Loka Sutta; 2 Definition(s)
Loka Sutta means something in Buddhism, Pali. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Loka Sutta. The origin and continuance of the world depends on the six senses. S.i.41. 2. Loka Sutta. The Buddha tells Pasenadi that greed, hate and delusion make for trouble and suffering in the world. S.i.98. 3. Loka Sutta. The origin and passing away of the world depend on the senses and their objects. S.ii.73. 4. Loka Sutta. The world is so called because it crumbles away (lujjati). S.iv.52. 5. Loka Sutta. Because of eye and object arises eye consciousness. Thence comes contact, feeling, craving, grasping and becoming. Thus is the world originated; with their cessation the world ceases. S.iv.87. 6. Loka Sutta. Anuruddha tells Sariputta that his knowledge of the universe is due to the cultivation of the four satipatthanas. S.v.175. 7. Loka Sutta. Anuruddha tells his companions that he knows the world and its divers shapes and forms through the satipatthanas. S.v.304. 8. Loka Sutta. In this world of many kinds of beings, the Tathagata an Ariyan. S.v.435. 9. Loka Sutta. The world and its arising are fully known by a Tathagata and he is released from both; he also knows the ending of it and the way thereto. He speaks as he does; he is unconquered in the world. A.ii.23.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Loka, (cp. Vedic loka in its oldest meaning “space, open space. ” For etym. see rocati. To the etym. feeling of the Pāli hearer loka is closely related in quality to ruppati (as in pop. etym. of rūpa) and rujati. As regards the latter the etym. runs “lujjati kho loko ti vuccati” S. IV, 52, cp. Nd2 550, and loka=lujjana DhsA. 47, 308: see lujjana. The Dhtp 531 gives root lok (loc) in sense of dassana) world, primarily “visible world, ” then in general as “space or sphere of creation, ” with var. degrees of substantiality. Often (unspecified) in the comprehensive sense of “universe. ” Sometimes the term is applied collectively to the creatures inhabiting this or var. other worlds, thus, “man, mankind, people, beings. ” — Loka is not a fixed & def. term. It comprises immateriality as well as materiality and emphasizes either one or the other meaning according to the view applied to the object or category in question. Thus a trsln of “sphere, plane, division, order” interchanges with “world. ” Whenever the spatial element prevails we speak of its “regional” meaning as contrasted with “applied” meaning. The fundamental notion however is that of substantiality, to which is closely related the specific Buddhist notion of impermanence (loka=lujjati).—1. Universe: the distinctions between the universe (cp. cakkavāḷa) as a larger whole and the world as a smaller unit are fluctuating & not definite. A somewhat wider sphere is perhaps indicated by sabba-loka (e.g. S. I, 12; IV, 127, 312; V, 132; It. 122; Mhvs 1, 44; cp. sabbāvanta loka D. I, 251; III, 224), otherwise even the smaller loka comprises var. realms of creation. Another larger division is that of loka as sadevaka, samāraka, sabrahmaka, or the world with its devas, its Māra and its Brahmā, e.g. S. I, 160, 168, 207; II, 170; III, 28, 59; IV, 158; V, 204; A. I, 259 sq.; II, 24 sq.; III, 341; IV, 56, 173; V, 50; It. 121; Nd1 447 (on Sn. 956), to which is usually added sassamaṇa-brāhmaṇī pajā (e.g. D. I, 250, see loci s. v. pajā). With this cp. Dh. 45, where the divisions are paṭhavī, Yamaloka, sadevaka (loka), which are expld at DhA. I, 334 by paṭhavī=attabhāva; Yamaloka=catubbidha apāyaloka; sadevaka=manussaloka devalokena saddhiṃ.