by Leo M. Pruden | 33,119 words
Abhidharmakośa, the famous fundamental treatise of 5th century by Vasubandhu, explaining the fundaments of system of knowledge according to Vaibhasika tradition of Buddhism is here. The main points of study here are the theory of dharma or elements of existence, perception of reality through indriyas (faculties), the notion of karma in the light of...
nāmalā kṣāntayo jñānaṃ kṣayānutpādadhīrna dak|
tadanyobhayathāryā dhīḥ anyā jñānaṃ dṛśaśca ṣaṭ||1||
The pure Patiences are not a type of Knowledge. The prajñā of destruction and of nonarising is not seeing. All other pure prajñā is both one and the other. All other prajñā is knowledge. Six are also seeing.
sāsravānāsravaṃ jñānaṃ ādyaṃ saṃvṛtijñāpakam|
anāsravaṃ dvidhā dharmajñānamanvayameva ca||2||
Knowledge is pure or impure. The first is called conventional. Pure knowledge is of two types, a knowledge of dharmas and inferential knowledge.
sāṃvṛtaṃ sarvaviṣayaṃ kāmaduḥkhādigocaram|
dharmākhyam anvayajñānaṃ tūrdhvaduḥkhādigocaram||3||
Conventional knowledge bears on all. The knowledge of dharmas has for its object the Suffering, etc., of Kāmadhātu. Inferential knowledge bears on Suffering, etc., of the higher spheres.
te eva satyabhedena catvāri ete caturvidhe|
anutpādakṣayajñāne te punaḥ prathamodite||4||
When one takes into consideration the distinction of the Truths, these two knowledges, make up four knowledges. The two knowledges, fourfold, are termed the knowledge of Destruction and the Knowledge of Non-Arising.
duḥkhahetvanvayajñāne caturbhyaḥ paracittavit|
bhūmyakṣapudgalotkrāntaṃ naṣṭājātaṃ na vetti tat||5||
At the moment when they arise, they are inferential knowledges of Suffering and Origin. The knowledge of the mind of another follows from four. It does not know a mind in a higher sphere, faculties, personalities, nor the past and future.
ta dharmānvayadhīpakṣyamanyo'nyaṃ darśanakṣaṇau|
śrāvako vetti khaṅgastrīn sarvānbuddho'prayogataḥ||6||
The knowledge of dharmas and inferential knowledges do not know one another. The Śrāvaka knows two moments of Seeing; the Pratyekabuddha, three; the Buddha, without preparation, all.
kṣayajñānaṃ hi satyeṣu parijñātādiniścayaḥ|
The knowledge of destruction is, with respect to the Truths, the certitude that they are known, abandoned, etc.; the knowledge of non-arising is the certitude that they are no longer to be known, to be abandoned, etc.
The knowledges are ten in number; the distinction is established by reason of their nature, their opposition, their aspect, their aspect and their object, their preparatory exercises, the achievement of their task, and the extension of their cause.
dharmajñānanirodhe yanmārge vā bhāvanāpathe|
tridhātupratipakṣastat kāmadhāto'stu nānvayam||9||
The knowledge of dharmas, in the Pathway of Meditation, when it bears on Extinction and the Path, is opposed to the three spheres. Inferential knowledge is not opposed to Kāmadhātu.
dharmajñānānvayajñānaṃ ṣoḍaśākāram anyathā|
tathā ca sāṃvṛtaṃ svaiḥ svaiḥ satyākāraiścatuṣṭayam||10||
A knowledge of dharmas and inferential knowledge have sixteen aspects. Conventional knowledge is the same and otherwise. Four, because of the aspect of their Truth.
tathā paramanojñānaṃ nirmalaṃ samalaṃ punaḥ|
So too, when it is pure, the knowledge of the mind of another. When it is impure, it has for its aspects the unique characteristics of its object. It has for its sphere an individual object.
