Musha, Musa, Musā, Mūṣā, Muṣā: 16 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Musha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Mūṣā and Muṣā can be transliterated into English as Musa or Musha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Mūṣā (मूषा) refers to an “earthen hollow mould of a figure”, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—According to Ramatirtha, mūṣā is an earthen hollow mould of a figure; just as copper is melted by fire and poured into a mould takes that very shape, so does the mind take the shape of the object comprehended. It is still a living art. It is practiced by sthapatis or metal workers who have kept alive this ancient art, both by preserving the texts relating to the mode of preparation and the contemplative hymns or dhyānaślokas that describe the forms of individual icons.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Mūṣā (मूषा) is a Sanskit technical term referring to “crucibles” (containers used in laboratories that can withstand very high temperatures). The term is used throughout Rasaśāstra literature.

Source: Indian Journal of History of Science, 31(4), 1996: Mūṣāvijñāna

Mūṣā (मूषा, “crucibles”) refers to crucibles used for smelting metals.—It is a well-known fact that Indian metallurgy had reached great heights during the medieval period i.e. 500-1500 AD. According to the Rasaratnasamuccaya 10.2 a mūṣā is one which destroys faults in metals. The word mūṣā has its origin in the process of purification of metals to which it is primarily employed.

The synonyms of mūṣā describe its properties and application:

  1. Kroncikā, one which has a break like that of a kronca bird,
  2. Kumudī, one which makes metals white i.e. purifies them,
  3. Kārahāṭikā, one which makes hāṭaka or gold,
  4. Pācanī, one which heats or digests,
  5. Vahnimitra, friend of fire, i.e. one which stands fire.

Crucibles (mūṣā) were always made for a single use. After completion of the operation, the crucible was broken to take the product out. A verse from Rasakāmadhenu 2.207 is indicative of this practic. Similarly, in Gorakṣasaṃhita 5.231, when the crucible is broken, the essence falls down.

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: AlchemyPottery: Forays into Alchemical Pottery

Musha (“crucible”):—Main ingredients in crucibles are mud and iron, the mud is yel low, reddish yellow, touch, devoid of pebbles, and its capable of standing fire for a long time. In absence of such mud, preference is to be given to the mud created by white ants, or the mud used by potters. An ordinary crucible is prepared with mud, mixe d with burnt husk, hemp fibres, cow dung or horse stool, mixed and hammered by means of an iron rod.

The mud used in the preparation of crucibles is to contain, in sufficient quantities, white stone finely powdered, burnt husks, cow dung, hemp fibers, horse’s stool, oxidized iron, and black.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Mūṣa (मूष) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Mūṣī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Medinīcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the medinīcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Mūṣa] are yellow in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

musā : (ind.) falsehood; lie. || mūsā (f.) a crucible.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Musā, (adv.) (Vedic mṛṣā, fr. mṛṣ, lit. “neglectfully”) falsely, wrongly; uṣually with verbs vadati, bhanati, bhāsati & brūti to speak falsely, to tell a lie.—A. I, 149 (opp. saccaṃ); Sn. 122, 158, 397, 400, 757, 883, 967, 1131; Nd1 291; Pv. I, 33; VvA. 72 (=abhūtaṃ atacchaṃ); SnA 19; PvA. 16, 152.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mūṣa (मूष) [or मूषक, mūṣaka].—m S A mouse or rat.

--- OR ---

mūsa (मूस).—f (mūṣa S) A crucible. 2 A matrix or mould. 3 Mould, fashion, form (of a machine or the body, of a business or an affair, of a counsel, scheme, plot). Ex. śarīrācī mūsa cāṅgalī asalī mhaṇajē manuṣya balavān hōtēṃ; kāmācī mūsa ēkadā phuṭalī mhaṇajē jamata nāhīṃ. Also, by ellipsis, counsel or scheme; as tumacī mūsa samajalī-sādhalī-bighaḍalī &c. 4 f R W A little channel (esp. through a wall) to carry off water. 5 m R Trace, track, vestige. v lāva, kāḍha, lāga, nigha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

mūṣa (मूष).—m A mouse or rat.

--- OR ---

mūsa (मूस).—f A crucible. A matrix, mould. m Trace.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Muṣā (मुषा).—A crucible.

See also (synonyms): muṣī.

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Mūṣa (मूष).—

1) A rat, mouse.

2) A round window, an airhole.

3) A crucible.

Derivable forms: mūṣaḥ (मूषः).

--- OR ---

Mūṣā (मूषा).—

1) A female rat.

2) A crucible.

3) An air-hole.

See also (synonyms): mūṣikā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Muṣā (मुषा).—f.

(-ṣā) A crucible. E. muṣ to steal, affs. aṅ and ṭāp; also mūṣā .

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Mūṣa (मूष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣī-ṣaṃ) 1. A rat, a mouse. 2. A crucible. 3. An air-hole, a window. f.

(-ṣā) 1. A sort of grass, (Andropogon serratum.) 2. A female rat. E. mūṣ to steal, aff. ka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūṣa (मूष).—I. m. A rat, a mouse, [Pañcatantra] 190, 21. Ii. f. ṣā and ṣī. 1. A female mouse. 2. A crucible.

— Cf. [Latin] mus; [Old High German.] and [Anglo-Saxon.] mūs.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mūṣa (मूष).—[masculine] the same.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Muṣā (मुषा):—[from muṣ] f. = mūṣā, a crucible, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) Mūṣa (मूष):—[from mūṣ] m. f(ā and ī). a rat, mouse, [Pañcatantra; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a crucible, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa; Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Mūṣā (मूषा):—[from mūṣa > mūṣ] a f. See below.

5) [from mūṣ] b f. Lipeocercis Serrata, [Caraka]

6) [v.s. ...] a round window, air-hole, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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