Viruddha: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Viruddha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Viruddh.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Viruddha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to “that which is against” (the conventions of the world), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.27 (“Description of the fraudulent words of the Brahmacārin”).—Accordingly, as Śiva (in guise of a Brahmacārin) said to Pārvatī: “[...] Leaving off the guardians of the quarters you run after Śiva. This is not well said. It is against the conventions of the world [i.e., viruddhahi lokeṣu viruddhaṃ]. Where you with eyes like the petals of a lotus? Where this three-eyed creature—Śiva? You are moon-faced while Śiva is five-faced. On your head the divine plaited hair shines with glossy splendour like a serpent. But Śiva has only the matted hair to boast of? [...]”.

2) Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to a “violation” (of the Vedic path), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.9 (“Boasting of Tāraka”).—Accordingly, as Tāraka-Asura said to the Gods: “How is it that you all kept Kumāra face to face with me? You gods are shameless especially Indra and Viṣṇu. Formerly, both of them had acted in violation (viruddha) of the Vedic path. Listen. I shall describe the same. Viṣṇu is deceptive, defective and indiscreet. It was by him that Bali was formerly bound by taking recourse to deception with sinful intention. [...]”

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Viruddha (विरुद्ध).—The gods of the epoch of the Tenth Manu;1 a gaṇa of the Second Sāvarṇa Manu.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 22.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 67.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to that which is “contrary” (to the rules), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as the Goddess (i.e., Khageśī) said to the God (i.e., Bhairava), “Occasionally, a husband can be a disciple, (but) that the lord (should) be (one’s spiritual) son is contrary [i.e., viruddha] (to all the rules). O god, you previously enjoyed all (marital) pleasure (upabhoga). (You) yourself have referred to the affection we have (for each other because of our) friendship. O Bhairava, by (doing things) in reverse, the Command is destroyed; how can it flower? ”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to “contradictory (properties)”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvimarśinī 1.181.—Accordingly, “As for the additional arguments refuting [the existence of the external object], they are: the impossibility of the existence of a whole (avayavin) [in its parts]; the fact that the inherence (samavāya) [of the whole in its parts] is not established; the fact that the [external object must] possess some contradictory properties (viruddha-dharma-yoga), such as movement and the absence of movement, being covered and being uncovered, being colored and being colourless (rakta-arakta), being differentiated into parts according to [the six] directions, etc.”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to “(being) kept from”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.9cd-14]—“[But if mantras were aṇu [they] would be embodied forms of separation. The essential selves are known as impure [and are] by no means powerful. Whose impurity does the impure remove? Aṇu mantras [and] devalas are not perfected, O Parameśvara. Without existence, the three kinds of tattvas are kept from (viruddha) a multitude of objects. There, union is declared to be the desire for another living being’s welfare.[...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Google Books: A History of Indian Logic (Buddhist Philosophy)

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to “contradictory” and represents one of the various types of Hetvābhāsa (“fallacy”) (within a debate), according to Upāyakauśalyahṛdaya, an ancient work on the art of debate composed by Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna.—Hetvābhāsa (‘the fallacies’) signify reasons which are derived form an imperfect perception, inference, or comparison, or which deviate from the scripture. [...] Viruddha (‘that which is contradictory’) example:—“either in respect of the example or in respect of the conclusion”.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) (Cf. Aviruddha) refers to “(one who is) obstructed”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] If he is in the state of concentration, but ends up inan unpleasant situation, he is not irritated. Even thought he always manifests peacefulness to noble beings, he makes flaming efforts in order to bring ordinary people to maturity. Being in the state of sameness in concentration, he still teaches those with irregular behaviour by means of various kinds of teachings. He does not see the irregular in terms of sameness, and he does not obstruct the irregular with sameness. Since he is unobstructed (aviruddha), he is called the meditator whose thought is just like open space, without any obstruction, he is called a meditator with great insight, and he is called the meditator who is not dependent on consciousness. When meditation is understood in this way, then the meditation of the Bodhisattva is like the expanse of open space, which is not dependent on anything”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: SOAS Research Online: Prekṣā meditation: History and Methods

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) refers to “not being free”; as opposed to Aviruddha—“free” which refers to one of the 46 qualities of the soul to be meditated on in the “Practice of Meditation on Liberated Souls (Siddhas)”, according to Jain texts like Ācārāṅga (5.6.123-140), Ṣaṭkhaṇḍāgama (13.5.4.31) and Samayasāra (1.49).—The pure soul can be recognised by meditation on its true nature, represented by the liberated souls of the Siddhas. [...] The qualities of the soul to be meditated on as truly mine are: [e.g., My soul is free (a-viruddha)] [...] The meditation on such extended fourty-five qualities of the pure soul presents the niśacaya-naya, which is aligned with Kundakunda’s approach.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viruddha in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

viruddha : (pp. of virujjhati) opposed; opposite; hostile.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Viruddha, (pp. of virundhati) hindered, obstructed, disturbed S. I, 236; Sn. 248, 630; Nd1 239; Miln. 99, 310; J. I, 97.—Often neg. a° unobstructed, free S. I, 236; IV, 71; A. III, 276 (°ka); Dh. 406; Sn. 365, 704, 854; VbhA. 148=Vism. 543.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viruddha (विरुद्ध).—a (S) Opposite or opposed to; opposing, adverse, contrary, reverse. Ex. of comp. ācāra -ukta -kāla -jana -dēśa -dharma -pathya -paribhāṣā -mārga -rīti -lēkha -vēda -śāstra -sampradāya -viruddha. 2 p Opposed or hindered.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viruddha (विरुद्ध).—a Opposite or opposed to; contrary. p Opposed.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध).—p. p.