—The universe has its evolutional periods: saṃvaṭṭati and vivaṭṭati D. II, 109 sq. The Buddha has mastered it by his enlightenment: loko Tathāgatena abhisambuddho It. 121. On loka, lokadhātu (=cosmos) and cakkavāḷa cp. Kirfel, Kosmographie p. 180, 181. ‹-› 2. Regional meaning.—(a) in general. Referring to this world, the character of evanescence is inherent in it; referring to the universe in a wider sense, it implies infinity, though not in definite terms. There is mention of the different metaphysical theories as regards cosmogony at many places of the Canon. The antânantikā (contending for the finitude or otherwise of the world) are mentioned as a sect at D. I, 22 sq. Discus‹-› sions as to whether loka is sassata or antavā are found e.g. at M. I, 426, 484; II, 233; S. III, 182, 204; IV, 286 sq.; A. II, 41; V, 31, 186 sq.; Ps. I, 123, 151 sq.; Vbh. 340; Dhs. 1117. Views on consistency of the world (eternal or finite; created or evolved etc.) at D. III, 137; cp. S. II, 19 sq. Cp. also the long and interesting discussion of loka as suñña at S. IV, 54 sq.; Ps. II, 177 sq.; Nd2 680;— as well as M. II, 68 (upanīyati loko addhuvo, and “attāṇo loko, assakoloko” etc.); “lokassa anto” is lit. unattainable: A. II, 50=S. I, 62; IV, 93; but the Arahant is “lok’antagū, ” cp. A. IV, 430.—As regards their order in space (or “plane”) there are var. groupings of var. worlds, the evidently popular one being that the world of the devas is above and the nirayas below the world of man (which is “tiriyaṃ vâpi majjhe”): Nd2 550. The world of men is as ayaṃ loko contrasted with the beyond, or paro loko: D. III, 181; S. IV, 348 sq.; A. I, 269; IV, 226; Sn. 779 (n’āsiṃsati lokaṃ imaṃ parañ ca); or as idhaloka D. III, 105. The defn of ayaṃ loko at Nd1 60 is given as: sak’attabhāva, saka-rūpa-vedanā etc., ajjhatt’āyatanāni, manussa-loka, kāmadhātu; with which is contrasted paro loko as: parattabhāva, para-rūpavedanā, bāhir’āyatanāni, devaloka, rūpa- & arūpadhātu.—The rise and decay of this world is referred to as samudaya and atthaṅgama at S. II, 73; III, 135; IV, 86; A. V, 107.—Cp. D. III, 33 (attā ca loko ca); Mhvs 1, 5 (lokaṃ dukkhā pamocetuṃ); 28, 4 (loko ‘yaṃ pīḷito); PvA. 1 (vijjā-caraṇa-sampannaṃ yena nīyanti lokato).—Other divisions of var. kinds of “planes” are e.g. deva° A. I, 115, 153; III, 414 sq.; Brahma° Vbh. 421; Mhvs 19, 45; Yama° Dh. 44; S. I, 34; nara° Mhvs 5, 282. See also each sep. head-word, also peta° & manussa°. ‹-› The division at Nd1 550 is as follows: niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°, manussa°, deva° (=material); upon which follow khandha°, dhātu°, āyatana° (=immaterial). Similarly at Nd1 29, where apāya° takes the place of niraya°, tiracchāna°, pittivisaya°.—Another threefold division is saṅkhāra°, satta°, okāsa° at Vism. 204, with explns: “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā” ti= saṅkhāraloka; “sassato loko ti vā asassato loko” ti= sattaloka; “yāvatā candima-suriyā pariharanti disā ‘bhanti virocamānā” etc. (=M. I, 328; A. I, 227; cp. J. I, 132) =okāsaloka. The same expln in detail at SnA 442.—Another as kāma°, rūpa°, arūpa°: see under rūpa; another as kilesa°, bhava°, indriya° at Nett 11, 19. Cp. saṅkhāra-loka VbhA. 456; dasa lokadhātuyo (see below) S. I, 26.