śeṣe caturdaśākāre śūnyānātmavivarjite|
nāmalaḥ ṣoḍaśabhyo'nya ākāraḥ anye'sti śāstrataḥ||12||
The other has fourteen aspects by excluding the aspect of emptiness and the aspect of nonself. There are no pure aspects outside of the sixteen. Some others, according to the Śāstra, affirm that there are.
dravyataḥ ṣoḍaśākārāḥ prajñākāraḥ tayā saha|
ākārayanti sālambāḥ sarvamākāryate tu sat||13||
The aspects are sixteen things. The aspects are prajñā. Everything that has an object perceives. Everything that exists is the object of perception.
tridhādyaṃ kuśalānyanyāni ādyaṃ sarvāsu bhūmiṣu|
dharmākhyaṃ ṣaṭsu navasu tvanvayākhyaṃ tathaiva ṣaṭ||14||
The first is of three natures; the others are good. The first exists in all spheres. In six, the knowledge named dharma. In nine, that which is called anvaya (inferential). So too six jñānas.
dhyāneṣvanyamanojñānaṃ kāmarūpāśrayaṃ ca tat|
kāmāśrayaṃ tu dharmākhyam anyattraidhātukāśrayam||15||
The knowledge of the mind of another exists in the Four Dhyānas. It has for its support a person either in Kāmadhātu or Rūpadhātu. The knowledge of dharmas, a person in Kāmadhātu. Others, in persons of the three spheres.
smṛtyupasthānamekaṃ dhīrnirodhe paracittadhīḥ|
trīṇi catvāri śeṣāṇi dharmadhīgocaro nava||16||
The knowledge of Extinction is an application of mindfulness. The knowledge of the mind of another is threefold. The others, four. Nine knowledges are the object of a knowledge of dharmas.
nava mārgānvayadhiyoḥ duḥkhahetudhiyordvayam|
caturṇāṃ daśa naikasya yojyā dharmāḥ punardaśa ||17||
Nine are the object of inferential knowledge and knowledge of the Path. Two are the object of the knowledge of Suffering and Origin. Ten, of four. None are the object of one. The totality of their object is ten dharmas.
traidhātukāmalā dharmā akṛtāśca dvidhā dvidhā|
sāṃvṛtaṃ svakalāpānyadekaṃ vidyādanātmataḥ||18||
Dharmas of the Three Dhātus, pure dharmas, unconditioned, each category being twofold. One conventional knowledge, with the exception of its own complex, knows the rest as nonself.
ekajñānānvito rāgī prathame'nāsravakṣaṇe|
dvitīye tribhiḥ ūrdhvastu caturṣvekaikavṛddhimān||19||
Not detached, in the first pure moment, he possesses one knowledge. In the second moment, he possesses three knowledges. Beyond, in four moments, each time adding a knowledge.
yathotpannāni bhāvyante kṣāntijñānāni darśane|
anāgatāni tatraiva sāṃvṛtaṃ cānvayatraye||20||
In Seeing, future patiences and knowledges exist to the extent to which they are produced. In the Path of Seeing one also acquires conventional knowledge at the moment of the three inferential knowledges.
svādhobhūmi nirodhe'ntyaṃ svasatyākāraṃ yātnikam||21||
This conventional knowledge is termed “the end of abhisamaya”. It is not destined to arise. From the sphere or from a lower sphere. In Extinction, the last. It has the aspects of its Truth. It proceeds from effort.
ṣoḍaśe ṣaṭ sarāgasya vītarāgasya sapta tu|
sarāgabhāvanā mārge tadūrdhvaṃ saptabhāvanā ||22||
In the sixteenth, six, through non-detachment. Through detachment, seven. Above, in the Path of Meditation associated with sensual desire, there is the cultivation of seven.