1) Hindered, checked, opposed, obstructed.

2) Blocked up, confined or shut up.

3) Besieged, blockaded.

4) Opposed to, inconsistent with, incongruous, inconsistent.

5) Contrary, opposite, opposed in quality.

6) Contradictory, proving the reverse, (as a hetu in Logic); साध्याभावव्याप्तो हेतुर्विरुद्धः (sādhyābhāvavyāpto heturviruddhaḥ) Tarka K.; e. g. शब्दो नित्यः कृतकत्वात् (śabdo nityaḥ kṛtakatvāt) T. S.

7) Hostile, adverse, inimical.

8) Unfavourable, unpropitious.

9) Prohibited, forbidden (as food).

1) Wrong, unfawful, improper.

11) Excluded.

12) Uncertain, doubtful.

-ddham 1 Opposition, contrariety, hostility; स्वर्गे निवासे राजेन्द्र विरुद्धं चापि नश्यति (svarge nivāse rājendra viruddhaṃ cāpi naśyati) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 18.1.11.

2) Discord, disagreement.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध).—mfn.

(-ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) 1. Opposed, hindered. 2. Reverse, contrary, opposite. 3. Inconsistent, (in argument,) incongruous, a nonsequitur. 4. Opposed in quality. as sweet with sour, &c. 5. Disagreeing with each other, (as articles of medicine or food.) 6. Hostile, adverse. 7. Excluded, disqualified. 8. Surrounded, blockaded. 9. Proving the reverse, as a Hetu, (in logic.) E. vi before rudh to stop, aff. kta .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध).—[adjective] stopped, hindered; opposed, contrary, repugnant, hostile to ([instrumental], [genetive], or —°); unwished for, hateful, odious, prohibited, dangerous.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Viruddha (विरुद्ध) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[nyāya] Oppert. 7680.

2) Viruddha (विरुद्ध):—[nyāya] by Jagadīśa. Hpr. 2, 188.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Viruddha (विरुद्ध):—[=vi-ruddha] [from vi-rudh] mfn. opposed, hindered, restrained, arrested, kept back, [Rāmāyaṇa; Kālidāsa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] surrounded, blockaded, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] forbidden, prohibited, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] doubtful, uncertain, precarious, dangerous, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] hostile, adverse, at variance or at enmity with ([instrumental case] [genitive case], or [compound]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] unpleasant, disagreeable, odious or hateful to ([compound]), [Rāmāyaṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) [v.s. ...] disagreeing (as food), [Bhāvaprakāśa]

8) [v.s. ...] contrary, repugnant, contrasted, reverse, inconsistent or incompatible with, excluded from ([genitive case] [instrumental case], or [compound]), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

9) [=vi-ruddha] [from vi-rudh] m. [plural] Name of a class of gods under the tenth Manu, [Purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] n. opposition, hostility, repugnance, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

11) [v.s. ...] ([scilicet] rūpaka) a figure of speech in which an object compared to another object is said to lack its functions and to possess others not properly belonging to it (e.g. ‘the moon of thy face does not rise in the sky, but only takes away my life’), [Kāvyādarśa ii, 84]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of [work] on Nyāya

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध):—[vi-ruddha] (ddhaḥ-ddhā-ddhaṃ) a. Opposed; contrary; reverse; excluded; adverse; inconclusive; incompatible; hedged in.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Viruddha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Viruddha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Viruddha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) [Also spelled viruddh]:—(a) against, opposed; opposite; contrary, adverse, hostile; ~[] hostility; opposition; contrariety.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Viruddha (विरुद्ध) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Viruddha.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Viruddha (ವಿರುದ್ಧ):—

1) [adjective] obstructed; opposed; thwarted; impeded.

2) [adjective] set against, facing or back to back; at the other end or side; opposite.

3) [adjective] characterised by hostility or resistance; opposite.

4) [adjective] opposite in nature order, direction, etc.; altogether different; contrary.

5) [adjective] not permitted; prohibitted; forbidden.

--- OR ---

Viruddha (ವಿರುದ್ಧ):—

1) [noun] the act of opposing; opposition.

2) [noun] an opposed condition; resistance; opposition.

3) [noun] an unpleasant, unfavouable, non-conducive condition.

4) [noun] a feeling of enmity, ill will, unfriendliness.

5) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speech in which an object compared to another object is said to lack its functions and to possess others not properly belonging to it.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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