

5) 2. hrī f. shame, modesty, shyness, timidity (also personified as daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Dharma), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]; etc.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of hri or hr in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

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