ānantaryapatheṣūrdhvaṃ muktimārgāṣṭake'pi ca||23||
In the uninterrupted paths of the victory over seven spheres, of the acquisition of the supernormal knowledges, and of the quality of Immovability, of mixed meditation. And also in the eight paths of higher deliverance.
śaikṣottāpanamuktau vā ṣaṭ saptajñānabhāvanā|
ānantaryapathe ṣaṇṇāṃ bhavāgravijaye tathā||24||
The Śaikṣa, in the path of deliverance of the perfectioning of the faculties, cultivates six or seven knowledges. In the uninterrupted path, he cultivates six knowledges. The same in the victory over Bhavāgra.
navānāṃ tu kṣayajñāne akopyasya daśa bhāvanā|
tatsaṃcare'ntyamuktau ca proktaśeṣe'ṣṭabhāvanā||25||
At the moment of the knowledge of destruction, nine knowledges. An Immovable One cultivates ten knowledges. Ten knowledges also in the last deliverance in the passage to the state of Immovability. In the cases not mentioned, there is cultivation of eight knowledges.
yadvairāgyāya yallābhastatra cādhaśca bhāvyate|
sāsravāśca kṣayajñāne labdhapūrvaṃ na bhāvyate||26||
The knowledge that one cultivates in the future belongs to the sphere from which one is detached, to the sphere acquired, or to a lower sphere. In the knowledge of destruction, the pure is also of all spheres. That which has been obtained previously is not cultivated.
pratipakṣavinirdhāvabhāvane sāsravasya tu||27||
Cultivation of good conditioned dharmas is acquisition and practice; there is cultivation of opposition and expulsion with respect to impure dharmas.
aṣṭādaśāveṇikāstu buddhadharmā balādayaḥ|
sthānāsthāne daśa jñānāni aṣṭau karmaphale nava||28||
The dharmas unique to the Buddha are eighteen, the powers, etc. There are ten knowledges in sthānāsthāna; Eight in karmaphala.
dhyānādyakṣādhimokṣeṣu dhātau ca pratipatsu tu|
daśa vā saṃvṛtijñānaṃ dvayoḥ ṣaṭ daśa vā kṣaye||29||
Nine in the Dhyānas, etc., in the Indriyas, in the Abhimokṣas, in the Dhātus; Nine or ten in the paths; Two are conventional knowledges; Destruction is made up of six or ten knowledges.
sarvabhūmiṣu kenāsya balamavyāhataṃ yataḥ||30||
The power of former abodes and the power of death-rebirth lie in the Dhyānas; the others in all the spheres. Why? Because its power does not know any obstacle.
nārāyaṇabalaṃ kāye saṃdhiṣvanye daśādhikam|
hastyādisaptakabalam spraṣṭavyāyatanaṃ ca tat||31||
Nārāyaṇa power in his body; According to others, in his parts. This is a power the seventh term of a series which begins with the elephant and in which each term is worth ten times the preceding; It consists of a tangible.
vaiśāradyaṃ caturdhā tu yathādyadaśame bale|
dvitīyasaptame caiva smṛtiprajñātmakaṃ trayam||32||
Assurance is fourfold. Resembling the first, the tenth, the second, and the seventh power. Three are mindfulness and awareness (prajñā).
mahākṛpā saṃvṛtidhīḥ saṃbhārākāragocaraiḥ|
Great compassion is a conventional and mental state; It is through its factors, its aspects, its object, its equality, and its excellence. It differs from ordinary compassion in eight ways.
samatā sarvabuddhānāṃ nāyurjātipramāṇataḥ||34||
In saṃbhāra, dharmakāya and their service to beings, the Buddhas are identical; not in their duration of life, their caste, their statures, etc.
