Dhupa, Dhūpa: 29 definitions

Introduction:

Dhupa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Dhūpa (धूप, “incense”):—One of the five preliminary oblations (upacāra) to be offered during the worship of Gaṇeśa, Durgā, Śiva and Viṣṇu, according to the Durgāpūjātattva.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to the “incense”, according to the Kularatnoddyota verse 2.12-20.—Accordingly, “[...] (He worshipped thus) with (offerings) of the most excellent and divine Great Incense (mahā-dhūpa-vara) and many kinds of ornaments, established in supreme non-duality with (substances) born from (his) great bodily essence. Endowed with supreme bliss and holding the great argha vessel, the Lord of the gods, worshipped, O dear one, the great and excellent Wheel and he, the emperor and Lord of the Śrīkula, deftly put all the Śrīkramas, including the sequence of the Child and the rest, in place in accord with the sequence”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Padma-purana

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “incense” and is used in the worship of Gaṇeśa, according to the Padmapurāṇa 1.65 (“The Slaying of Kālakeya”).—Accordingly, as Vyāsa said:—“[...] The king is not angry with him; plague does not occur in his house; he does not feel the dearth (of anything); he does not suffer from weakness after (i.e. due to his) having worshipped Gaṇeśa. ‘(My) salutation to the chief of the Gaṇas, who removes all difficulties, who was worshipped even by gods for accomplishing their desired objects’. The sacred formula is: ‘Om, salutation to Gaṇapati’. He, who would worship the protector of the Gaṇas, with flowers dear to Viṣṇu, and other fragrant flowers, with modakas, fruits, roots and other seasonal things, with curds and milk, pleasing musical instruments, and with incense and (other) fragrant (objects) [i.e., dhūpadhūpasugaṃdhibhiḥ] obtains success in all undertakings. [...]”.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dhūpa (धूप, “incense”) refers to “offering of incense” and represents one of the sixteen upacāra, or “sixteen types of homage and services”, as described while explaining the mode of worshipping the phallic form (liṅga) of Śiva in the Śivapurāṇa 1.11. Accordingly, “[...] the devotee shall worship the mobile emblem with the sixteen types of homage and services (upacāra) as prescribed. It accords the region of Śiva gradually. The sixteen types of service are [for example, offering of incense (dhūpa)] [...] Or he shall perform all the sixteen rites in the phallic emblem of human, saintly or godly origin, or in one naturally risen up (svayambhū) or in one of very extraordinary nature installed duly”.

Dhūpa or Dhūpasamarpaṇa (offering of incense) is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the incense (dhūpa) shall be offered with the mantra ‘Namaḥ Kapardine ca’ etc. in accordance with the rules. The lamp shall be offered in the prescribed manner with the mantra ‘Namaḥ Āśave’ etc.”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Dhūpa (धूप).—Burning of incense; guggula (bdellium) and Turuṣka (olibanum) best for honouring Pitṛs.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 75. 32; 109. 40.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “fragrant incense” and represents one of the various upacāras (offerings), in pūjā (ritual worship), as defined in the Śaivāgamas.—Pūjā consists of offering hospitality, in the form of water to wash the feet, to drink, water for ablutions, offering a bath, new clothes, fragrant unguents, fragrant flowers and ornaments, food and so on. Each step in the pūjā process is called “saṃskāra” and each offering is called “upacāra” [viz., Dhūpa].

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “perfume” (used in worship), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.20-22ab]—“[The Mantrin] should worship the mother of mantras with the highest bhakti, by spreading flowers and perfume (dhūpapuṣpadhūpādivistaraiḥ), O Devī. He should extract the deity invoked by the Mantra [with the mantra]. Beginning with the all-pervading and ending with manifold [oṃ], [he should] always [worship with] the nectar of the white flower. The bright sound is highest Śakti, [who] resembles one-in-the-same Śiva. By this [worship] the pearls [of the mantra] are all bound in a cord”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “incense” and represents one of the articles offered during Maṅgalārati, according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Before each article is offered, purify the right hand [with a drop of water from the pañca-pātra], and then purify the article [viz., dhūpa]. Chant the mūla-mantra for the deity and then offer the article.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “incense”, which is mentioned in verse 3.15 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Passionate (and) lovely women with exuberant thighs, breasts, and buttocks take away the cold, their body being hot with incense [viz., dhūpa], saffron, and youth. [...]”.

Note: The instrumental dvandvadhūpakuṅkumayauvanaiḥ”—“with incense, saffron, and youth” has been disconnected from its governing noun, separated into its three components, and converted by the requisite additions and alterations into a series of subject attributes: dhūpa (“incense”) becoming spos-kyis bdugs (“fumigated with incense”), kuṅkuma (“saffron”)—gur-gum-gyis byugs (“anointed with saffron”), and yauvana (“youth”)—gźon (“young”). At the same time, dhūpa and kuṅkuma have been interchanged, —sllos (for spos) in C and probably also bdug (for bdugs) in CD are xylographical errors.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “(perfumed) smoke”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 12), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] I will now speak of the rules of the arghya (offering) to be presented to Agastya as stated by the Ṛṣis. [...] When the darkness of the night should just begin to be broken by streaks of red light from the eastern horizon, princes, previously prepared for the purpose, ought to offer their arghya to Agastya by pouring it on the Earth in the direction of the star Canopus rising in the south-east as will be pointed out by the astronomer. The offering to be made by princes in honor of Agastya shall consist of the fragrant flowers of the season, of fruits, of precious stones, of gold cloths, of cows, of bulls, of well-cooked rice, of sweet-meats, of curdled milk, of colored rice, of perfumed smoke [i.e., surabhi-dhūpa] and fragrant paste”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “offering incense”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—The devotee waves incense sticks (dhūpa) in front of the icon. If pieces of incense are used, these are burnt in a special vessel with a handle (dhūpa-pātra). Simultaneously the worshipper rings the bell which—he holds in his left hand. The ringing of the bell is prescribed at several stages of the pūjā, e.g. when offering food or waving the ārati.498 Incense is believed to purify the air and drive away evil spirits.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Dhūpa (धूप) refers to “incense”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Incense and light (dhūpa-dīpa), the end of all consecrations, is equally splendid, I invite calmness and tranquility, rendering all knowledge clear”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dhūpa : (m.) incense.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhūpa, (Sk. dhūpa of Idg. *dhūp, enlarged fr. *dhū in dhunāti (q. v.)) incense J.I, 51, 64, 290 (gandha°, dvandva, cpd.); III, 144; VI, 42; PvA.141 (gandhap̄uppha°). dh°ṃ dadāti to incense (a room) J.I, 399. Sometimes misspelt dhūma, e.g. VvA.173 (gandhapuppha°). (Page 343)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dhupā (धुपा).—m A kind of grass. 2 A kind of reed.

