Hanuman Nataka (critical study)

by Nurima Yeasmin | 2015 | 41,386 words

This page relates ‘Kavisamayas in the Hanumannataka’ of the English study on the Hanuman-nataka written by Shri Damodara Mishra in the 11th century. The Hanumannataka is a Mahanataka—a fourteen-act Sanskrit drama dealing with the story of Rama and Hanumat (Hanuman) and presents the events in the lifes of Rama, Sita, Ravana and Hanuman (the son of Anjana and Vayu—the God of the Winds) based on the Ramayana story.

7. Kavisamayas in the Hanumannāṭaka

The term Kavisamaya is a technical one which is used to denote the conventional style of some poetic descriptions. It stands for denoting some particular form of representation of certain objects. Such style or form of describing certain objects and ideas in a rather unrealistic manner is known as Kavisamaya. Though, it is a doṣa (poetic blemish) because of describing a real thing or idea as something unreal in a Kāvya, yet the Kavisamayas are found to be treated as poetic merit (guṇa).[1] Rājaśekhara says that once upon a time, the scholars learnt the Vedas with thousands of branches and understood the meaning by visiting many places for many times. But those whose meanings are not found and written anywhere came to be known as Kavisamaya.[2] According to Viśvanatha the famous saying are that the sky and the vice are supposed to be black; fame, laugh and renown are said to be white; anger and attachment are indicated by the red; the red and blue lotuses are blooming in the river and the sea, though in reality, these are not possible to be found in the flowing water of river and the sea. The swans go away to the Mānasa lake in the rainy season, the Aśoka, flowers bloom by the blow of legs of beloved lady, the Vakula flower bloom by the spittle wine of that lady; the scene of happiness is indicated by the wearing of ornaments by the youth, sadness is described by the act of avoiding of ornaments; the passionate look of a lady is the same with the flowery arrows of Kāmadeva’s bow. The lotus blooms in the morning and the lily at night, the moon is noticed in the bright fortnight, the peacocks dance when the clouds are thundering. There is no fruit of Aśoka tree and the Cāmeli (Jasmine) flowers do not bloom in the spring season, there are no fruits and flowers in the Candana (sandal) tree.[3]

Rājaśekhara is probably the first one, who gives proper attention to this Kavisamaya.[4] These Kavisamayas are beautifully applied in the Hanumannāṭaka of Śri Dāmodara Miśra.

In the Hanumannāṭaka, there is found the employment of a few Kavisamayas. In the verse raktastvaṃ navapallavairahamapi… saśokaḥ[5] it is stated that the Aśoka flowers bloom by the blow of legs of loving ladies. In the verse prācibhāge sarāge[6] …, svairaṃ kairava[7] …, cakrarīḍākṛtānt a[8] …, jayaprayāṇe[9] …, śaśāpa yo[10] …, ekenākṣṇā pravitataruṣā[11]re rāvaṇāsta[12] …….., etc. there are found the use of the Kavisamayas. In these verses the author mentions about the pangs of separation of the cakravāka birds. On the other hand in the verse karpūraiḥ kimapūri[13] … there is the description of the moonlight with ice. It is also n indication of the poet’s ability in applying Kavisamaya.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

kavīnāṃ samaye khyāte guṇaḥ khyātaviruddhatā Sāhityadarpaṇa, VII. 17

[2]:

pūrve hi vidvāṅsh sahasraśākhaṃ sāṅgam ca
vedamavagahya śāstrāṇi cāvabudhya deśāntarāṇi
dvīpāntarāṇi ca paribhramya yānarthānupalabhya
praṇitavantaṣṭeṣām deśakālāntaraveśena anyathātve’pi
tathātvenopanibandho yaḥ sa kavisamayaḥ—Kundamālā, XIV; Kāvya Prakāśa, I, p. 12