—3. Ordinary & applied meaning.—(a) division of the world, worldly things S. I, 1, 24 (loke visattikā attachment to this world; opp. sabba-loke anabhirati S. V, 132).—loke in this world, among men, here D. III, 196 (ye nibbutā loke); It. 78 (loke uppajjati); DA. I, 173 (id.); Vbh. 101 (yaṃ loke piya-rūpaṃ etc.); Pv. II, 113 (=idaṃ C.); KhA 15, 215. See also the diff. defns of loke at Nd2 552.—loka collectively “one, man”: kicchaṃ loko āpanno jāyati ca jīyati ca, etc. D. II, 30. Also “people”: Laṅka-loka people of Ceylon Mhvs 19, 85; cp. jana in similar meaning. Derived from this meaning is the use in cpds. (°-) as “usual, every day, popular, common”: see e.g. °āyata, °vajja, °vohāra.—(b) “thing of the world, ” material element, physical or worldly quality, sphere or category (of “materiality”). This category of loka is referred to at Vbh. 193, which is expld at VbhA. 220 as follows: “ettha yo ayaṃ ajjhatt’ādi bhedo kāyo pariggahīto, so eva idha-loko nāma. ” In this sense 13 groups are classified according to the number of constituents in each group (1—12 and No. 18); they are given at Nd2 551 (under lokantagū Sn. 1133) as follows: (1) bhavaloka; (2) sampatti bhavaloka, vipatti bhavaloka; (3) vedanā; (4) āhārā; (5) upādāna-kkhandhā; (6) ajjhattikāni āyatanāni (their rise & decay as “lokassa samudaya & atthaṅgama” at S. IV, 87); (7) viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo; (8) loka-dhammā; (9) satt’āvāsā; (10) upakkilesā; (11) kāmabhavā; (12) āyatanāni; (18) dhātuyo. They are repeated at Ps. I, 122=174, with (1) as “sabbe sattā āhāra-ṭṭhitikā; (2) nāmañ ca rūpañ ca; and the remainder the same. Also at Vism. 205 and at SnA 442 as at Ps. I, 122. Cp. the similar view at S. IV, 95: one perceives the world (“materiality”: loka-saññin and loka-mānin, proud of the world) with the six senses. This is called the “loka” in the logic (vinaya) of the ariyā.—A few similes with loka see J. P. T. S. 1907, 131.
—akkhāyikā (f. , scil. kathā) talk or speculation about (origin etc. of) the world, popular philosophy (see lokāyata and cp. Dialogues I. 14) Vin. I, 188; D. I, 8; M. I, 513; Miln. 316; DA. I, 90. —agga chief of the world. Ep. of the Buddha ThA. 69 (Ap. V, 11). —anta the end (spatial) of the world A. II, 49 (na ca appatvā lokantaṃ dukkhā atthi pamocanaṃ). —antagū one who has reached the end of the world (and of all things worldly), Ep. of an Arahant A. II, 6, 49 sq.; It. 115, Sn. 1133; Nd2 551. —antara the space between the single worlds J. I, 44 (V. 253: Avīcimhi na uppajjanti, tathā lokantaresu ca). —antarika (scil. Niraya) a group of Nirayas or Purgatories situated in the lokantara (i.e. cakkavāl, antaresu J. I, 76), 8, 000 yojanas in extent, pitch dark, which were filled with light when Gotama became the Buddha J. I, 76; VbhA. 4; Vism. 207 (lokantariya°); SnA 59 (°vāsa life in the l. niraya); cp. BSk. lokântarikā Divy 204 (andhās tamaso ‘ndhakāra-tamisrā). —âdhipa lord or ruler of the world A. I, 150. —âdhipateyya “rule of the world, ” dependence on public opinion, influence of material things on man, one of the 3 ādhipateyyas (atta°, loka°, dhamma°) D. III, 220; Vism. 14. —ânukampā sympathy with the world of men (cp. BSk. lokânugraha Divy 124 sq. ) D. III, 211; It. 79. —āmisa worldly gain, bait of the flesh M. I, 156; II, 253; Th. 2, 356. —āyata what pertains to