Virodhin, Virodhī, Virodhi: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Virodhin means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Virodhī (विरोधी) refers to the twenty-third of the sixty-year cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The first year of the next yuga sacred to Tvaṣṭā is known as Sarvajit. The next year is known as Sarvadhārin. The next three years are—Virodhī, Vikṛta and Khara: in the second of these, mankind will be happy and they will be afflicted with fears in the other years”.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Virodhin (विरोधिन्) refers to the twenty-third saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—One who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘virodhin’ is an eloquent speaker, wanders in foreign lands, does not give joy and happiness to his own people (people belonging to his family), is extremely deceitful or cunning and does not develop relationship or friendship with the people.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year virodhin (2009-2010 AD) will be afflicted, delighting in the company of the wicked and addicted to sinful deeds and cruel.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Virodhi (विरोधि) is the twenty-third of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Virodhi], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Virodhin in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Virodhin (विरोधिन्) refers to “inimical beings”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.22 (“Description of Pārvatī’s penance”).—Accordingly, after the people said witnessed Pārvatī’s penance: “Saying thus, they praised the penance of Pārvatī and joyously returned to their abodes. Even persons of sturdy countenance praised her penance. O sage, listen to another surprising influence of the penance of Pārvatī, the mother of the universe. Even the naturally inimical beings [i.e., virodhin] in and around her hermitage became free from animosity due to her power. [...]”

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Virodhin (विरोधिन्) (Cf. Virodhinī) refers to “one who obstructs (worship)”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Devī spoke]:—O God, what kind of a woman is a Yoginī? Who is Māyā and who is Pāśavī? Tell me, O Bhairava, the pros and cons of having sex with them. [Bhairava spoke]:—[...] [Pāśavī:] her mental attitude is dishonest, she is wicked, hostile to Kaula Practice. She tends to abuse Śiva, O Goddess, and to obstruct (virodhinī) his worship. This [type], the Pāśavī, has been [now] taught by me. O Suvratā, hear the one that is called Māyā”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Virodhin in Yoga glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (yoga)

Virodhin (विरोधिन्) refers to “that which contravenes” (the Vedas, Dharmaśāstras and Purāṇas), according to Śivānandasarasvatī’s Yogacintāmaṇi, a 17th-century text on Haṭhayoga by consisting of 3423 verses.—Accordingly, “[...] I have revealed here all that which is secret in Haṭha- and Rājayoga for the delight of Yogins. However, that Haṭhayoga which was practised by Uddālaka, Bhuśuṇḍa and others has not been mentioned by me, because it cannot be accomplished by contemporary [practitioners. Also], the procedures and so forth promoted by the Kāpālikas have not been mentioned [because] they contravene the Vedas, Dharmaśāstras and Purāṇas (śrutismṛti-virodhin)”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Virodhī (विरोधी) refers to “defensive violence” and represents one of the four types of violence (hiṃsā) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.13. What is meant by defensive violence (virodhī)? Violence committed in defending self and others from the oppressors is called ‘defensive violence’.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

virōdhī (विरोधी).—a (S) Opposing, contrary or adverse to; that opposes, resists, obstructs.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

virōdhī (विरोधी).—a Opposing, adverse to.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Virodhin (विरोधिन्).—a. (- f.)

1) Resisting, opposing, obstructing.

2) Besieging.

3) Contradictory, opposed to, inconsistent with; तपोवन° (tapovana°) Ś.1.

4) Hostile, inimical, adverse; विरोधिसत्त्वोज्झितपूर्वमत्सरम् (virodhisattvojjhitapūrvamatsaram) Kumārasambhava 5.17.

5) Quarrelsome. -m. An enemy; कलयन्त्युष्णकरं विरोधिनः (kalayantyuṣṇakaraṃ virodhinaḥ) Śiśupālavadha 16.64. -f. (-virodhinī) A woman who promotes quarrel.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodhin (विरोधिन्).—mfn. (-dhī-dhinī-dhi) 1. Inimical, adverse, hostile. 2. Opposing, preventing. 3. Obstructive. 4. Exclusive, disqualifying. 5. Contradictory, inconsistent. 6. Quarrelsome, contentious. 7. Of opposite and incompatible quality, (food, medicine, &c.) 8. Besieging, blockading. m. (-dhī) 1. An enemy, an opponent. 2. The twentyfourth year of the cycle. E. vi rudh to oppose, aff. ṇini .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodhin (विरोधिन्).—i. e. vi-rudh and virodha, + in, I. adj. f. . 1. Obstructive. 2. Preventing, impeding, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 17. 3. Contradictory, inconsistent, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 162. 4. Exclusive, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 204, 11. 5. Besieging, blockading. 6. Quarrelsome. Ii. m. An enemy, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 88, 28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodhin (विरोधिन्).—[adjective] obstructing, hindering, (*rivalling, a match); disturbing, injuring, harming, repelling, hostile, inimical; [masculine] adversary, foe.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virodhī (विरोधी):—[=vi-rodhī] [from vi-rodha > vi-rudh] f. fixed rule, ordinance (?), [Horace H. Wilson]

2) Virodhi (विरोधि):—[=vi-rodhi] [from vi-rudh] in [compound] for vi-rodhin

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Virodhin (विरोधिन्):—[=vi-rodhin] [from vi-rudh] mfn. opposing, hindering, preventing, obstructing, excluding, disturbing, [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] obstructive (See a-v), besieging, blockading, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] dispelling, removing, [Śakuntalā] ([varia lectio])

4) [v.s. ...] adverse, hostile, inimical (often ifc. = foe or enemy of), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] disagreeing (as food), [Bhāvaprakāśa]

6) [v.s. ...] opposed, contradictory, inconsistent, [Kaṇāda’s Vaiśeṣika-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

7) [v.s. ...] rivalling with, equalling, [Kāvyādarśa]

8) [v.s. ...] contentious, quarrelsome, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] m. Name of the 25th year of Jupiter’s cycle of 60 years, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Virodhin (विरोधिन्):—[vi-rodhin] (dhī-dhinī-dhi) a. Inimical; opposing; debarring; neutralizing; blockading. m. An enemy; 24th year of the cycle.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Virodhin (विरोधिन्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Virohi.

[Sanskrit to German]

Virodhin in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Virodhin in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Virodhī (विरोधी):—(nm and a) an adversary, rival, opponent; objector; hostile, opposing, antagonistic; contradictory, contrary; —[dala] opposition party; •[kā netā] leader of the opposition —[pakṣa] opposition (party/side).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Virōdhi (ವಿರೋಧಿ):—

1) [adjective] opposing; resisting.

2) [adjective] hating; having ill will-against; antagonistic.

--- OR ---

Virōdhi (ವಿರೋಧಿ):—

1) [noun] a person who hates another, and wishes or tries to injure him; a foe; an enemy.

2) [noun] a member of an opposition political party.

3) [noun] a man who argues against another in a debate.

4) [noun] name of the twenty third year, in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

[«previous next»] — Virodhin in Nepali glossary
Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Virodhī (विरोधी):—n. opponent; enemy; adversary; adj. 1. hostile; inimical; adverse; antagonistic; 2. resisting; opposing; 3. contradictory; inconsistent with;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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