[3]:

mālinyaṃ vyomni pāpe, yaśasi dhavalata varṇyate hāsakīrtyo
raktau ca krodharāgau saridudadhigataṃ paṅkajendivarādi
toyādhāre-khile’pi prasarati ca marālādikaḥ pakshisaṃgho
jyotsnā peya cakoraurjaladharasamaye mānasam yanti haṃsāḥ
pādāghātādaśokaṃ vikasati bakulaṃ yositāmāsyamadyair
yūnāṃangesu hārāḥ, sphuṭati ca hṛdayaṃ viprayogasyatāpaiḥ
mourbi rolambamālā dhanuratha viśikhāḥ kausumāḥ puspaketur
bhinnaṃ syādasya bānairyuva-janahṛdayaṃ strikaṭākshenatadvat
ahnyambhojaṃ niśayam vikasati kumudaṃ candrikā śuklapakṣhe
meghadhvānesu nṛtyaṃ bhavati ca śikhinām nāpyaśoke phalam syāt
na syājjātirvasante na ca kusumaphale gandhasāradrumāṇā
mityādyunneyamanyatkavi -samayagataṃ satkavīnāṃ pravandhe—Sāhityadarpaṇa, VII. 23-25

[4]:

so’yaṃ kavināṃ samayaḥ kāvye supta iva sthitaḥ/ sa sāmpratamihāsmabhiryathābuddhi vibodhitaḥ// Kundamālā, XVI, p.189

[5]:

raktastvaṃ navapallavairahamapi ślāghaiḥ priyāyā guṇai-stvāmāyānti śilīmukhāḥ smaradhanurmuktā sakhe māmapi/
kāntāpādatalāhatistava mude tadvanmamāpyāvayostulyaṃ sarvamaśoka kevalamahaṃ dhātrā saśokaḥ kṛtaḥ// Hanumannāṭaka, V. 24

[6]:

prācībhāge sarāge taraṇivirahiṇi krantamudre samudre nidrālau nīrajālau vikasitakumude nirvikāre cakore/
ākāśe sāvakāśe tamasi śamamite kokaloke saśoke kaṅdarpe’nalpadarpe vitarati kiraṇāṅcharvarīsārvabhaumaḥ// Hanumannāṭaka, II.3

[7]:

svairaṃ kairavakorakānvidalayan yūnāṃ manaḥ khedaya-nnambhojāni nimīlayanmṛgadṛśāṃ mānaṃ samunmūlayan/
jyotsnāṃ kandalayaṃstamaḥ kavalayannambhodhimudvelayan kokānākulayandiśo dhavalayanninduḥ samujjṛmbhate// ibid., II. 4

[8]:

cakrakrīḍākṛtāntastimiracayacamūsphārasaṅhāracakraṃ kāntāsaṅhārasākṣī gaganasarasi yo rājate rājahaṃsaḥ/
sambhogārambhakumbhaḥ kumudavanavadhubodhanidrādaridro devaḥ kṣīrodajanmā jayati ratipaterbāṇanirvāṇaśāṇaḥ// ibid., II.9

[9]:

jayaprayāṇe raghunandanasya dhūlokadambāstamite dineśe śaśiprabhaṃ chatramudīksya bālā sūryodaye roditi cakravākī// ibid., XI.6

[10]:

śaśāpa yo me dayitaṃ sa rāmaḥ salakṣmaṇo rāvaṇibāṇajālaiḥ/
raṇe hato’yaṃ madmudvahantī candrodaye nṛtyati cakravākī// ibid., XII.5

[11]:

ekenākṣṇā pravitataruṣā vīkṣate vyomasaṅsthaṃ bhānorbimbaṃ sajalagalitenāpareṇātmakāntam/
ahnaśchede dayitavirahāsaṅkinī cakravākī dvau saṅkīrṇau visṛjati rasau raudrakāruṇyasañjñau// ibid., XII. 17

[12]:

re rāvaṇāstamupayātu saha tvayārkaḥ śrīrāghave samaramurdhni kṛtapratijñe/
mandodarī janakajā’stanagāvalambi nyarke cakorakavadhūriva cakravākī// ibid., XIV. 38

[13]:

karpūraiḥ kimapūri kim malayajairālepi kiṃ pāradai rakṣāli sphaṭikāntaraiḥ kimaghaṭi dyāvāpṛthivyorvapuḥ/
etattarkaya kairavaklamahare śṛṅgāradīkṣāgurau dikkāntāmukure cakorasuhṛdi prauḍe tuṣāratviṣi// ibid., II.7

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