Paratva: 13 definitions


Paratva means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Paratva (परत्व, “excellence”).—One of the ten Parādiguṇa, or, ‘10 pharmaceutical properties’.—It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. According to Caraka, these ten properties (guṇa) are the means to success in therapeutic treatment. Paratva refers to chosing the best medicine out of multiple choises. It is also known as Para (पर).

Source: Pitta Ayurveda: Samanya Guna

The meaning of Paratva can be interpreted in different senses, according to different situations. Paratva is that samanya guna that has two meanings, priority and solitude. People who have this guna tend to concentrate on one thing at a time and everything else becomes secondary. There is a tendency of aloofness from their surrounding and the other people. Human beings who have Paratva-guna just focus one single object, thereby excelling in whatever they do.

Source: Shodhganga: Ayurveda siddhanta evam darshana

The property of Paratva-guna (or para-guna) indicates the superiority, nearness, importance, similarity or first, that is why it has been put in the context of desha, kala, mana, vaya, paka, virya, rasa, etc. In the pharmaceutical field for a pharmacist it is needed to prepare a medicine of superior qualities in the aspect of its matra, paka, Virya, rasa etc. In the aspect of causes or karanata, that which is the nearer cause and in the aspect of utility which is much important or near one is Para.

Chakrapani has defined Para as pradhana and Apara as apradhana.

Gangadhara has defined Paratva as prathama (first) in relation to others and Apara as vice versa. He has tried to explain the concept of relativity of this pair. Para word/adjective does not state that the drug or object is supreme among the class but states that in comparison to others which are inferior to it, this one is better.

Yogindranatha Sena has defined Paratva as nearness and utility wise supremacy and Aparatva as farness and lesser utility as compared to Para .

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika

Paratva (परत्व, “priority”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Paratva (परत्व).—Posteriority; mention afterwards; the word is frequently used in works on grammar in connection with a rule which is mentioned in the treatise after another rule; the posterior rule is looked upon as stronger than the prior one, and is given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict although technically they are equally strong: cf. परत्वादल्लोपः (paratvādallopaḥ) ; M. Bh. on I. 1.4 Vaart 7; 'परत्वाच्छीभावः (paratvācchībhāvaḥ) I. 1.11 etc.

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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

[«previous (P) next»] — Paratva in Nyaya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Paratva (परत्व, “priority”) or Paratvaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—According to Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika, paratva (priority) and aparatva (posteriority) are also qualities (guṇa). Both these qualities are general qualities. Praśastapāda and Viśvanātha discuss about paratva and aparatva in similar ways. Paratva and aparatva are related to far and near. Each of them has two kinds–spatial and temporal. Spatial paratva is known as farness. Spatial aparatva is known as nearness. Temporal paratva is known as oldness. Temporal aparatva is known as youngness. In the Vaiśeṣikasūtra, it is found: paratva and aparatva are indicated from the nearness and distantness in the time and space.

According to Viśvanātha, the extraordinary causes of the convention that a thing is far or near are called paratva and aparatva. The non-inherent cause of spatial remoteness and nearness is the conjunction of space with their substratum. Temporal distance arises from a motion of preponderance of the sun’s movement. While temporal nearness arises from a notion of its meagreness. Here the non-inherent cause is the conjunction of time with a limited substance. The description of paratva and aparatva given by Śivāditya does not clear any speciality as he defines these qualities with the help of their generality. Thus he says paratva is that quality which possesses paratvatva and aparatatva possesses aparatatva. However, he also accepts the definition given by Kaṇāda.

According to Annaṃbhaṭṭa–paratva and aparatva are the special causes of the employment of words prior or posterior. These paratva and aparatva live in the five substances namely, earth, water, light, air and mind. Each of them (paratva and aparatva) has two kinds—digkṛta (spatial) and kālakṛta (temporal). In an object which exists at a distance priority caused by space is found. In an object which is near there is aparatva caused by space. In a thing person which is older paratva caused by time is found. Similarly in younger persons there is aparatva caused by time.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: HereNow4U: Kāla (Time) Substance

Paratva (परत्व, “priority”) and aparatva (posteriority).—Paratva means antecedence and aparatva means succession or ‘new’ and ‘old’ respectively. These concepts also cannot be grasped without taking time into consideration.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Paratva (परत्व) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.21.—What is the meaning of paratva and aparatva? Old / older with reference to time is paratva. New /young with reference to time is aparatva.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

paratva (परत्व).—n S Relative remoteness, fartherness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Paratva (परत्व).—

1) The following of another letter, posteriority.

2) Distinction, difference.

3) Remoteness.

4) Consequence, result.

5) Enmity, hostility.

6) Priority of place or time, proximity, one of the 24 guṇas of the Vaiśeṣikas.

Derivable forms: paratvam (परत्वम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paratva (परत्व).—n.

(-tvaṃ) 1. Difference, distinction, separateness. 2. Hostility. 3. (In Logic,) Priority of place or time, proximity, juvenility. 4. The nature of common or generic property. E. tva added to para; also with tal, paratā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Paratva (परत्व).—[para + tva], n. 1. Condition of being more extensive (as a genus), Bhāṣāp. 7; comprehensive. 2. Length of distance and time, Bhāṣāp. 120.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Paratva (परत्व):—[=para-tva] [from para] n. distance, remoteness, consequence, posteriority, difference, strangeness, superiority to ([genitive case]), [Āpastamba; Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] = -tā, [Kapila]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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