Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)
by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626
This page describes the range of sensory knowledge (matijnana) which is verse 1.26 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 26 of the chapter Right Faith and Knowledge and includes an extensive commentary.
Verse 1.26 - The range of sensory knowledge (matijñāna)
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 1.26:
मतिश्रुतयोर्निबन्धो द्रव्येष्वसर्वपर्यायेषु ॥ १.२६ ॥
matiśrutayornibandho dravyeṣvasarvaparyāyeṣu || 1.26 ||
The range of sensory knowledge–matijñāna–and scriptural knowledge–śrutajñāna–extends to all the six substances (dravya) but not to all their modes (paryāya). (26)
अन्वयार्थ: [मतिश्रुतयोः] मतिज्ञान और श्रुतज्ञान का [निबंधः] विषय-सम्बन्ध [असर्वपर्यायेषु] कुछ (न कि सर्व) पर्यायों से युक्त [द्रव्येषु] जीव पुद्गलादि सर्व द्रव्यों में है।
Anvayartha: [matishrutayoh] matijnana aura shrutajnana ka [nibamdhah] vishaya-sambandha [asarvaparyayeshu] kucha (na ki sarva) paryayom se yukta [dravyeshu] jiva pudgaladi sarva dravyom mem hai |
Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:
Now it is time to define omniscience (kevalajñāna). But, passing that over, the subject matter (viṣaya) of knowledge is discussed. Why is it? It is because omniscience (kevalajñāna) is defined in sūtra 10-1. If so, let the scope of the first two types of knowledge–matijñāna and śrutajñāna–be mentioned.
‘Nibandha’ means connecting or uniting. Connecting what? The ‘viṣaya’–subject matter. Then the word ‘viṣaya’ must be included in the sūtra. No, it is not necessary for it is implied from its mention in the previous sūtra. In this sūtra, ‘dravyeṣu’–plural of singular ‘dravya’–is used to include all the six substances–the soul (jīva), the matter (pudgala), the medium of motion (dharma), the medium of rest (adharma), the space (ākāśa) and the time (kāla). ‘Asarvaparyāyeṣu’ qualifies ‘dravyeṣu’. All these substances form the subject matter of sensory knowledge (matijñāna) and scriptural knowledge (śrutajñāna) only with reference to some of their modes (paryāya) and not all their infinite modes. How can sensory knowledge (matijñāna) cognize non-material substances such as the medium of motion (dharma) and the medium of rest (adharma) which are beyond the senses (atīndriya)? Therefore, it is wrong to say that sensory knowledge (matijñāna) covers all substances. No, there is nothing wrong in this. There is the internal-sense (anindriya). With the help of this and on destruction-cum-subsidence of quasi-sense-covering (noindriyāvaraṇa) karmas, arise impression (avagraha), etc. Then, scriptural knowledge (śrutajñāna), preceded by these, engages in substances such as the medium of motion (dharma) and the medium of rest (adharma).