--- OR ---

dhūpa (धूप).—m (S) Common frankincense. 2 Any fragrant gum or resin burned before idols &c: also the fragrant vapor exhaled on combustion. 3 f ( H) Sunshine. dhūpa ghālaṇēṃ To burn incense before a person possessed; that the demon may speak. Hence to court solicitously, sue, woo (a person to speak). dhūpa dākhaviṇēṃ (To show or offer incense.) To tantalize or mock (and give nothing).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dhūpa (धूप).—m Common frankincense. Sunshine. dhūpa ghālaṇēṃ To burn incense before a person possessed. To court solicitous- ly, sue, woo (a person to speak). dhūpa dākhaviṇēṃ To show or offer incense.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप).—[dhūp-ac]

1) Incense, frankincense, perfume, any fragrant substance.

2) The vapour issuing from any fragrant substance (like gum, resin &c.), aromatic vapour or smoke; धूपोष्मणा त्याजितमार्द्रभावम् (dhūpoṣmaṇā tyājitamārdrabhāvam) Kumārasambhava 7.14; Meghadūta 34; V.3.2; R.16.5.

3) A fragrant powder.

Derivable forms: dhūpaḥ (धूपः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dhūpā (धूपा).—‘Incense’, name of a goddess or yoginī: Sādhanamālā 50.3 etc.; 324.6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप).—m.

(-paḥ) Incense, the aromatic vapour that proceeds from the combustion of any fragrant gum or resin, the use of which is authorized by scripture. E. dhūp to heat, affix ac. dhapayati rogān doṣān vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप).—[dhūp + a], m. 1. Incense, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 5, 15. 2. The aromatic vapour that proceeds from the burning of incense, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 43.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप).—([masculine] sgl. & [plural]) incense, perfume; smoke, vapour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dhūpa (धूप):—[from dhū] m. ig. [plural] ([from] dhū as puṣpa [from] √puṣ, stūpa [from] √stu) incense, perfume, aromatic vapour or smoke proceeding from gum or resin, the g° and r° themselves, [Kāṭhaka; Gṛhya-sūtra; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] one of the 16 acts of homage or offerings in the Pañcāyatara ceremony, [Religious Thought and Life in India 415.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप):—(paḥ) 1. m. Incense.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dhūpa (धूप) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dhūva.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dhupa in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dhūpa (धूप) [Also spelled dhup]:—(nf) the sun; sunshine; incense, gum benzoin; ~[ghaḍī] a sundial; —[caḍhanā] the sun to rise high in the sky, to be nearing midday; -[chāṃha] sun and shade; a kind of cloth with a sun and shade touch; (fig.) happiness and sorrow; ~[dāna] an incensory; a thurible; thurification, incensing; ~[dānī/pātra] an incensory, a thurible; ~[dāra] sunny; -[dīpa] accessories for worship—incense (—stick) and lamp; ~[battī] an incense-stick; ~[snāna] basking; —[khānā] to bask in the sun; to be heat-struck; to be sun-treated; —[dikhānā] to put or spread in the sun; —[denā] to burn incense (for religious performance); to spread out in the sun (as clothes etc.); —[meṃ bāla sapheda honā] to age without experience; to be old and yet devoid of wisdom; —[lenā/-sekanā] to bask in the sun.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dhūpa (ಧೂಪ):—

1) [noun] several kinds of myrrh-like resins exuded from certain trees, that give fragrant smoke.

2) [noun] fragrant smoke emitted by such a resin.

3) [noun] smoke, in gen. 4. the tree Ailanthus malabarica of Simaroubaceae family.

4) [noun] the large, evergreen tree Vateria indica.

5) [noun] ಧೂಪದ ಕಡ್ಡಿ [dhupada kaddi] dhūpada kaḍḍi a thin stick burned to get fragrant fumes, esp. in religious rites; an incense stick; ಧೂಪದ ಕೊಡ [dhupada koda] dhūpada koḍa a container for burning fragrant resins to get incense; ಧೂಪದ ಬತ್ತಿ [dhupada batti] dhūpada batti = ಧೂಪದ ಕಡ್ಡಿ [dhupada kaddi]; ಧೂಪದ ಮರ [dhupada mara] dhūpada mara = ಧೂಪ - [dhupa -] 4, 5 & 6; ಧೂಪಮಂ ತೋರು [dhupamam toru] dhūpamam tōru to wave the container having burning fragrant resins, before an idol; 2. (fig.) to urge to action; to stir up (another’s mind); to rouse emotions; to incite; to instigate.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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