śiṣyasādhāraṇā anye dharmāḥ kecit pṛthagjanaiḥ|
There are other qualities which the Buddhas have in common with Śaikṣas. And Pṛthagjanas Absence of Contention, Knowledge Resulting from Resolution, the Unhindered Knowledges, the Supernormal Knowledges, etc.
saṃvṛtijñānamaraṇā dhyāne'ntye akopyadharmaṇaḥ|
Absence of Contention is conventional knowledge; It is of the sphere of the Fourth Dhyāna; It is produced by a person who is Immovable. It is produced by humans. It relates to the defilements of Kāmadhātu, is future, and has a real object.
tathaiva praṇidhijñānaṃ sarvālambaṃ tu tat tathā|
dharmārthayorniruktau ca pratibhāne ca saṃvidaḥ||37||
So too the Knowledge Resulting from Resolution;. But it has all for its object. So too the Unhindered Knowledges of dharmas, of objects, of etymological explanations, and of eloquence.
tisro nāmāthavāgjñānamavivartyaṃ yathākramam|
The first three are unhindered knowledges bearing, in this order, on name, the thing, speech. The fourth is the knowledge of the exact and facile expression, and of mastery with respect to the Path.
vāṅmārgālambanā cāsau nava jñānāni sarvabhūḥ|
daśa ṣaḍvā'rthasaṃvit sā sarvatra anye tu sāṃvṛtam||39||
Its object is speech and the Path; It is made up of nine knowledges. It is of all the spheres. Unhindered Knowledge of things (artha) is made up of ten or six. It arises everywhere. The others are conventional knowledge.
kāmadhyāneṣu dharme vit vāci prathamakāmayoḥ|
vikalābhirna tallābhī ṣaḍete prāntakoṭikāḥ||40||
The Unhindered Knowledge of dharmas exists in Kāmadhātu and the Dhyānas. The Unhindered Knowledge of speech exists in Kāmadhātu and the First Dhyāna. One only obtains them together. The six are prāntakoṭika.
tatṣaḍ vidhaṃ sarvabhūmyanulomitam|
vṛddhikāṣṭhāgataṃ tacca buddhānyasya prayogajāḥ||41||
It is sixfold. It is the last dhyāna, in a series with all the spheres and carried to its maximum. 41d. With the exception of the Buddha, acquired through effort.
jñāta sākṣīkriyā'bhijñā ṣaḍ vidhā muktimārgadhīḥ||42||
Realization of the knowledge of supernormal power, of ear, of the mind, of past existences, of death and rebirth, of the destruction of the cankers; this is the sixfold supernormal knowledge. They are the prajñā of deliverance
catasraḥ saṃvṛtijñānaṃ cetasi jñānapañcakam|
kṣayābhijñā balaṃ yadvat pañca dhyānacatuṣṭaye||43||
Four are conventional knowledge. The knowledge of the mind of another is made up of five knowledges. The supernormal knowledge of the destruction of the cankers is similar to the power. Five exist in the Four Dhyānas.
svādhobhūviṣayāḥ labhyā ucitāstu virāgataḥ|
tṛtīyā trīpyupasthānāni ādyaṃ śrotraddhircakṣuṣi||44||
They have their own sphere or a lower sphere for their domain. Already cultivated, they are acquired through detachment. The third is made up of three applications of mindfulness. Supernormal power, hearing, and sight make up the first application of mindfulness.
avyākṛte śrotracakṣurabhijñe itarāḥ śubhāḥ|
tisro vidyāḥ avidyāyāḥ pūrvāntādau nivarttanāt||45||
The Supernormal Knowledges of hearing and sight are neutral; the others are good. Three supernormal knowledges are wisdom, Because they bring about the cessation of nonwisdom (ignorance) relating to the past, etc.
aśaikṣyantyā tadākhye dve tatsaṃtānamudbhavāt|
iṣṭe śaikṣasya nokte tu vidye sāvidyasaṃtateḥ||46||
The last belongs to the Aśaikṣas. The two others are said to belong to the Aśaikṣas when they arise in the series of an Aśaikṣa. We admit that they exist in the Śaikṣa, but then they are not called wisdoms because the series of the Śaikṣa is associated with non-wisdom.