the ordinary view (of the world), common or popular philosophy, or as Rhys Davids (Dial. I. 171) puts it: “name of a branch of Brahman learning, probably Nature-lore”; later worked into a quâsi system of “casuistry, sophistry. ” Franke, Dīgha trsln 19, trsls as “logisch beweisende Naturerklärung” (see the long note on this page, and cp. Dial. I. 166—172 for detail of lokāyata). It is much the same as lok-akkhāy(ika) or popular philosophy. ‹-› D. I, 11, 88; Vin. II, 139; Sn. p. 105 (=vitaṇḍa-vādasattha SnA 447, as at DA. I, 247); Miln. 4, 10, 178; A. I, 163, 166; III, 223. Cp. BSk. lokāyata Divy 630, 633, and lokāyatika ibid. 619. See also Kern’s remarks at Toev. s. v. —āyatika (brāhmaṇa) one who holds the view of lokāyata or popular philosophy S. II, 77 (trsln K. S. 53: a Brahmin “wise in world-lore”); Miln. 178; J. VI, 486 (na seve lokāyatikaṃ; expld as “anatthanissitaṃ ... vitaṇḍa-sallāpaṃ lokāyatika-vādaṃ na seveyya, ” thus more like “sophistry” or casuistry). —issara lord of the world Sdhp. 348. —uttara see under lokiya. —cintā thinking about the world, worldphilosophy or speculation S. V, 447; A. II, 80 (as one of the 4 acinteyyāni or thoughts not to be thought out: buddha-visaya, jhāna-visaya, kamma-vipāka, l-c.). Cp. BSk. laukika citta Divy 63, 77 etc. —dhammā (pl.) common practice, things of the world, worldly conditions S. III, 139 sq.; Sn. 268 (expln loke dhammā; yāva lokappavatti tāva-anivattikā dhammā ti vuttaṃ hoti KhA 153, cp. J. III, 468); Miln. 146. Usually comprising a set of eight, viz. lābha, alābha, yaso, ayaso, nindā, pasaṃsā, sukhaṃ, dukkhaṃ D. III, 260; A. IV, 156 sq.; V, 53; Nd2 55; Ps. I, 22, 122; Vbh. 387; Nett 162; DhA. II, 157. —dhātu constituent or unit of the Universe, “world-element”; a world, sphere; another name for cakkavāla. Dasa-sahassi-lokadhātu the system of the 10, 000 worlds Vin. I, 12; A. I, 227.—D. III, 114; Pv. II, 961; Kvu 476; Vism. 206 sq.; Vbh. 336; Nd1 356 (with the stages from one to fifty lokadhātu’s, upon which follow: sahassī cūḷanikā l-dh.; dvisahassī majjhimikā; tisahassī; mahāsahassī); J. I, 63, 212; Miln. 237; VbhA. 430, 436. See also cūḷanikā. —nātha saviour of the world, Ep. of the Buddha Sn. 995; Vism. 201, 234; VvA. 165; PvA. 42, 287. —nāyaka guide or leader of the world (said of the Buddha) Sn. 991; Ap 20; Mhvs 7, 1; Miln. 222. —nirodha destruction of the world It. 121 (opp. °samudaya). —pāla (°devatā) guardian (governor) of the world, which are usually sepcified as four, viz. Kuvera (=Vessavaṇa), Dhataraṭṭha, Virūpakkha, Virūḷhaka, alias the 4 mahārājāno Pv. I, 42; J. I, 48 (announce the future birth of a Buddha). —byūha “world-array, ” pl. byūhā (devā) N. of a class of devas J. I, 47; Vism. 415 (kāmâvacara-deva’s). —mariyādā the boundary of the world VvA. 72. —vajja common sins Miln. 266; KhA 190. —vaṭṭa “world-round, ” i.e. saṃsāra (opp. vivaṭṭa =nibbāna) Nett 113, 119. See also vaṭṭa. —vidu knowing the universe, Lp. of the Buddha D. III, 76; S. I, 62; V, 197, 343; A. II, 48; Sn. p. 103; Vv 3426; Pug. 57; expld in full at SnA 442 and Vism. 204 sq. —vivaraṇa unveiling of the universe, apocalypse, revelation Vism. 392 (when humans see the devas etc.). —vohāra common or general distinction, popular logic, ordinary way of speaking SnA 383, 466; VbhA. 164. (Page 586)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
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