ādyā tṛtīyā ṣaṣṭhī ca prātihāryāṇi śāsanam|
The first, the third and the sixth are the methods of conversion. Conversion through the Teaching is the best. Because it does not exist without supernormal knowledge, and because it confers the fruits of salvation and of well-being.
ṛddhiḥ samādhiḥ gamanaṃ nirmāṇaṃ ca gatistridhā|
śāsturmanojavā anyeṣāṃ vāhinyapyādhimokṣikī||48||
Ṛddhi is absorption. From it, there arises displacement and fictive creation. Rapid displacement like the mind is unique to the Master. The others possess displacement of transport and of adhimokṣa.
kāmāptaṃ nirmitaṃ bāhyaṃ caturāyatanaṃ dvidhā|
rūpāptaṃ dve tu nirmāṇacittaistāni caturdaśa||49||
Fictive creation in Kāmadhātu is made up of four external āyatanas; It is of two types. Fictive creation of the sphere of Rūpadhātu is made up of two āyatanas. It is through a mind capable of creating fictive beings (nirmāṇacitta) that one creates. They are fourteen in number.
yathākramaṃ dhyānaphalaṃ dve yāvat pañca nordhvajam|
tallābho dhyānavat śuddhāttatsvataśca tato'pi te||50||
They are the results of the Dhyānas, from the number of two up to five, in this order. They do not arise from a lower Dhyāna. One obtains them like a Dhyāna. A mind capable of creating fictive beings proceeds from a pure Dhyāna and from itself; It produces the two.
svabhūmikena nirmāṇaṃ bhāṣaṇaṃ tvadhareṇa ca|
nirmātraiva sahāśāstuḥ adhiṣṭhāyānyavarttanāt||51||
One creation takes place through one mind of its sphere. But speech also takes place through a mind of a lower sphere. With the creator, except in the case of the Master. The fictive being speaks, because its creator sets speech into motion through another mind, after having empowered the fictive being.
mṛtasyāpyastyadhiṣṭhānaṃ nāsthirasya apare tu na|
ādāvekamanekena jitāyāṃ tu viparyayāt||52||
Empowerment continues after death. But not with respect to that which is not hard. Some other masters say no. From the beginning, the ascetic creates a single creation through numerous minds capable of creating fictive beings; the contrary, when his practice is purified.
avyākṛtaṃ bhāvanājaṃ trividhaṃ tūpapattijam|
ṛddhirmantrauṣadhābhyāṃ ca karmajā ceti pañcadhā||53||
Produced through meditation, it is neutral. Innate, it is threefold. Ṛddhi is also produced through mantras, plants, and actions; in all five types.
divyaśrotrākṣiṇī rūpaprasādau dhyānabhūmikau|
sabhāgāvikale nityaṃ dūrasūkṣmādigocare||54||
Divine sight and divine hearing are of pure rūpa of the sphere of the Dhyānas. They are always active, non-deficient; they bear on the distant, the subtle, etc.
durasthamāvṛtaṃ sūkṣmaṃ sarvataśca na paśyati|
māṃsacakṣuryato rūpamato divyaṃ dṛgiṣyate||
anyadapyupapattyāptaṃ taddṛśyo nāntarībhavaḥ||55||
The Arhat, the Rhinoceros and the Master see a Dvisāhasra, a Trisāhasra, infinite universes. The others are also innate. Divine sight, when it is innate, does not see intermediary beings.
cetojñānaṃ tu tattredhā tarkavidyākṛtaṃ ca yat|
jānate nārakā ādau nṛṇāṃ notpattilabhikam||56||
This knowledge of the mind of another is of three types. Also when it is produced through reflection (tarka) or through formulas (vidyā). The beings in hell know from the very beginning. Among humans, not innate.
|'bhidharmakośe jñānanirdeśo nāma saptamaṃ kośasthānam||